Lesioned Rats (lesioned + rat)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

GABAergic mechanism mediated via D1 receptors in the rat periaqueductal gray participates in the micturition reflex: an in vivo microdialysis study

Takeya Kitta
Abstract The periaqueductal gray (PAG) is critically involved in the micturition reflex, but little is known about the neuronal mechanisms involved. The present study elucidated dynamic changes in dopamine (DA), glutamate and ,-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the rat PAG during the micturition reflex, with a focus on dopaminergic modulation using in vivo microdialysis combined with cystometrography. Extracellular levels of DA and glutamate increased, whereas levels of GABA decreased, in parallel with the micturition reflex. Application of a D1 receptor antagonist into the PAG produced increases in maximal voiding pressure (MVP) and decreases in intercontraction interval (ICI), suggesting that the micturition reflex was facilitated by D1 receptor blockade. The D1 receptor antagonist prevented micturition-induced decreases in GABA efflux but had no effect on DA or glutamate. Neither a D2 receptor antagonist nor a D1/D2 receptor agonist affected these neurochemical and physiological parameters. Micturition-induced inhibition of GABA was not observed in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rats, an animal model of Parkinson's disease. 6-OHDA-lesioned rats exhibited bladder hyperactivity evaluated by increases in MVP and decreases in ICI, mimicking facilitation of the micturition reflex induced by D1 receptor blockade. These findings suggest that the micturition reflex is under tonic dopaminergic regulation through D1 receptors, in which a GABAergic mechanism is involved. Bladder hyperactivity observed in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats may be caused by dysfunction of GABAergic regulation underlying the micturition reflex. The present findings contribute to our understanding not only of the neurophysiology of the micturition reflex but also of the pathophysiology of lower urinary tract dysfunction in patients with Parkinson's disease. [source]

Time course of striatal ,FosB-like immunoreactivity and prodynorphin mRNA levels after discontinuation of chronic dopaminomimetic treatment

M. Andersson
Abstract ,FosB-like proteins are particularly stable transcription factors that accumulate in the brain in response to chronic perturbations. In this study we have compared the time-course of striatal FosB/,FosB-like immunoreactivity and prodynorphin mRNA expression after discontinuation of chronic cocaine treatment to intact rats and chronic L-DOPA treatment to unilaterally 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesioned rats. The animals were killed between 3 h and 16 days after the last drug injection. In both treatment paradigms, the drug-induced FosB/,FosB immunoreactivity remained significantly elevated in the caudate putamen even at the longest withdrawal period examined. The concomitant upregulation of prodynorphin mRNA, a target of ,FosB, paralleled the time-course of ,FosB-like immunoreactivity in the 6-OHDA-lesion/L-DOPA model, but was more transient in animals treated with cocaine. These results suggest that ,FosB-like proteins have exceptional in vivo stability. In the dopamine-denervated striatum, these proteins may exert sustained effects on the expression of their target genes long after discontinuation of L-DOPA pharmacotherapy. [source]

Decreased glucocorticoid receptor mRNA and dysfunction of HPA axis in rats after removal of the cholinergic innervation to hippocampus.

Jung-Soo Han
Abstract Excess exposure to glucocorticoids can have deleterious effects on physiology and cognition. Glucocorticoids acting via receptors located in hippocampal neurons contribute to negative feedback after stress by terminating the further release of glucocorticoids. The current study investigated the effects of selective immunolesions of septo-hippocampal cholinergic neurons on hippocampal corticosterone receptor mRNA and on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity. As evaluated by in situ hybridization, hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mRNA, but not mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) mRNA, was significantly decreased in lesioned rats compared to controls. In a companion study, the peak corticosterone response to one hour of restraint stress did not differ between lesion and control groups but the post-stress decline of corticosterone was more protracted in the lesioned rats. These findings are discussed in terms of their possible relevance to ageing as age-related degeneration of the basal forebrain cholinergic system may contribute to the commonly observed dysfunction of the HPA axis in older animals. [source]

Selective lesions of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons produce anterograde and retrograde deficits in a social transmission of food preference task in rats

Anna Vale-Martínez
Abstract We examined the performance of Long-Evans rats with 192 IgG-saporin lesions of the medial septum/vertical limb of the diagonal band (MS/VDB) or nucleus basalis magnocellularis/substantia innominata (NBM/SI), which removed cholinergic projections mainly to hippocampus or neocortex, respectively. We studied the effects of these lesions on anterograde and retrograde memory for a natural form of hippocampal-dependent associative memory, the social transmission of food preference. In a study of anterograde memory, MS/VDB lesions did not affect the immediate, 24-h or 3-week retention of the task. In contrast, NBM/SI lesions severely impaired immediate and 24-h retention. In a study of retrograde memory in which rats acquired the food preference 5 days or 1 day before surgery and they were tested 10,11 days after surgery, MS/VDB-lesioned rats showed striking memory deficits for the preference acquired at a long delay (5 days) before surgery, although all lesioned rats exhibited poorer retention on both retest sessions than on their pretest performance. Subsequent testing of new anterograde learning in these rats revealed no disrupting effects of lesions on a standard two-choice test. When rats were administered a three-choice test, in which the target food was presented along with two more options, NBM/SI-lesioned rats were somewhat impaired on a 24-h retention test. These results provide evidence that NBM/SI and MS/VDB cholinergic neurons are differentially involved in a social memory task that uses olfactory cues, suggesting a role for these neurons in acquisition and consolidation/retrieval of nonspatial declarative memory. [source]

Strain differences in the behavioural outcome of neonatal ventral hippocampal lesions are determined by the postnatal environment and not genetic factors

Graham K. Wood
Abstract It has been demonstrated that not only do rats neonatally lesioned in the ventral hippocampus (VH) develop behavioural hypersensitivity to amphetamine postpubertally, but also that the expression of the sensitivity is strain specific. For example, excitotoxic VH lesions at postnatal day (PD) 7 lead to significant increases in amphetamine-induced locomotion in postpubertal Fischer rats, but not in Lewis rats. However, as it is likely that the effect of strain differences are due to a combination of genetics and environment, we examined the contributions of the environment of the pups in determining the behavioural outcome following neonatal VH lesions. Fisher and Lewis rat pups were cross-fostered at birth, and then at PD7 lesioned bilaterally in the VH with ibotenic acid. anova analysis of postpubertal amphetamine-induced locomotor data revealed a significant effect of the strain of the dams raising the pups but no effect of the strain of the pup. In addition, a post hoc analysis revealed that lesioned Fisher or Lewis rats raised by Fisher, but not those raised by Lewis, dams demonstrated amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion relative to nonlesioned controls. Observations of the maternal behaviour of Fischer and Lewis dams revealed significant differences in the frequency of arched-back nursing between the two strains. Interestingly, a correlation of the frequency of arched back nursing vs novelty- or amphetamine-induced locomotion revealed that the lesioned rats were significantly more affected by increases in arched-back nursing compared to the controls. The results suggest that the genetic background of the pups does not significantly affect the behavioural outcome following neonatal VH lesions; however, the results do suggest an important role of early environmental variables on the behavioural outcome of neonatal VH lesions. [source]

Disrupting basolateral amygdala function impairs unconditioned freezing and avoidance in rats

Almira Vazdarjanova
Abstract Lesions of the lateral/basolateral amygdala nuclei (BLC) disrupt freezing behaviour in response to explicit or contextual cues (conditioned stimuli , CS) paired previously with footshock (unconditioned stimulus). This deficit in expression of defensive behaviour in response to conditioned stimuli is often interpreted as inability of lesioned rats to learn CS,US associations. However, findings of several studies indicate that BLC-lesioned rats can rapidly learn CS,US associations. Such findings suggest that lesioned rats can learn CS,US associations but are impaired in the expression of freezing behaviour. In the present study we report that both temporary inactivation (lidocaine) and permanent excitotoxic (NMDA) lesions of the BLC impair the unconditioned freezing and avoidance behaviours of rats in response to a novel fear-eliciting stimulus, a ball of cat hair. These findings suggest that the BLC influences the expression of freezing and avoidance behaviours, and/or that it potentiates rats' experience of fear. Along with prior evidence of spared memory for aversive learning after BLC lesions, these findings suggest that disrupted freezing to conditioned cues in BLC-lesioned rats does not necessarily reflect inability to form CS,US associations. [source]

Modulation of histamine H3 receptors in the brain of 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats

Oleg V. Anichtchik
Abstract Parkinson's disease is a major neurological disorder that primarily affects the nigral dopaminergic cells. Nigral histamine innervation is altered in human postmortem Parkinson's disease brains. However, it is not known if the altered innervation is a consequence of dopamine deficiency. The aim of the present study was to investigate possible changes in the H3 receptor system in a well-characterized model of Parkinson's disease , the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesioned rats. Histamine immunohistochemistry showed a minor increase of the fibre density index but we did not find any robust increase of histaminergic innervation in the ipsilateral substantia nigra on the lesioned side. In situ hybridization showed equal histidine decarboxylase mRNA expression on both sides in the posterior hypothalamus. H3 receptors were labelled with N-alpha-[3H]-methyl histamine dihydrochloride ([3H] NAMH). Upregulation of binding to H3 receptors was found in the substantia nigra and ventral aspects of striatum on the ipsilateral side. An increase of GTP-,-[35S] binding after H3 agonist activation was found in the striatum and substantia nigra on the lesioned side. In situ hybridization of H3 receptor mRNA demonstrated region-specific mRNA expression and an increase of H3 receptor mRNA in ipsilateral striatum. Thus, the histaminergic system is involved in the pathological process after 6-OHDA lesion of the rat brain at least through H3 receptor. On the later stages of the neurotoxic damage, less H3 receptors became functionally active. Increased H3 receptor mRNA expression and binding may, for example, modulate GABAergic neuronal activity in dopamine-depleted striatum. [source]

NG2 proteoglycan-expressing cells of the adult rat brain: Possible involvement in the formation of glial scar astrocytes following stab wound

GLIA, Issue 3 2005
G. Alonso
Abstract Stab wound lesion to the adult central nervous system induces strong proliferative response that is followed by the formation of a dense astroglial scar. In order to determine the origin of those astrocytes composing the glial scar, the cell proliferation marker bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was administered to lesioned rats that were fixed 3 h or 6 days later. At 3 h after the BrdU administration, labeled nuclei were frequently associated with either NG2+ cells or microglia/macrophages, but rarely with astrocytes expressing glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Six days later, by contrast, numerous BrdU-labeled nuclei were associated with astrocytes located along the lesion borders. After the injection of a viral vector of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) into the lesional cavity, GFP was preferentially detected within NG2- or GFAP-labeled cells when lesioned animals were fixed 1 or 6 days after the injections, respectively. The combined detection of glial markers within cells present in the lesioned area indicated that, although they rarely express GFAP, the marker of mature astrocytes, NG2+ cells located along the lesion borders frequently express nestin and vimentin, i.e., two markers of immature astrocytes. Lastly, chronic treatment of lesioned rats with dexamethasone was found to inhibit the proliferation of NG2+ cells present within the lesioned area and to subsequently alter the formation of a dense astroglial scar. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that following a surgical lesion, at least a portion of the astrocytes that constitute the glial scar are issued from resident NG2+ cells. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Immunolesion of Hindbrain Catecholaminergic Projections to the Medial Hypothalamus Attenuates Penile Reflexive Erections and Alters Hypothalamic Peptide mRNA

G. S. Fraley
Abstract The central mechanisms underlying diabetes-associated impotence are currently unknown. This study utilized immunolesion techniques to eliminate hindbrain catecholaminergic projections to the medial hypothalamus which have been reported to be glucoresponsive. The immunolesioned male rats had an attenuated feeding response to glucoprivic challenge. Furthermore, these lesioned rats had significantly attenuated penile reflexes. Northern blot analyses of hypothalamic oxytocin mRNA expression showed a significant increase; however, neuropeptide Y mRNA expression did not. These results suggest that hindbrain catecholaminergic neurones may alter the expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides that stimulate penile erections based upon glucoregulatory signals from the periphery. [source]

Behavioral and electrophysiological effects of 5-HT in globus pallidus of 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rats

Shu-Jing Zhang
Abstract Anatomical studies have shown that the globus pallidus receives abundant 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) innervations from raphe nuclei. 5-HT may occupy an important position in the modulation of motor function through its affect on the activity of globus pallidus. In the present study, intrapallidal microinjection of 5-HT (0.1 mM) alone did not induce any motor behavior or postural asymmetry in the unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rats. However, when infused concomitantly with a low dose of 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA, 3 mg/kg i.p.), which itself can induce modest contralateral rotational behavior, 5-HT significantly potentiated the number of contralateral rotations. To elucidate the cellular mechanism, in vivo extracellular recordings were performed to examine the effects of 5-HT on globus pallidus neurons. In normal rats, the predominant effect of micropressure ejection of 5-HT on pallidal neurons was excitation. In 6-OHDA-lesioned rats, although 5-HT increased the firing rate in most pallidal neurons, 5-HT-induced inhibitory effects was stronger than that on the unlesioned side as well as normal rats. Furthermore, 5-HT1B receptors are mainly involved in 5-HT-induced excitation while 5-HT1A receptors are involved in 5-HT-induced inhibition. The results suggest that 5-HT may potentiate the antiparkinsonian effect of L-DOPA through modulating the activity of globus pallidus. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Downregulation of glial glutamate transporters after dopamine denervation in the striatum of 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats

E.K.Y. Chung
Abstract Overactivity of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the basal ganglia is known to be closely related to the onset and pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. Glutamate homeostasis around glutamatergic synapses is tightly regulated by two groups of glutamate transporters: glial glutamate transporters GLT1 (EAAT2) and GLAST (EAAT1), and neuronal glutamate transporter EAAC1. In order to investigate the changes of glutamate transporters after the onset of Parkinson's disease, unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat, an animal model of Parkinson's disease, was employed. By immunofluorescence and Western blot analyses, GLT1 and GLAST proteins were significantly reduced in the striatum with lesion. No change in GLT1 and GLAST protein was found in the substantia nigra. The reduction of GLT1 protein in the striatum was more prominent than that of GLAST protein (,40% vs. 20%). In addition, EAAC1 protein was found to be increased in the substantia nigra pars reticulata of the lesioned rats but not in the striatum. The present results indicate that reductions of GLT1 and GLAST may impair glutamate homeostasis around glutamatergic synapses in the striatum and contribute to over-spills of glutamate in the system. An increase in the EAAC1 level in the substantia nigra pars reticulata may increase GABA synthesis and enhance GABAergic neurotransmission. These results indicate that there are differential and distinct modulations of glutamate transporters after dopamine denervation in the 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat. J. Comp. Neurol. 511:421,437, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Cellular interactions between axon terminals containing endogenous opioid peptides or corticotropin-releasing factor in the rat locus coeruleus and surrounding dorsal pontine tegmentum

S.I. Tjoumakaris
Abstract Recent evidence suggests that certain stressors release both endogenous opioids and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) to modulate activity of the locus coeruleus (LC)-norepinephrine (NE) system. In ultrastructural studies, axon terminals containing methionine5 -enkephalin (ENK) or CRF have been shown to target LC dendrites. These findings suggested the hypothesis that both neuropeptides may coexist in common axon terminals that are positioned to have an impact on the LC. This possibility was examined by using immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopic analysis of the rat LC and neighboring dorsal pontine tegmentum. Ultrastructural analysis indicated that CRF- and ENK-containing axon terminals were abundant in similar portions of the neuropil and that approximately 16% of the axon terminals containing ENK were also immunoreactive for CRF. Dually labeled terminals were more frequently encountered in the "core" of the LC vs. its extranuclear dendritic zone, which included the medial parabrachial nucleus (mPB). Triple labeling for ENK, CRF, and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) showed convergence of opioid and CRF axon terminals with noradrenergic dendrites as well as evidence for inputs to TH-labeled dendrites from dually labeled opioid/CRF axon terminals. One potential source of ENK and CRF in the dorsal pons is the central nucleus of the amygdala (CNA). To determine the relative contribution of ENK and CRF terminals from the CNA, the CNA was electrolytically lesioned. Light-level densitometry revealed robust decreases in CRF immunoreactivity in the LC and mPB on the side ipsilateral to the lesion but little or no change in ENK immunoreactivity, confirming previous studies of the mPB. Degenerating terminals from the CNA in lesioned rats were found to be in direct contact with TH-labeled dendrites. Together, these data indicate that ENK and CRF may be colocalized to a subset of individual axon terminals in the LC "core." The finding that the CNA provides, to dendrites in the area examined, a robust CRF innervation, but little or no opioid innervation, suggests that ENK and CRF axon terminals impacting LC neurons originate from distinct sources and that terminals that colocalize ENK and CRF are not from the CNA. J. Comp. Neurol. 466:445,456, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

The CB1 Cannabinoid Receptor Agonist, HU-210, Reduces Levodopa-Induced Rotations in 6-Hydroxydopamine-Lesioned Rats

Yossi Gilgun-Sherki
However, several other neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, ,-amino-butyric acid and glutamate, are also related to the symptoms of Parkinson's disease patients and their response to levodopa treatment. The co-expression of cannabinoid and dopamine receptors in the basal ganglia suggests a potential role for endocannabinoids in the control of voluntary movement in Parkinson's disease. In the present study we treated unilaterally 2,4,5-trihydroxyphenethylamine (6-hydroxydopamine)-lesioned rats with the enantiomers of the synthetic cannabinoid 7-hydroxy-,6 -tetrahydrocannabinol 1,1-dimethylheptyl. Treatment with its (,), (3R, 4R) enantiomer (code-name HU-210), a potent cannabinoid receptor type 1 agonist, reduced the rotations induced by levodopa/carbidopa or apomorphine by 34% and 44%, respectively. In contrast, treatment with the (+), (3S, 4S) enantiomer (code-name HU-211), an N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist, as well as the psychotropically inactive cannabis constituent: cannabidiol and its primary metabolite, 7-hydroxy-cannabinol, did not show any reduction of rotational behavior. Our results indicate that activation of the CB1 stimulates the dopaminergic system ipsilaterally to the lesion, and may have implications in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. [source]