Lesser Extent (lesser + extent)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Publishing in the Majors: A Comparison of Accounting, Finance, Management, and Marketing,

Abstract Business schools evaluate publication records, especially for the promotion and tenure decision, by comparing the quality and quantity of a candidate's research with those of peers within the same discipline (intradisciplinary) and with those of academics from other business disciplines (interdisciplinary). A recently developed analytical model of the research review process provides theory about the norms used by editors and referees in deciding whether to publish research papers. The model predicts that interdisciplinary differences exist in quality norms, which could result in disparity among business disciplines in the number of top-tier articles published. I examine the period from 1980 to 1999 and, consistent with the theory, find that significant differences exist in the number of articles and proportion of doctoral faculty who published in the "major" journals in accounting, finance, management, and marketing. Most notably, the proportion of doctoral faculty publishing a major article is 1.4 to 2.4 times greater in the other business disciplines than in accounting (depending on the set of journals). The theory also predicts an upward drift over time in the quality norms used by referees. Consistent with a drift, the number of articles published has declined substantially in marketing and, to a lesser extent, in the other business disciplines. [source]

Managing the interface between suppliers and organizations for environmental responsibility , an exploration of current practices in the UK

Diane Holt
This paper examines the supplier management activities undertaken by a sample of 149 UK based organizations, with particular focus on the role of supplier assessment and supplier coaching, education or mentoring. This study identifies that larger, higher risk organizations are beginning to reach out to their suppliers, primarily through assessment and evaluation, and to a lesser extent through supplier education, mentoring or coaching. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]

Influence of sympathetic and AT1 -receptor blockade on angiotensin II and adrenergic agonist-induced renal vasoconstrictions in spontaneously hypertensive rats

M. H. Abdulla
Abstract Aim:, This study investigated the influence of angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor and adrenergic blockade on the renal vasoconstrictions caused by Ang II and adrenergic agonists in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Methods:, Forty-eight SHR were subjected to 7 days of losartan (10 mg kg,1 day,1 p.o.), carvedilol (5 mg kg,1 day,1 p.o.) or losartan + carvedilol (10 mg kg,1 day,1 + 5 mg kg,1 day,1 p.o.). On day 8, the rats were anaesthetized and renal vasoconstrictor experiments performed. One group of rats underwent acute unilateral renal denervation. Results:, There were significant (P < 0.05) reductions in the renal vasoconstrictor responses to noradrenaline, phenylephrine, methoxamine and Ang II after losartan and carvedilol treatments compared with that in untreated rats (all P < 0.05). However, in renally denervated SHR treated with carvedilol, the vasoconstrictor responses to all the vasoactive agents were enhanced compared with those in SHR with intact renal nerves treated with carvedilol. Intact SHR given both losartan and carvedilol showed greater renal vasoconstrictor responses to the vasoactive agents than when given either losartan or carvedilol alone (all P < 0.05). Conclusion:, Carvedilol reduced the vasoconstrictor response to Ang II and all the adrenergic agonists in the presence of the renal nerves, but, following the removal of renal sympathetic activity, carvedilol enhanced the sensitivity of both renal ,1 -adrenoceptors and AT1 receptors to the vasoactive agents. Co-treatment with losartan and carvedilol reduced the renal vasoconstrictor responses to exogenously administered vasoactive agents but to a lesser extent than losartan or carvedilol alone. The results obtained demonstrate an interaction between Ang II receptors and adrenergic neurotransmission in the SHR. [source]

Effect of ,-trinositol on secretion induced by Escherichia coli ST-toxin in rat jejunum

A.-M. Lahti
Abstract Aim:,d -myo-inositol-1,2,6-trisphosphate (, -trinositol, PP56), is a synthetic isomer of the intracellular second messenger, d -myo-inositol-1,4,5-trisphospahate. The pharmacological actions of , -trinositol include potent anti-inflammatory properties and inhibition of the secretion induced by cholera toxin and obstructive ileus. In the present study, we investigated whether , -trinositol was able to influence the secretion induced by heat-stable ST-toxin from Escherichia coli in the rat jejunum. Methods:, A midline abdominal incision was performed in anaesthetized male Sprague,Dawley rats and a 6,7 cm long jejunal segment was isolated with intact vascular supply and placed in a chamber suspended from a force displacement transducer connected to a Grass® polygraph. Intestinal net fluid transport was continuously monitored gravimetrically. Crystalline ST-toxin (120 mouse units) was introduced into the intestinal lumen and left there for the rest of the experiment. When a stable secretion was observed, , -trinositol (60 mg kg,1 h,1) or saline were infused during 2 h, followed by a 2-h control period. Results:, , -Trinositol induced a significant (P < 0.001) inhibition of ST-toxin secretion within 30 min, lasting until 2 h after infusion had stopped. The agent also moderately increased (P < 0.05) net fluid absorption in normal jejunum. Mean arterial pressure (P < 0.001) and heart rate (P < 0.001) were reduced by , -trinositol. Conclusion:, The inhibition by , -trinositol of ST-toxin induced intestinal secretion is primarily secondary to inhibition of secretory mechanisms and only to lesser extent due to increased absorption. The detailed mechanisms of action have not been clarified but may involve suppression of inflammation possibly by means of cellular signal transduction. [source]

Twenty-four-hour non-invasive monitoring of systemic haemodynamics and cerebral blood flow velocity in healthy humans

ABSTRACT Acute short-term changes in blood pressure (BP) and cardiac output (CO) affect cerebral blood flow (CBF) in healthy subjects. As yet, however, we do not know how spontaneous fluctuations in BP and CO influence cerebral circulation throughout 24 h. We performed simultaneous monitoring of BP, systemic haemodynamic parameters and blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (MCAV) in seven healthy subjects during a 24-h period. Finger BP was recorded continuously during 24 h by Portapres and bilateral MCAV was measured by transcranial Doppler (TCD) during the first 15 min of every hour. The subjects remained supine during TCD recordings and during the night, otherwise they were seated upright in bed. Stroke volume (SV), CO and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were determined by Modelflow analysis. The 15 min mean value of each parameter was assumed to represent the mean of the corresponding hour. There were no significant differences between right vs. left, nor between mean daytime vs. night time MCAV. Intrasubject comparison of the twenty-four 15-min MCAV recordings showed marked variations (P < 0.001). Within each single 15-min recording period, however, MCAV was stable whereas BP showed significant short-term variations (P < 0.01). A day,night difference in BP was only observed when daytime BP was evaluated from recordings in the seated position (P < 0.02), not in supine recordings. Throughout 24 h, MCAV was associated with SV and CO (P < 0.001), to a lesser extent with mean arterial pressure (MAP; P < 0.005), not with heart rate (HR) or TPR. These results indicate that in healthy subjects MCAV remains stable when measured under constant supine conditions but shows significant variations throughout 24 h because of activity. Moreover, changes in SV and CO, and to a lesser extent BP variations, affect MCAV throughout 24 h. [source]

Technology-Based New Product Development Partnerships,

John E. Ettlie
ABSTRACT Hypotheses were developed to capture the dynamic capabilities that result from interfirm partnerships during the joint new product development (NPD) process,the ability to build, integrate, and reconfigure existing resources to adapt to rapidly changing environments. These capabilities, in turn, were proposed to have a positive impact on NPD performance outcomes: (a) proportion of new product success and (b) superior new product commercialization. In contexts where the locus of innovation is rapidly changing, the impact of interfirm NPD dynamic capabilities was hypothesized to be diminished in high-technology contexts, especially for buyers (original equipment manufacturers) and to a lesser extent for suppliers. Still, technology-based interfirm NPD partnerships were predicted to ultimately outperform low-technology ones in both NPD performance outcomes. Finally, information technology (IT) support for NPD was hypothesized to influence the interfirm NPD partnership's dynamic capabilities. Using survey data from 72 auto company managers and their suppliers, the proposed model in which IT support for NPD influences the success of interfirm NPD partnerships through the mediating role of interfirm NPD partnership dynamic capabilities in high- and low-technology contexts was generally supported. The results shed light on the nature of technology-based interfirm NPD partnerships and have implications for their success. Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed. [source]

Advancing a Political Ecology of Global Environmental Discourses

W. Neil Adger
In the past decade international and national environmental policy and action have been dominated by issues generally defined as global environmental problems. In this article, we identify the major discourses associated with four global environmental issues: deforestation, desertification, biodiversity use and climate change. These discourses are analysed in terms of their messages, narrative structures and policy prescriptions. We find striking parallels in the nature and structure of the discourses and in their illegibility at the local scale. In each of the four areas there is a global environmental management discourse representing a technocentric worldview by which blueprints based on external policy interventions can solve global environmental dilemmas. Each issue also has a contrasting populist discourse that portrays local actors as victims of external interventions bringing about degradation and exploitation. The managerial discourses dominate in all four issues, but important inputs are also supplied to political decisions from populist discourses. There are, in addition, heterodox ideas and denial claims in each of these areas, to a greater or lesser extent, in which the existence or severity of the environmental problem are questioned. We present evidence from location-specific research which does not fit easily with the dominant managerialist nor with the populist discourses. The research shows that policy-making institutions are distanced from the resource users and that local scale environmental management moves with a distinct dynamic and experiences alternative manifestations of environmental change and livelihood imperatives. [source]

Pre-activation of retinoid signaling facilitates neuronal differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells

Yang Bi
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can differentiate into neurons in an appropriate cellular environment. Retinoid signaling pathway is required in neural development. However, the effect and mechanism through retinoid signaling regulates neuronal differentiation of MSCs are still poorly understood. Here, we report that all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) pre-induction improved neuronal differentiation of rat MSCs. We found that, when MSCs were exposed to different concentrations of ATRA (0.01,100 ,mol/L) for 24 h and then cultured with modified neuronal induction medium (MNM), 1 ,mol/L ATRA pre-induction significantly improved neuronal differentiation efficiency and neural-cell survival. Compared with MNM alone induced neural-like cells, ATRA/MNM induced cells expressed higher levels of Nestin, neuron specific enolase (NSE), microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP-2), but lower levels of CD68, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor(GDNF), also exhibited higher resting membrane potential and intracellular calcium concentration, supporting that ATRA pre-induction promotes maturation and function of derived neurons but not neuroglia cells from MSCs. Endogenous retinoid X receptors (RXR) RXR, and RXR, (and to a lesser extent, RXR,) were weakly expressed in MSCs. But the expression of RAR, and RAR, was readily detectable, whereas RAR, was undetectable. However, at 24 h after ATRA treatment, the expression of RAR,, not RAR, or RAR,, increased significantly. We further found the subnuclear redistribution of RAR, in differentiated neurons, suggesting that RAR, may function as a major mediator of retinoid signaling during neuronal differentiation from MSCs. ATRA treatment upregulated the expression of Vimentin and Stra13, while it downregulated the expression of Brachyury in MSCs. Thus, our results demonstrate that pre-activation of retinoid signaling by ATRA facilitates neuronal differentiation of MSCs. [source]

Developmental analysis of activin-like kinase receptor-4 (ALK4) expression in Xenopus laevis

Yumei Chen
Abstract The type I transforming growth factor-beta (TGF,) receptor, activin-like kinase-4 (ALK4), is an important regulator of vertebrate development, with roles in mesoderm induction, primitive streak formation, gastrulation, dorsoanterior patterning, and left,right axis determination. To complement previous ALK4 functional studies, we have analyzed ALK4 expression in embryos of the frog, Xenopus laevis. Results obtained with reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction indicate that ALK4 is present in both the animal and vegetal poles of blastula stage embryos and that expression levels are relatively constant amongst embryos examined at blastula, gastrula, neurula, and early tail bud stages. However, the tissue distribution of ALK4 mRNA, as assessed by whole-mount in situ hybridization, was found to change over this range of developmental stages. In the blastula stage embryo, ALK4 is detected in cells of the animal pole and the marginal zone. During gastrulation, ALK4 is detected in the outer ectoderm, involuting mesoderm, blastocoele roof, dorsal lip, and to a lesser extent, in the endoderm. At the onset of neurulation, ALK4 expression is prominent in the dorsoanterior region of the developing head, the paraxial mesoderm, and midline structures, including the prechordal plate and neural folds. Expression in older neurula stage embryos resolves to the developing brain, somites, notochord, and neural crest; thereafter, additional sites of ALK4 expression in tail bud stage embryos include the spinal cord, otic placode, developing eye, lateral plate mesoderm, branchial arches, and the bilateral heart fields. Together, these results not only reflect the multiple developmental roles that have been proposed for this TGF, receptor but also define spatiotemporal windows in which ALK4 may function to modulate fundamental embryological events. Developmental Dynamics 232:393,398, 2005. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

In vivo analysis reveals different apoptotic pathways in pre- and postmigratory cerebellar granule cells of rabbit

Laura Lossi
Abstract Naturally occurring neuronal death (NOND) has been described in the postnatal cerebellum of several species, mainly affecting the cerebellar granule cells (CGCs) by an apoptotic mechanism. However, little is known about the cellular pathway(s) of CGC apoptosis in vivo. By immunocytochemistry, in situ detection of fragmented DNA, electron microscopy, and Western blotting, we demonstrate here the existence of two different molecular mechanisms of apoptosis in the rabbit postnatal cerebellum. These two mechanisms affect CGCs at different stages of their maturation and migration. In the external granular layer, premigratory CGCs undergo apoptosis upon phosphorylation of checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1), and hyperphosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein. In postmigratory CGCs within the internal granular layer, caspase 3 and to a lesser extent 7 and 9 are activated, eventually leading to poly-ADP-ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1) cleavage and programmed cell death. We conclude that NOND of premigratory CGCs is linked to activation of DNA checkpoint and alteration of normal cell cycle, whereas in postmigratory CGCs apoptosis is, more classically, dependent upon caspase 3 activation. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Neurobiol 60: 437,452, 2004 [source]

Prophylactic use of anti-emetic medications reduced nausea and vomiting associated with exenatide treatment: a retrospective analysis of an open-label, parallel-group, single-dose study in healthy subjects

C. Ellero
Diabet. Med. 27, 1168,1173 (2010) Abstract Aims, Transient nausea and, to a lesser extent, vomiting are common adverse effects of exenatide that can be mitigated by dose titration and usually do not result in treatment discontinuation. This retrospective analysis of data from a phase 1, open-label, parallel-group, single-dose study in healthy subjects evaluated the effect of oral anti-emetics on exenatide-associated nausea and vomiting and on the pharmacokinetics of exenatide. Methods, A single subcutaneous dose (10 ,g) of exenatide was administered to 120 healthy subjects (19,65 years, BMI 23,35 kg/m2). Incidences of nausea and vomiting were compared between 60 subjects premedicated with two oral anti-emetics 30 min before the exenatide dose and 60 non-premedicated subjects. Similarly, the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) and the maximum observed concentration (Cmax) of plasma exenatide concentrations over 8 h post-dose were compared. Results, Among all subjects [61% male, 32 ± 12 years, body mass index (BMI) 29.1 ± 3.4 kg/m2 (mean ± sd)], mild to moderate nausea was the most frequent adverse event after exenatide dosing. Vomiting was also observed. Subjects premedicated with anti-emetics experienced significantly less nausea and vomiting (16.7 and 6.7%, respectively) vs. non-premedicated subjects (61.7 and 38.3%, respectively; P -value < 0.0001 for both nausea and vomiting). The mean area under the concentration-time curve and the maximum observed concentration AUC and Cmax of plasma exenatide concentrations during 8 h post-dose were not significantly different between groups. Conclusion, Administration of oral anti-emetics before a single 10-,g exenatide dose was associated with significant reductions in treatment-emergent nausea and vomiting, with no discernible effect on the pharmacokinetics of exenatide. Use of anti-emetic therapy may provide a short-term strategy to minimize the nausea and vomiting associated with exenatide treatment. [source]

Gastric myoelectrical activity post-chemoradiotherapy and esophagectomy: a prospective study using subscapular surface recording

P. M. Lawlor
SUMMARY., The aims of this study were to prospectively evaluate gastric function in esophageal cancer patients after chemoradiotherapy and following surgery, using cutaneous electrogastrography (EGG). Twenty-three patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma were recruited to the study. A subset of patients (n = 11) underwent neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and were also studied at 14 days after treatment. All patients underwent EGG studies prior to and following surgery, at 3 months postoperatively. Ten of these patients were also studied at medians of 6 months and 12 months after surgery. Twenty normal volunteers were used as controls. Post-operative EGG studies were monitored with a modified technique; the electrodes being placed in the subscapular region in the area of the transposed stomach. Following neoadjuvant treatment there was a significant increase in abnormal gastric myoelectrical activity involving changes in tachygastrias and decreased motility as measured by power ratio. Post-operatively there was a significant increase in bradygastria which persisted at 6 months but not at 12 months. There was a corresponding decrease in normogastria which persisted at 6 months and to a lesser extent at 12 months. Dominant frequency remained significantly depressed at 3, 6 and 12 months. Gastric myoelectrical activity is normal in untreated esophageal cancer. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy causes a disruption to normal myoelectrical activity involving reduced motility and tachygastrias. Surgery causes a depression in dominant frequency with a reduced incidence of normogastria at 3 months and 6 months but with a tendency towards normality at 12 months. [source]

BIODIVERSITY RESEARCH: Population expansion in an invasive grass, Microstegium vimineum: a test of the channelled diffusion model

Nathaniel P. Miller
Abstract Aim, The greatest biodiversity impact of non-native plant species is caused by rapid expansion of colonist populations. Unfortunately, invasion has rarely been documented in real time at a population scale, and demographic mechanisms of invasion remain unclear. Our goal is to describe real-time expansion of populations, using channelled diffusion as a null model. Location, The study examined three populations of the invasive annual grass Microstegium vimineum in mature second-growth forests of south-eastern Ohio and nearby West Virginia, USA. Methods, Distributions were recorded in belt transects perpendicular to population edges over a period of 3 years. A second group of belt transects documented spread along five types of potential movement corridor. Observed changes in distribution were compared with predictions from a diffusion model. A seed-sowing experiment tested seed availability, microsite quality and proximity to potential movement corridors as factors controlling population spread. Results, Population boundaries showed little change over the study period. Colonization was limited by propagule availability over distances as little as 0.25 m, and to a lesser extent by litter cover. Populations did not advance along several potential movement corridors including unpaved roads, off-road vehicle trails and footpaths. Advance was observed along deer trails and stream courses but did not conform to the wave-form distribution predicted by diffusion theory. During the study, seeds were moved out of experimental plots by sheet flow and minor flooding events along small streams. Main conclusion, At a population level, invasion is driven by processes that are episodic in time and non-random in space , probably a common condition in non-native plant species. Spatially realistic models are likely to be more useful than diffusive models in managing invasions at these scales. [source]

Evaluating extreme risks in invasion ecology: learning from banking compliance

James Franklin
ABSTRACT Increasing international trade has exacerbated the risks of ecological damage due to invasive pests and diseases. For extreme events such as invasions of damaging exotic species or natural catastrophes, there are no or very few directly relevant data, so expert opinion must be relied on heavily. Expert opinion must be as fully informed and calibrated as possible , by available data, by other experts, and by the reasoned opinions of stakeholders. We survey a number of quantitative and non-quantitative methods that have shown promise for improving extreme risk analysis, particularly for assessing the risks of invasive pests and pathogens associated with international trade. We describe the legally inspired regulatory regime for banks, where these methods have been brought to bear on extreme ,operational risks'. We argue that an ,advocacy model' similar to that used in the Basel II compliance regime for bank operational risks and to a lesser extent in biosecurity import risk analyses is ideal for permitting the diversity of relevant evidence about invasive species to be presented and soundly evaluated. We recommend that the process be enhanced in ways that enable invasion ecology to make more explicit use of the methods found successful in banking. [source]

Diversity and composition of Arctiidae moth ensembles along a successional gradient in the Ecuadorian Andes

Nadine Hilt
ABSTRACT Andean montane rain forests are among the most species-rich terrestrial habitats. Little is known about their insect communities and how these respond to anthropogenic habitat alteration. We investigated exceptionally speciose ensembles of nocturnal tiger moths (Arctiidae) at 15 anthropogenically disturbed sites, which together depict a gradient of forest recovery and six closed-forest understorey sites in southern Ecuador. At weak light traps we sampled 9211 arctiids, representing 287 species. Arctiid abundance and diversity were highest at advanced succession sites, where secondary scrub or young forest had re-established, followed by early succession sites, and were lowest, but still high, in mature forest understorey. The proportion of rare species showed the reverse pattern. We ordinated moth samples by non-metric multidimensional scaling using the chord-normalized expected species shared index (CNESS) index at various levels of the sample size parameter m. A distinct segregation of arctiid ensembles at succession sites from those in mature forest consistently emerged only at high m -values. Segregation between ensembles of early vs. late succession stages was also clear at high m values only, and was rather weak. Rare species were responsible for much of the faunal difference along the succession gradient, whereas many common arctiid species occurred in all sites. Matrix correlation tests as well as exploration of relationships between ordination axes and environmental variables revealed the degree of habitat openness, and to a lesser extent, elevation, as best predictors of faunal dissimilarity. Faunal differences were not related to geographical distances between sampling sites. Our results suggest that many of the more common tiger moths of Neotropical montane forests have a substantial recolonization potential at the small spatial scale of our study and accordingly occur also in landscape mosaics surrounding nature reserves. These species contribute to the unexpectedly high diversity of arctiid ensembles at disturbed sites, whereas the proportion of rare species declines outside mature forest. [source]

Feeding and breeding across host plants within a locality by the widespread thrips Frankliniella schultzei, and the invasive potential of polyphagous herbivores

M. Milne
Abstract. Polyphagous insect herbivores could be expected to perform relatively well in new areas because of their ability to exploit alternative resources. We investigated relative abundance patterns of the polyphagous thrips species Frankliniella schultzei, which is characteristically found on plants from many different families, to establish the role of different host plant species in a single locality where the species is not indigenous (Brisbane, south-eastern Queensland, Australia). F. schultzei females and larvae were always present in flowers (where oviposition takes place) and never on leaves of the eight plant species that we surveyed regularly over one year. They were present in flowers of Malvaviscus arboreus in much higher densities than for any other host. F. schultzei females were more fecund and larvae developed faster on floral tissue diets of M. arboreus than on those of other hosts. M. arboreus is therefore regarded as the ,primary' host plant of F. schultzei in the locality that we investigated. The other species are regarded as ,minor' hosts. Available evidence indicates a common geographical origin of F. schultzei and M. arboreus. F. schultzei may therefore be primarily adapted to M. arboreus. The flowers of the minor species on which F. schultzei is also found may coincidentally share some features of the primary host. Adult thrips may therefore accumulate on minor hosts and breed there, but to a lesser extent than on the primary host. The general implications for investigating polyphagous host relationships and interpreting the ecology of these species as generalist invaders are spelt out. [source]

Topographic controls upon soil macropore flow

Joseph Holden
Abstract Macropores are important components of soil hydrology. The spatial distribution of macropore flow as a proportion of saturated hydraulic conductivity was tested on six humid,temperate slopes using transects of tension infiltrometer measurements. Automated water table and overland flow monitoring allowed the timing of, and differentiation between, saturation-excess overland flow and infiltration-excess overland flow occurrence on the slopes to be determined and related to tension-infiltrometer measurements. Two slopes were covered with blanket peat, two with stagnohumic gleys and two with brown earth soils. None of the slopes had been disturbed by agricultural activity within the last 20 years. This controlled the potential for tillage impacts on macropores. The proportion of near-surface macropore flow to saturated hydraulic conductivity was found to vary according to slope position. The spatial patterns were not the same for all hillslopes. On the four non-peat slopes there was a relationship between locations of overland flow occurrence and reduced macroporosity. This relationship did not exist for the peat slopes investigated because they experienced overland flow across their whole slope surfaces. Nevertheless, they still had a distinctive spatial pattern of macropore flow according to slope position. For the other soils tested, parts of slopes that were susceptible to saturation-excess overland flow (e.g. hilltoes or flat hilltops) tended to have least macropore flow. To a lesser extent, for the parts of slopes susceptible to infiltration-excess overland flow, the proportion of macropore flow as a component of infiltration was also smaller compared with the rest of the slope. The roles of macropore creation and macropore infilling by sheet wash are discussed, and it is noted that the combination of these may result in distinctive topographically controlled spatial patterns of macropore flow. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Flume experiments on the horizontal stream offset by strike-slip faults

Shunji OuchiArticle first published online: 4 FEB 200
Abstract Flume experiments, in which the middle section of an erosion channel is displaced horizontally, have been conducted to assess the response of streams to horizontal displacement by a strike-slip fault. The experimental erosion channel was developed in a mixture of sand and clay, which provided relatively stable banks with its cohesiveness. Horizontal displacement of a strike-slip fault perpendicular to the channel is expected to add a ,at section to its longitudinal pro,le along the fault line. The experimental stream eliminated this ,at section with downstream degradation, upstream aggradation, and lateral channel shift. As a result, a roughly continuous longitudinal pro,le was maintained. This maintenance of a continuous longitudinal pro,le along channel is considered to be the principle of stream response to horizontal displacement by a strike-slip fault. Downstream degradation was the dominant process of this stream response in the overall tendency of erosion without sand supply. When the rate of fault displacement was low (long recurrence interval), the experimental stream eroded the fault surface, jutting laterally into the channel like a scarp, and de,ected the channel within the recurrence interval. This lateral channel shift gave some gradient to the reach created by fault displacement (offset reach), and the downstream degradation occurred as much as completing the remaining longitudinal pro,le adjustment. When the rate of fault displacement was high (short recurrence interval), the lateral erosion on the ,rst fault surface was interrupted by the next fault displacement. The displacement was then added incrementally to the existing channel offset making channel shift by lateral erosion increasingly dif,cult. The channel offset with sharp bends persisted without much modi,cation, and downstream degradation and upstream aggradation became evident with the effect of the offset channel course, which worked like a dam. In this case, a slight local convexity, which was incidentally formed by downstream degradation and upstream aggradation, tended to remain in the roughly continuous longitudinal pro,le, as long as the horizontal channel offset persisted. In either case, once the experimental stream obtained a roughly continuous gradient, further channel adjustment seemed to halt. Horizontal channel offset remained to a greater or lesser extent at the end of each run long after the last fault displacement. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Modelling the species richness distribution for French Aphodiidae (Coleoptera, Scarabaeoidea)

ECOGRAPHY, Issue 2 2004
Jorge M. Lobo
The species richness distribution of the French Aphodiidae was predicted using Generalized Linear Models to relate the number of species to spatial, topographic and climate variables. The entire French territory was studied, divided into 301 0.72×0.36 degree grid squares; the model was developed using 66 grid squares previously identified as well sampled. After eliminating nine outliers, the final model accounted for 74.8% of total deviance with a mean Jackknife predictive error of 10.5%. Three richest areas could be distinguished: the western head (Brittany), southwestern France, and, to a lesser extent, the northeastern region. Sampling effort should now be focused on the western head, where no square was correctly sampled, and on southwestern France, which was recognised as a diversity hotspot, both for Aphodiidae and for Scarabaeidae. The largest fraction of variability (37%) in the number of species was accounted for by the combined effect of the three groups of explanatory variables. After controlling for the effect of significant climate and topographic variables, spatial variables still explain 27% of variation in species richness, suggesting the existence of a spatial pattern in the distribution of species richness (greater diversity in western France) that can not be explained by the environmental variables considered here. We hypothesize that this longitudinal spatial pattern is due to the relevance of a western colonization pathway along the glacial-interglacial cycles, as well as by the barrier effect played by the Alps. [source]

Estimating the number of alcohol-attributable deaths: methodological issues and illustration with French data for 2006

ADDICTION, Issue 6 2010
Grégoire Rey
ABSTRACT Aims Computing the number of alcohol-attributable deaths requires a series of hypotheses. Using French data for 2006, the potential biases are reviewed and the sensitivity of estimates to various hypotheses evaluated. Methods Self-reported alcohol consumption data were derived from large population-based surveys. The risks of occurrence of diseases associated with alcohol consumption and relative risks for all-cause mortality were obtained through literature searches. All-cause and cause-specific population alcohol-attributable fractions (PAAFs) were calculated. In order to account for potential under-reporting, the impact of adjustment on sales data was tested. The 2006 mortality data were restricted to people aged between 15 and 75 years. Results When alcohol consumption distribution was adjusted for sales data, the estimated number of alcohol-attributable deaths, the sum of the cause-specific estimates, was 20 255. Without adjustment, the estimate fell to 7158. Using an all-cause mortality approach, the adjusted number of alcohol-attributable deaths was 15 950, while the non-adjusted estimate was a negative number. Other methodological issues, such as computation based on risk estimates for all causes for ,all countries' or only ,European countries', also influenced the results, but to a lesser extent. Discussion The estimates of the number of alcohol-attributable deaths varied greatly, depending upon the hypothesis used. The most realistic and evidence-based estimate seems to be obtained by adjusting the consumption data for national alcohol sales, and by summing the cause-specific estimates. However, interpretation of the estimates must be cautious in view of their potentially large imprecision. [source]

Predicting life-time and regular cannabis use during adolescence; the roles of temperament and peer substance use: the TRAILS study

ADDICTION, Issue 4 2010
Hanneke E. Creemers
ABSTRACT Aims The aim of the present study was to determine the mediating role of affiliation with cannabis-using peers in the pathways from various dimensions of temperament to life-time cannabis use, and to determine if these associations also contributed to the development of regular cannabis use. Methods Objectives were studied using data from 1300 participants of the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS), a large, general population study of Dutch adolescents. We used parent-reports on the Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire to assess the dimensions of high-intensity pleasure, shyness, fearfulness, frustration and effortful control at age 10,12 years. By means of self-reports, life-time and regular cannabis use were determined at age 15,18 years, and proportion of substance-using peers was determined at ages 12,15 and 15,18 years. Models were adjusted for age, sex, intelligence and parental cannabis use. Results High-intensity pleasure [odds ratio (OR) = 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.05,1.13] and effortful control (OR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.89,0.96) affected the risk for life-time cannabis use through their influence on affiliation with cannabis-using peers. Shyness affected this risk independently from peer cannabis use. Only the pathway from effortful control was associated additionally with the development of regular cannabis use (OR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.89,0.98). Conclusions Peer cannabis use and, to a lesser extent, certain temperamental characteristics affect an adolescent's risk of cannabis use, and should be considered in prevention programmes. We recommend future research to focus upon factors that potentially modify the association between temperament, affiliation with cannabis-using peers and cannabis use. [source]

Organic Phase PPO Biosensors Prepared by Multilayer Deposition of Enzyme and Alginate Through Avidin-Biotin Interactions

S. Cosnier
Abstract Films of electrogenerated polypyrrole and hydrophilic alginate, both functionalized with biotin moieties, were used to allow for the transfer of polyphenol oxidase activity in organic media. Enzyme electrodes, based on multilayered structures, were protected at the molecular level by the affinity binding of alginate as a hydrophilic additive, and were then transferred into chlorobenzene, dichloromethane, chloroform, ethyl acetate or acetonitrile. The biosensor performance for the detection of catechol at ,0.2,V was investigated, highlighting the main influence of the hydrophobicity of the solvent and, to a lesser extent, the dielectric constant. The effect of the substrate hydrophobicity on the biosensor response was examined in chlorobenzene. [source]

Whole body extract of Mediterranean fruit fly males elicits high attraction in virgin females

Vassilis G. Mavraganis
Abstract The search for effective female attractants emanating from the host or body of fruit flies has been an area of intensive research for over three decades. In the present study, bodies of male Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), were extracted with diethyl ether or methanol and subjected to gas chromatography,mass spectrometry. Analysis revealed substantial qualitative and quantitative differences between males from a laboratory culture and wild males captured alive in an orchard. Most notably, the hydrocarbon sesquiterpene (±)-,-copaene, which is known to be involved in the sexual behaviour of the species, was found in substantial amounts in wild males, but was not detected in laboratory males. In laboratory tests, 15 laboratory or wild male equivalents of diethyl ether extracts or combined diethyl ether and methanol extracts, or, to a lesser extent, methanol extracts alone, were found to attract virgin females. In a citrus orchard, traps baited with combined diethyl ether and methanol extracts of wild males attracted significantly more virgin females than traps baited with various doses of pyranone or blends of other compounds identified in the extracts or reported in the literature, such as ethyl acetate, ethyl-(E)-3-octenoate, and 1-pyrroline. Traps baited with blends of compounds, however, displayed substantial attractiveness compared to control (non-baited) traps. These results are important for better understanding the mating system of C. capitata as well as for further improving existing monitoring and control systems. [source]

Ketamine use, cognition and psychological wellbeing: a comparison of frequent, infrequent and ex-users with polydrug and non-using controls

ADDICTION, Issue 1 2009
Celia J. A. Morgan
ABSTRACT Introduction Preliminary research has indicated that recreational ketamine use may be associated with marked cognitive impairments and elevated psychopathological symptoms, although no study to date has determined how these are affected by differing frequencies of use or whether they are reversible on cessation of use. In this study we aimed to determine how variations in ketamine use and abstention from prior use affect neurocognitive function and psychological wellbeing. Method We assessed a total of 150 individuals: 30 frequent ketamine users, 30 infrequent ketamine users, 30 ex-ketamine users, 30 polydrug users and 30 controls who did not use illicit drugs. Cognitive tasks included spatial working memory, pattern recognition memory, the Stockings of Cambridge (a variant of the Tower of London task), simple vigilance and verbal and category fluency. Standardized questionnaires were used to assess psychological wellbeing. Hair analysis was used to verify group membership. Results Frequent ketamine users were impaired on spatial working memory, pattern recognition memory, Stockings of Cambridge and category fluency but exhibited preserved verbal fluency and prose recall. There were no differences in the performance of the infrequent ketamine users or ex-users compared to the other groups. Frequent users showed increased delusional, dissociative and schizotypal symptoms which were also evident to a lesser extent in infrequent and ex-users. Delusional symptoms correlated positively with the amount of ketamine used currently by the frequent users. Conclusions Frequent ketamine use is associated with impairments in working memory, episodic memory and aspects of executive function as well as reduced psychological wellbeing. ,Recreational' ketamine use does not appear to be associated with distinct cognitive impairments although increased levels of delusional and dissociative symptoms were observed. As no performance decrements were observed in the ex-ketamine users, it is possible that the cognitive impairments observed in the frequent ketamine group are reversible upon cessation of ketamine use, although delusional symptoms persist. [source]

Histopathological alterations in the edible snail, Babylonia areolata (spotted babylon), in acute and subchronic cadmium poisoning

P. Tanhan
Abstract Histopathological alterations in 6- to 8-month-old juvenile spotted babylon, Babylonia areolata, from acute and subchronic cadmium exposure were studied by light microscopy. The 96-h LC50 value of cadmium for B. areolata was found to be 3.35 mg/L, and the maximum acceptable toxicant concentration (MATC) was 1.6 mg/L. Snails were exposed to 3.35 and 0.08 mg/L (5% of MATC) of cadmium for 96 h and 90 days, respectively. After exposure the gill, the organs of the digestive system (proboscis, esophagus, stomach, digestive gland, and rectum), and the foot were analyzed for cadmium accumulation. The results showed that most digestive organs had a high affinity for cadmium. The main target organ was the stomach, which could accumulate on average 1192.18 ,g/g dry weight of cadmium. Cadmium was shown to accumulate to a lesser extent in the digestive gland, gill, rectum, esophagus, proboscis, and foot. Histopathological alterations were observed in the gill and digestive organs (proboscis, esophagus, stomach, and rectum). The study showed that the stomach and gill were the primary target organs of both acute and subchronic exposure. Gill alterations included increased size of mucous vacuoles, reduced length of cilia, dilation and pyknosis of nuclei, thickening of basal lamina, and accumulation of hemocytes. The epithelial lining of the digestive tract showed similar alterations such as increased size of mucous vacuoles, reduced length of cilia, and dilation of nuclei. In addition, fragmentation of the muscle sheath was observed. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 20: 142,149, 2005. [source]

Influence of isolation on the recovery of pond mesocosms from the application of an insecticide.


Abstract The influence of relative isolation on the ecological recovery of freshwater outdoor mesocosm communities after an acute toxic stress was assessed in a 14-month-long study. A single concentration of deltamethrin was applied to 8 out of 16 outdoor 9-m3 mesocosms to create a rapid decrease of the abundance of arthropods. To discriminate between external and internal recovery mechanisms, four treated and four untreated (control) mesocosms were covered with 1-mm mesh screen lids. The dynamics of planktonic communities were monitored in the four types of ponds. The abundance of many phytoplankton taxa increased after deltamethrin addition, but the magnitude of most increases was relatively small, probably due to low nutrient availability and the survival of rotifers. The greatest impact on zooplankton was seen in Daphniidae and, to a lesser extent, calanoid copepods. Recovery (defined as when statistical analysis failed to detect a difference in the abundance between the deltamethrin-treated ponds and corresponding control ponds for two consecutive sampling dates) of Daphniidae was observed in the water column 105 and 77 d after deltamethrin addition in open and covered mesocosms, respectively, and <42 d for both open and covered ponds at the surface of the sediments. Rotifers did not proliferate, probably because of the survival of predators (e.g., cyclopoid copepods). These results confirm that the recovery of planktonic communities after exposure to a strong temporary chemical stress mostly depends upon internal mechanisms (except for larvae of the insect Chaoborus sp.) and that recovery dynamics are controlled by biotic factors, such as the presence of dormant forms and selective survival of predators. [source]

Ecological risk assessment of persistent toxic substances for the clam Tapes philipinarum in the lagoon of venice, italy

Christian Micheletti
Abstract Because of contamination of sediments of the Lagoon of Venice, Italy, by inorganic pollutants (e.g., arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, and zinc) and organic pollutants (e.g., polychlorobiphenyls), as well as the ecological and economical relevance of the edible clam Tapes philipinarum, an ecological risk assessment was undertaken to ascertain the extent of bioaccumulation that would pose a significant risk. Risk was estimated by means of toxic units and hazard quotient approaches, by comparing the exposure concentration with the effect concentration. Clam exposure was estimated by applying previous results based on bioaccumulation spatial regression models. In addition, a comparison was made between sum of dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and total PCB bioaccumulation provided by spatial regression models and by a partitioning model. The effect concentrations were calculated as tissue screening concentrations, as the product of pollutant sediment quality criteria and the bioaccumulation factor. Finally, the cumulative risk posed by selected inorganic pollutants and total PCBs was estimated and a map of risk was drawn. The resulting chemicals of potential ecological concern were mercury, cadmium, arsenic, and nickel, as well as, to a lesser extent, total PCBs. [source]

Application of toxicity identification evaluation procedures for characterizing produced water using the tropical mysid, Metamysidopsis insularis

Najila Elias-Samlalsingh
Abstract Toxicity identification evaluations (TIEs) were performed on seven produced water (PW) effluents from inland discharge facilities operated in Trinidad and Tobago, a Caribbean tropical country with one of the oldest commercial oil industries in the world. The research was performed to determine the presence and magnitude of toxicity and characterize which toxicants are responsible for observed effects. Marine effluent toxicity characterizations with Metamysidopsis insularis revealed high whole acute toxic-unit response for produced water ranged from 8.1 to >17.0 acute toxic-unit (initial toxicity test) and 5.7 to 1,111 acute toxic-unit (baseline toxicity test). Toxicity test results for all sites except one, which had the highest toxicity, are comparative with similar studies on produced water. The toxicological causality of this complex mixture differed for each PW with nonpolar organics being consistently toxic in all samples. Other potential toxicants contributing to overall toxicity to a much lesser extent were metals, ammonia, and volatile organic compounds. With the use of sodium thiosulfate and filtration manipulations for only PW6 sample, there was very slight reduction in toxicity; therefore, oxidants and filterable materials were not a great contributing factor. Whole effluent toxicity also can be attributed to ionic imbalance and the very stable oil-in-water emulsion that consists of fine oil droplets (less than 0.1,10 ,m with an average diameter of 2.5 ,m). This investigation is the first of its type in Trinidad and demonstrates clearly the applicability of this test method and local test species for evaluating complex effluents in tropical environments. [source]

Phase distribution of synthetic pyrethroids in runoff and stream water

Weiping Liu
Abstract Synthetic pyrethroids (SPs) are a group of hydrophobic compounds with significant aquatic toxicity. Their strong affinity to suspended solids and humic materials suggests that SPs in natural surface water are distributed in solid-adsorbed, dissolved organic matter (DOM)-adsorbed, and freely dissolved phases. The freely dissolved phase is of particular importance because of its mobility and bioavailability. In the present study, we used solid-phase microextraction to detect the freely dissolved phase, and we evaluated the phase distribution of bifenthrin and permethrin in stream and runoff waters. In stream water, most SPs were associated with the suspended solids and, to a lesser extent, with DOM. The freely dissolved phase contributed only 0.4% to 1.0%. In runoff effluents, the freely dissolved concentration was 10% to 27% of the overall concentration. The predominant partitioning into the adsorbed phases implies that the toxicity of SPs in surface water is reduced because of decreased bioavailability. This also suggests that monitoring protocols that do not selectively define the freely dissolved phase can lead to significant overestimation of toxicity or water-quality impacts by SPs. [source]

Field contamination of the starfish Asterias rubens by metals.

Part 1: Short-, long-term accumulation along a pollution gradient
Abstract The accumulation of Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu in the starfish Asterias rubens was studied in a Norwegian fjord characterized by a gradient of metal pollution in the sediments, ranging from very high metal concentrations at its head to much lower levels at its opening. The concentrations of metals in starfish from natural populations along the gradient (long-term accumulation) and in starfish that were transferred up the gradient (short-term accumulation) were compared. At long-term, Cd and Pb accumulations by starfish living at normal salinity (30,) were related to the level of contamination of of the environment while Cu and, to a lesser extent, Zn accumulations appeared strictly controlled. At short-term, Pb was accumulated steadily, Cd and Zn were accumulated transiently in the pyloric caeca (fast compartment), and Cu was not accumulated at all. Depuration experiments (transfer down the gradient) showed that Cd and Pb were efficiently eliminated from the pyloric caeca but not from the body wall (slow compartment). It is concluded that Pb is chronically accumulated, without apparent control, Cd is subjected to a regulating mechanism in the pyloric caeca which is overwhelmed over the long-term; Zn is tightly controlled in the pyloric caeca and Cu in both pyloric caeca and body wall. A distinct color variety of starfish is restricted to the low salinity (22-26,) superficial water layer. This variety showed a different pattern of metal accumulation over the long-term. This pattern is attributed to the particular hydrological conditions prevailing in this upper layer. [source]