Lesser Impact (lesser + impact)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetes: When does it matter?

J. Wong
Aims:, Young adults with type 2 diabetes (T2Dm) present the clinician with the problem of when to start therapies for the primary prevention of vascular disease and how to identify those at most vascular risk. We examine whether the metabolic syndrome (MetS) can be a useful clinical tool to stratify vascular risk in this context. Methods:, Data were collected from 5928 subjects with T2Dm, and subjects were categorized as having MetS by World Health Organization criteria (body mass index criteria modified for Asians using >23 kg/m2). The prevalence of macrovascular disease was examined by MetS status and age. Results:, The overall MetS prevalence was 72.3%. MetS was associated with an increased prevalence of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) (17.2% MetS vs. 11.6% no MetS, p < 0.0001), coronary artery bypass graft (7.6 vs. 4.7%, p < 0.0003), peripheral vascular disease (PVD) (4.7 vs. 3.7%, p = 0.08) and stroke (6 vs. 3.9%, p = 0.002) across all age groups. MetS subjects had an IHD prevalence equivalent to that seen in subjects who were one decade older without MetS. The most significant impact of MetS was for the age group of 40,49 years with much lesser impact seen with progressively increasing age [odds ratio (OR) = 2.1 for IHD in MetS compared with no MetS at age 40,50 years, p < 0.05; falling progressively to OR = 1.5 at age >70 years, p > 0.05]. Similar trends were seen for coronary artery by-pass graft (CABG) and PVD. There was a strong relationship between the number of MetS risk factors and IHD prevalence (r = 0.99, p = 0.0001). Conclusions:, These data suggest that MetS is particularly useful in stratifying vascular risk in younger T2Dm patients and in those with a high number of MetS components. For patients with MetS, especially those with a full house of MetS risk factors, commencing risk-lowering interventions 10 years earlier than their MetS-free counterparts could be considered. [source]

Quality, quantity, and impact in academic publication

Nick Haslam
Publication records of 85 social-personality psychologists were tracked from the time of their doctoral studies until 10 years post-PhD. Associations between publication quantity (number of articles), quality (mean journal impact factor and article influence score), and impact (citations, h -index, g -index, webpage visits) were examined. Publication quantity and quality were only modestly related, and there was evidence of a quality-quantity trade-off. Impact was more strongly associated with quantity than quality. Authors whose records weighed quality over quantity tended to be associated with more prestigious institutions, but had lesser impact. Quantity- and quality-favoring publication strategies may have important implications for the shape and success of scientific careers. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Use of Malaria Prevention Measures by North American and European Travelers to East Africa

Hans O. Lobel
Background: The use of preventive measures, including effective chemoprophylaxis, is essential for protection against malaria among travelers. However, data have shown that travelers and medical advisors are confused by the lack of uniform recommendations and numerous prophylactic regimens of varying effectiveness that are used. Methods: To assess the use and type of preventive measures against malaria, we conducted a cross-sectional study in 1997 among travelers departing from the Nairobi and Mombasa airports in Kenya with European destinations. Results: Seventy-five percent of the travelers studied were residents of Europe and 25% were residents of North America; all stayed less than 1 year, and visited malarious areas. Most travelers, 97.1%, were aware of the risk and 91.3% sought pretravel medical advice. Although 95.4% used chemoprophylaxis and/or antimosquito measures, only 61.7% used both regular chemoprophylaxis and two or more antimosquito measures. Compliance with chemoprophylaxis was lowest amongst those who used a drug with a daily, as opposed to, a weekly dosing schedule, stayed more than 1 month, attributed an adverse health event to the chemoprophylaxis, and were less than 40 years of age. Among US travelers, 94.6% of those taking chemoprophylaxis were taking an effective regimen, that is, mefloquine or doxycycline. Only 1.9% used a suboptimal drug regimen, such as chloroquine/proguanil. Among European travelers, 69% used mefloquine or doxycycline, and 25% used chloroquine/proguanil. Notably, 45.3% of travelers from the UK used chloroquine/proguanil. Adverse events were noted by 19.7% of mefloquine users and 16.4% of travelers taking chloroquine/proguanil. Neuropsychologic adverse events were reported by 7.8% of users of mefloquine and 1.9% of those taking chloroquine/proguanil. The adverse events, however, had a lesser impact on compliance than frequent dosing schedule. Conclusions: Health information should be targeted to travelers who are likely to use suboptimal chemoprophylaxis or may be noncompliant with prophylaxis. Uniform recommendations for effective chemoprophylaxis with simple dosing schedules are necessary to reduce rates of malaria among travelers to Africa. [source]

Functional significance of stimulatory GTP-binding protein in hippocampus is associated with kindling-elicited epileptogenesis

Hiroto Iwasa MD
Abstract In order to evaluate the involvement of the stimulatory G-protein (Gs)-related transduction system in the basic mechanisms of epilepsy, we examine the expression levels of Gs, mRNA and specific GTP-binding ability in the hippocampus of amygdaloid-kindled rats at various seizure stages. Northern blot analysis showed a significant increase in the Gs, mRNA expression level in the bilateral hippocampus at 24 h after the last generalized seizure. The [3H]-GTP-binding assay with isoproterenol (IPN), a ,-receptor agonist, revealed a remarkable increase of Bmax values in the sham-operated control and partially kindled groups. However, the IPN-induced increase of Bmax values was abolished on both sides of the hippocampus at 24 h after and at 4 weeks after the last generalized seizure in fully kindled rats. These data suggest that alteration in the Gs function and ,-adrenergic receptor-Gs coupling might be implicated in the neurobiological basis of the induction mechanisms of the generalization of seizures and the mechanisms of the maintenance of enduring epileptogenesis. Conversely, the Gs -related transduction system might have a lesser impact on the acquisition process of epileptogenesis. [source]

Effects of forest harvesting on the occurrence of landslides and debris flows in steep terrain of central Japan

Fumitoshi Imaizumi
Abstract Landslides and debris flows associated with forest harvesting can cause much destruction and the influence of the timing of harvesting on these mass wasting processes therefore needs to be assessed in order to protect aquatic ecosystems and develop improved strategies for disaster prevention. We examined the effects of forest harvesting on the frequency of landslides and debris flows in the Sanko catchment (central Japan) using nine aerial photo periods covering 1964 to 2003. These photographs showed a mosaic of different forest ages attributable to the rotational management in this area since 1912. Geology and slope gradient are rather uniformly distributed in the Sanko catchment, facilitating assessment of forest harvesting effects on mass wasting without complication of other factors. Trends of new landslides and debris flows correspond to changes in slope stability explained by root strength decay and recovery; the direct impact of clearcutting on landslide occurrence was greatest in forest stands that were clearcut 1 to 10 yr earlier with progressively lesser impacts continuing up to 25 yr after harvesting. Sediment supply rate from landslides in forests clearcut 1 to 10 yr earlier was about 10-fold higher than in control sites. Total landslide volume in forest stands clearcut 0 to 25 yr earlier was 58 103 m3 km,2 compared with 13 103 m3 km,2 in clearcuts >25 yr, indicating a fourfold increase compared with control sites during the period when harvesting affected slope stability. Because landslide scars continue to produce sediment after initial failure, sediment supply from landslides continues for 45 yr in the Sanko catchment. To estimate the effect of forest harvesting and subsequent regeneration on the occurrence of mass wasting in other regions, changes in root strength caused by decay and recovery of roots should be investigated for various species and environmental conditions. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]