Leaf Beetle Larvae (leaf + beetle_larva)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Host plant variation in plant-mediated indirect effects: moth boring-induced susceptibility of willows to a specialist leaf beetle

Abstract 1.,We examined the plant-mediated indirect effects of the stem-boring moth Endoclita excrescens (Lepidoptera: Hepialidae) on the leaf beetle Plagiodera versicolora (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in three willow species, Salix gilgiana, S. eriocarpa, and S. serissaefolia. 2.,When the stem-boring moth larvae damaged stems in the previous year, willows were stimulated to produce vigorously growing lateral shoots on these stems. These new lateral shoots were significantly longer and the upper leaves had significantly higher nitrogen and water content than current-year shoots on unbored stems, although the carbon content and leaf dry mass were not different between lateral and current-year shoots. 3.,In the field, leaf beetle larvae and adults had significantly greater densities on lateral shoots of bored stems than on current-year shoots of unbored stems. A laboratory experiment showed that female beetles had significantly greater mass and fecundity when fed on leaves of newly-emerged lateral shoots. Thus, the stem-boring moth had a positive effect on the temporally and spatially separated leaf beetle by increasing resource availability by inducing compensatory regrowth. 4.,The strength of the indirect effects on the density and performance of the leaf beetle differed among willow species, because there was interspecific variation in host quality and herbivore-induced changes in plant traits. In particular, we suggest that the differences in magnitude of the changes among willow species in shoot length and leaf nitrogen content greatly affected the strength of the plant-regrowth mediated indirect effect, coupled with host-plant preference of the leaf beetle. [source]

Targeted sugar provision promotes parasitism of the cereal leaf beetle Oulema melanopus

Edward W. Evans
1Parasitoids may often lack access to sugar (e.g. floral nectar) in agricultural settings. Strategically timed spraying of host plants with sugar solution may provide one means of enhancing parasitism at the same time as minimizing nontarget effects (e.g. benefiting the pest itself). 2Sucrose was sprayed in wheat fields of northern Utah (U.S.A.) to assess the effects on parasitism of the cereal leaf beetle Oulema melanopus by the larval parasitoid Tetrastichus julis. 3Early-season sugar provisioning, when larvae of the pest were first hatching and parasitoid adults were newly emerged, did not affect the numbers of cereal leaf beetle larvae that matured in treated plots but increased parasitism rates of beetle larvae by four-fold in 2006 and by seven-fold in 2007. 4No net influx of adult parasitoids into plots was detected after the application of sugar. Locally-emerging parasitoids may have spent less time searching for their own food needs versus hosts. A laboratory experiment also confirmed that access to sucrose significantly increased parasitoid longevity. 5The field experimental results obtained demonstrate that applications of sugar, implemented to target a key time of the growing season when benefits are maximized for parasitoids and minimized for their hosts, can strongly promote parasitism of the cereal leaf beetle in wheat fields. [source]

Can herbivore-induced plant volatiles inform predatory insect about the most suitable stage of its prey?

Abstract. The leaf beetle Plagiodera versicolora (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is a specialist herbivore, all of whose mobile stages feed on the leaves of salicaceous plants. Both the larval and adult stages of the ladybird Aiolocaria hexaspilota (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) are dominant natural enemies of the larvae of the leaf beetle. To clarify the role of plant volatiles in prey-finding behaviour of A. hexaspilota, the olfactory responses of the ladybird in a Y-tube olfactometer are studied. The ladybird adults show no preference for willow plants Salix eriocarpa that are infested by leaf beetle adults (nonprey) over that for intact plants but move more to the willow plants infested by leaf beetle larvae (prey) than to intact plants. Moreover, ladybird larvae show no preference for willow plants infested by leaf beetle larvae or adults over intact plants. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, six volatile compounds are released in larger amounts in the headspace of willow plants infested by leaf beetle larvae than in the headspace of willow plants infested by leaf beetle adults. In addition, the total amount of volatiles emitted from willow plants that are either intact or infested by leaf beetle adults is much smaller than that from willow plants infested by leaf beetle larvae. These results indicate that volatiles from S. eriocarpa infested by P. versicolora inform A. hexaspilota adults about the presence of the most suitable stage of their prey, whereas A. hexaspilota larvae do not use such information. [source]

How to Spoil the Taste of Insect Prey?

CHEMBIOCHEM, Issue 12 2010
A Novel Feeding Deterrent against Ants Released by Larvae of the Alder Leaf Beetle, Agelastica alni
Abstract Chemical defense of leaf beetle larvae (Chrysomelidae) against enemies is provided by secretions containing a wide range of deterrent compounds or by unpalatable hemolymph constituents. Here we report a new, very strong feeding deterrent against ants released by larvae of the alder leaf beetle Agelastica alni when attacked. The larvae release a defensive fluid from openings of pairwise, dorsolaterally located tubercles on the first to the eighth abdominal segments. The fluid, consisting of hemolymph and probably a glandular cell secretion, has previously been shown to contain a very stable, non-volatile feeding deterrent. The major deterrent component was isolated by repeated HPLC separation and analyzed by NMR and MS. The compound proved to be ,- L -glutamyl- L -2-furylalanine (1), a novel dipeptide containing the unusual amino acid L -2-furylalanine. This amino acid, although synthetically well known, has not previously been reported from natural sources. The absolute configuration of the natural compound was elucidated by enantioselective gas chromatography after derivatization. The structure of the dipeptide was verified by the synthesis of several isomeric dipeptides. In bioassays a concentration of 1 ,g,,L,1 was sufficient to deter polyphagous Myrmica rubra ants from feeding. [source]