Leaf Cells (leaf + cell)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Effects of Host-Selective SV-Toxin from Stemphylium vesicarium, the Cause of Brown Spot of European Pear Plants, on Ultrastructure of Leaf Cells

P. Singh

Resistance to CO2 diffusion in cuticular membranes of amphibious plants and the implication for CO2 acquisition

ABSTRACT Cuticular membranes (CMs) were isolated from leaves of amphibious and submerged plants and their CO2 resistances were determined as a contribution to establish quantitatively the series of resistances met by CO2 diffusing from bulk water to the chloroplasts of submerged leaves. The isolation was performed enzymatically; permeabilities were determined and converted to resistances. The range of permeance values was 3 to 43 × 10,6 m s,1 corresponding to resistance values of 23 to 295 × 103 s m,1, i.e. of the same order of magnitude as boundary layer resistances. The sum of boundary layer, CM, leaf cell and carboxylation resistances could be contained within the total diffusion resistance as determined from the photosynthetic CO2 affinity of the leaf. From the same species, the aerial leaf CM resistance was always higher than the aquatic leaf CM resistance. In a terrestrial plant, the CM resistance to CO2 diffusion was found lower in leaves developed submerged. [source]

The Arabidopsis class VIII myosin ATM2 is involved in endocytosis

CYTOSKELETON, Issue 6 2008
Amirali Sattarzadeh
Abstract Members of the class XI of the myosin superfamily comprising higher plant, actin-based molecular motors have been shown to be involved in peroxisome and Golgi vesicle trafficking comparable to yeast and animal class V myosins. The tasks of the second class of myosins of higher plants, class VIII, are unclear. In this study the class VIII myosin ATM2 from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana was selected for the examination of cargo specificity in vivo. Fluorescent protein-fusion plasmid constructs with fragments of the ATM2 cDNA were generated and used for Agrobacterium tumefaciens -based transient transformation of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. The resulting subcellular localization patterns were recorded by live imaging with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) in epidermal leaf cells. Expression of a nearly full-length construct displayed labeling of filaments and vesicles, a head + neck fragment led to decoration of filaments only. However, expression of fluorescent protein-tagged C-terminal tail domain constructs labeled vesicular structures of different appearance. Most importantly, coexpression of different RFP/YFP-ATM2 tail fusion proteins showed colocalization and, hence, binding to the same type of vesicular target. Further coexpression experiments of RFP/YFP-ATM2 tail fusion proteins with the endosomal marker FYVE and the endosomal tracer FM4-64 demonstrated colocalization with endosomes. Colocalization was also detected by expression of the CFP-tagged membrane receptor BRI1 as marker, which is constantly recycled via endosomes. Occasionally the ATM2 tail targeted to sites at the plasma membrane closely resembling the pattern obtained upon expression of the YFP-ATM1 C-terminal tail. ATM1 is known for its localization at the plasma membrane at sites of plasmodesmata. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Gametophyte morphology and ultrastructure of the extremely deep shade fern, Trichomanes speciosum

Kittima Makgomol
Summary ,,The extent to which macro- and micromorphological features might contribute to tolerance of extremely deep shade by Trichomanes speciosum, a member of the filmy ferns (Hymenophyllaceae), is reported here. ,,Confocal laser scanning, transmission and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the ultrastructure of gametophytes and sporophyte leaves. ,,Gametophyte filament cells contain numerous small, spherical or ovoid chloroplasts, whereas sporophyte leaf cells have fewer, slightly larger, disc-shaped chloroplasts. The chloroplast grana of gametophytic cells have fewer thylakoids than sporophyte cells, although grana are not numerous in either. Gametophyte filament cell walls resemble those of sporophyte leaf cells, with two or more layers of electron-opaque material and covered in a thin cuticle. Gemma cell wall ultrastructure does not differ from that of gametophyte filament cells; rhizoid cell walls are thick and several-layered. ,,Neither gametophyte filaments nor sporophyte leaves have chloroplasts of the extreme forms reported for deep shade fern or angiosperm leaves. The success of the fern is attributed to a low metabolic rate and inability of other species to cope with extreme low light. [source]

Electrophysiological characterization of pathways for K+ uptake into growing and non-growing leaf cells of barley

ABSTRACT Potassium is a major osmolyte used by plant cells. The accumulation rates of K+ in cells may limit the rate of expansion. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of ion channels in K+ uptake using patch clamp technique. Ion currents were quantified in protoplasts of the elongation and emerged blade zone of the developing leaf 3 of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). A time-dependent inward-rectifying K+ -selective current was observed almost exclusively in elongation zone protoplasts. The current showed characteristics typical of Shaker-type channels. Instantaneous inward current was highest in the epidermis of the emerged blade and selective for Na+ over K+. Selectivity disappeared, and currents decreased or remained the same, depending on tissue, in response to salt treatment. Net accumulation rates of K+ in cells calculated from patch clamp current,voltage curves exceeded rates calculated from membrane potential and K+ concentrations of cells measured in planta by factor 2.5,2.7 at physiological apoplastic K+ concentrations (10,100 mm). It is concluded that under these conditions, K+ accumulation in growing barley leaf cells is not limited by transport properties of cells. Under saline conditions, down-regulation of voltage-independent channels may reduce the capacity for growth-related K+ accumulation. [source]

Distribution of Zn in functionally different leaf epidermal cells of the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens

B. Frey
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to show the potential of Thlaspi caerulescens in the cleaning-up of a moderately Zn -contaminated soil and to elucidate tolerance mechanisms at the cellular and subcellular level for the detoxification of the accumulated metal within the leaf. Measured Zn concentrations in shoots were high and reached a maximum value of 83 mmol kg,1 dry mass, whereas total concentrations of Zn in the roots were lower (up to 13 mmol kg,1). In order to visualize and quantify Zn at the subcellular level in roots and leaves, ultrathin cryosections were analysed using energy-dispersive X-ray micro-analysis. Elemental maps of ultrathin cryosections showed that T. caerulescens mainly accumulated Zn in the vacuoles of epidermal leaf cells and Zn was almost absent from the vacuoles of the cells from the stomatal complex, thereby protecting the guard and subsidiary cells from high Zn concentrations. Observed patterns of Zn distribution between the functionally different epidermal cells were the same in both the upper and lower epidermis, and were independent of the total Zn content of the plant. Zinc stored in vacuoles was evenly distributed and no Zn-containing crystals or deposits were observed. From the elemental maps there was no indication that P, S or Cl was associated with the high Zn concentrations in the vacuoles. In addition, Zn also accumulated in high concentrations in both the cell walls of epidermal cells and in the mesophyll cells, indicating that apoplastic compartmentation is another important mechanism involved in zinc tolerance in the leaves of T. caerulescens. [source]

SRFR1, a suppressor of effector-triggered immunity, encodes a conserved tetratricopeptide repeat protein with similarity to transcriptional repressors

Soon Il Kwon
Summary Effector-triggered immunity provides plants with strong protection from pathogens. However, this response has the potential to be highly deleterious to the host and needs to be tightly controlled. The molecular mechanisms in the plant that regulate the balance between activation and suppression of resistance are not fully understood. Previously, we identified Arabidopsis suppressor of rps4-RLD 1 (srfr1) mutants with enhanced resistance to the bacterial effector AvrRps4. These mutants were recessive and retained full susceptibility to virulent bacteria, suggesting that SRFR1 functions as a negative regulator and that AvrRps4-triggered immunity was specifically enhanced in the mutants. Consistent with this, we show here that the response to flagellin, an elicitor of basal resistance, is unaltered in srfr1-1. In contrast, resistance to AvrRps4 in srfr1-1 requires EDS1, a central regulator of effector-triggered immunity via multiple resistance genes. SRFR1 is a single-copy gene encoding a pioneer tetratricopeptide repeat protein conserved between plants and animals. The SRFR1 tetratricopeptide repeat domain shows sequence similarity to those of transcriptional repressors in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Caenorhabditis elegans. Indeed, a sub-pool of SRFR1 transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana leaf cells localizes to the nucleus. Identification of SRFR1 may therefore provide insight into the regulation of the transcriptional reprogramming that is activated by effector-triggered immunity. [source]

Restoration of DWF4 expression to the leaf margin of a dwf4 mutant is sufficient to restore leaf shape but not size: the role of the margin in leaf development

Beate Reinhardt
Summary The role of the margin in leaf development has been debated over a number of years. To investigate the molecular basis of events in the margin, we performed an enhancer trap screen to identify genes specifically expressed in this tissue. Analysis of one of these lines revealed abnormal differentiation in the margin, accompanied by an abnormal leaf size and shape. Further analysis revealed that this phenotype was due to insertion of the trap into DWF4, which encodes a key enzyme in brassinolide biosynthesis. Transcripts for this gene accumulated in a specific and dynamic pattern in the epidermis of young leaf primordia. Targeted expression of DWF4 to a subset of these cells (the leaf margin) in a dwf4 mutant background led to both restoration of differentiation of a specific group of leaf cells (margin cells) and restoration of wild-type leaf shape (but not leaf size). Ablation of these cells led to abrogation of leaf development and the formation of small round leaves. These data support the hypothesis that events in the margin play an essential role in leaf morphogenesis, and implicate brassinolide in the margin as a key mediator in the control of leaf shape, separable from a general function of this growth factor in the control of organ size. [source]

Plant endoplasmin supports the protein secretory pathway and has a role in proliferating tissues

Eva M. Klein
Summary Endoplasmin is a molecular chaperone of the heat-shock protein 90 class located in the endoplasmic reticulum and its activity is poorly characterized in plants. We assessed the ability of endoplasmin to alleviate stress via its transient overexpression in tobacco protoplasts treated with tunicamycin, an inhibitor of glycosylation and inducer of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Endoplasmin supported the secretion of a model secretory protein but was less effective than BiP, the endoplasmic reticulum member of the heat-shock protein 70 family. Consistently, immunoprecipitation experiments with in vivo radioactively labelled proteins using an antiserum prepared against Arabidopsis endoplasmin showed that a much smaller number of newly synthesized polypeptides associated with endoplasmin than with BiP. Synthesis of endoplasmin was enhanced by UPR inducers in tobacco seedlings but not protoplasts. As BiP synthesis was induced in both systems, we conclude that the UPR acts differently, at least in part, on the expression of the two chaperones. Endoplasmin was not detectable in extracts of leaves and stems of the Arabidopsis endoplasmin T-DNA insertion mutant shepherd. However, the chaperone is present, albeit at low levels, in shepherd mutant callus, mature roots and tunicamycin-treated seedlings, demonstrating that the mutation is leaky. Reduced endoplasmin in the shepherd mutant has no effect on BiP protein levels in callus or mature roots, leaves and stems, but is compensated by increased BiP in seedlings. This increase occurs in proliferating rather than expanding leaf cells, indicating an important role for endoplasmin in proliferating plant tissues. [source]

Differential regulation of TGA transcription factors by post-transcriptional control

Dominique Pontier
Summary Transcription factors often belong to multigene families and their individual contribution in a particular regulatory network remains difficult to assess. We show here that specific members from a family of conserved Arabidopsis bZIP transcription factors, the TGA proteins, are regulated in their protein stability by developmental stage-specific proteolysis. Using GFP fusions of three different Arabidopsis TGA factors that represent members of distinct subclasses of the TGA factor family, we demonstrate that two of these TGA proteins are specifically targeted for proteolysis in mature leaf cells. Using a supershift gel mobility assay, we found evidence for similar regulation of the cognate proteins as compared to the GFP fusion proteins expressed under the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter. Using various inhibitors, we showed that the expression of at least one of these three TGA factors could be stabilized by inhibition of proteasome-mediated proteolysis. This study indicates that TGA transcription factors may be regulated by distinct pathways of targeted proteolysis that can serve to modulate the contribution of specific members of a multigene family in complex regulatory pathways. [source]

The role of auxin-binding protein 1 in the expansion of tobacco leaf cells

Jin-Gui Chen
Summary Tobacco leaf was used to investigate the mechanism of action of auxin-binding protein 1 (ABP1). The distributions of free auxin, ABP1, percentage of leaf nuclei in G2 and the amount of auxin-inducible growth were each determined in control tobacco leaves and leaves over-expressing Arabidopsis ABP1. These parameters were compared with growth of tobacco leaves, measured both spatially and temporally throughout the entire expansion phase. Within a defined window of leaf development, juvenile leaf cells that inducibly expressed Arabidopsis ABP1 prematurely advanced nuclei to the G2 phase. The ABP1-induced increase in cell expansion occured before the advance to the G2 phase, indicating that the ABP1-induced G2 phase advance is an indirect effect of cell expansion. The level of ABP1 was highest at the position of maximum cell expansion, maximum auxin-inducible growth and where the free auxin level was the lowest. In contrast, the position of maximum cell division correlated with higher auxin levels and lower ABP1 levels. Consistent with the correlations observed in leaves, tobacco cells (BY-2) in culture displayed two dose-dependent responses to auxin. At a low auxin concentration, cells expanded, while at a relatively higher concentration, cells divided and incorporated [3H]-thymidine. Antisense suppression of ABP1 in these cells dramatically reduced cell expansion with negligible effect on cell division. Taken together, the data suggest that ABP1 acts at a relatively low level of auxin to mediate cell expansion, whereas high auxin levels stimulate cell division via an unidentified receptor. [source]

CtBP family proteins: More than transcriptional corepressors

BIOESSAYS, Issue 1 2003
G. Chinnadurai
CtBP family proteins predominantly function as transcriptional corepressors. Studies with mutant mouse suggest that the two mouse genes, Ctbp1 and Ctbp2, play unique and redundant gene regulatory roles during development.1Ctbp1 -deficient mice are viable, but are small and die early, while Ctbp2 deficiency leads to embryonic lethality. Ctbp2 -null mutation causes defects in axial patterning, heart morphogenesis and neural development. The Ctbp2 mutant phenotype is more severe in the absence of Ctbp1. The studies with Ctbp2 mutant embryos suggest that CtBP can also activate transcription. A plant CtBP homolog, Angustifolia (AN), has recently been identified.2,3AN controls polar elongation of leaf cells via the microtubule cytoskeleton. Microarray analysis suggests that AN also functions as a transcriptional repressor. Thus, the CtBP family proteins control cellular processes by serving as transcriptional activators and regulators of the cytoskeleton as well as transcriptional corepressors. BioEssays 25:9,12, 2003. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Beauvericin Decreases Cell Viability of Wheat

Antonia, robárová
Abstract Recently, beauvericin (BEA) has been recognized as an important toxic compound synthesized by several Fusarium strains, infecting maize, wheat, and rice, worldwide. The effects of BEA on mammalian cells have been studied; however, its effects on the function of host plant cells are largely unknown. The purpose of our work was to assess whether BEA can affect the root and leaf cells of wheat cultivar (cv.) ,Arina' seedlings, using a cytotoxicity assay and fluorescence microscopy. Toxigenicity during wheat germination was higher in BEA-treated wheat seedlings than in non-treated seedlings (control). Leaf primordial, situated at the base and the tips of treated leaves, were more affected by BEA compared to the control when assayed in medium for cell viability measured by luminescent equipment. BEA-Treated plant cells secrete adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to the extracellular matrix and invoke more luminescence by luciferase than the non-treated seedlings. Our results were confirmed by fluorescence microscopy following ,4,,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole' (DAPI) staining and by confocal microscopy. In addition, the bioluminescent protein luciferase was observed in the intracellular space indicating presence of ATP. The incidence of nuclear fragmentation increased significantly in cells of seedlings treated with BEA at 40,,M concentration implying that the intracellular phytotoxin BEA plays an important role, possibly as a mediator in cell-death signalling. [source]