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A study of the extracorporeal rate of blood flow and blood pressure during hemodialysis

HEMODIALYSIS INTERNATIONAL, Issue 4 2007
Hariprasad S. TRIVEDI
Abstract Hemodynamic instability is a common problem during hemodialysis (HD). The effect of blood flow rate (BFR) on blood pressure (BP) during HD has not been previously evaluated. Subjects receiving HD for the treatment of renal failure were enrolled (n=34). For each patient, during the last hour of 2 consecutive HD sessions the BFR was set at 200 mL/min for 30 min and at 400 mL/min for 30 min, during which period the fluid removal rate was kept constant. The order of the BFR alterations was randomized. The study procedure was repeated during the next HD session but with reversal of the order of the altered BFR. During each 30-min period, BP was recorded at baseline and subsequently every 10 min. During the BFR of 400 mL/min, subjects had a higher systolic BP by an average of 4.1 mmHg compared with the BFR of 200 mL/min (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.22,7.98; p=0.038). Similarly, during the BFR of 400 mL/min, subjects had a higher diastolic BP by an average of 3.04 mmHg compared with the BFR of 200 mL/min (95% CI 0.55,5.53; p=0.017). Likewise, during the BFR of 400 mL/min, subjects had a higher mean arterial pressure by an average of 3.44 mmHg (95% CI 0.77,6.11; p=0.012). The findings suggest that during HD, BPs are maintained higher at higher BFRs as compared with lower BFRs. [source]


EFFECT OF THERMOPHILIC LACTIC ACID BACTERIA ON THE FATE OF ENTEROBACTER SAKAZAKII DURING PROCESSING AND STORAGE OF PLAIN YOGURT

JOURNAL OF FOOD SAFETY, Issue 2 2008
REYAD R. SHAKER
ABSTRACT Survival and growth of Enterobacter sakazakii during processing and storage of plain yogurt were investigated. Preheated rehydrated milk was inoculated with a cocktail culture of E. sakazakii (103 cfu/mL of milk) and/or with thermophilic yogurt starter culture of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus salivarius ssp. thermophilus. The inoculated milk was incubated at 40C for 5 h, then the samples were cooled and subsequently stored at 4C for up to 7 days. The results showed that E. sakazakii grew at an early stage of fermentation but declined at the end of the process. There was no significant difference between the populations of E. sakazakii in the presence or absence of lactic acid bacteria during the first 4 h of the incubation period but there was significant difference during the last hour of the incubation period. The populations of E. sakazakii decreased significantly during cooling and storage of yogurt (pH 4.2,4.7) compared with nonfermented milk samples at 4C. The presence of E. sakazakii did not have a significant effect on the growth of LAB during fermentation and storage of yogurt. The results obtained from this study indicate that the pH of yogurt and storage temperature were critical to the survival and growth of E. sakazakii in the manufacture of plain yogurt. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Enterobacter sakazakii prevalence in milk products and the production environment has been documented. The results obtained from this study may be of use to dairy producers to manufacture safe products using thermophilic lactic acid bacteria. These bacteria decreased the pH of milk in less than 5 h, resulting in E. sakazakii reduction. pH of yogurt during the fermentation process is a critical control point that should be monitored to produce safe products. [source]


Expiration day effects: The case of Hong Kong

THE JOURNAL OF FUTURES MARKETS, Issue 1 2003
Ying-Foon Chow
Regulators around the world often express concerns about the high volatility of stock markets due to index derivative expirations. Earlier studies of expiration day effects have found large volume effects, abnormal return volatility, and price effects during the last hour of trading on expiration days when the settlement is based on the closing price. This article examines the impact of the expiration of Hang Seng Index (HSI) derivatives on the underlying cash market in Hong Kong for the period from 1990 to 1999. The HSI derivative market is different from most other markets in the sense that the settlement price is computed by taking the average of 5-minute quotations of the HSI on the last trading day, thus providing an alternative setting for testing expiration day effects. Our empirical findings indicate that expiration days in Hong Kong may be associated with a negative price effect and some return volatility on the underlying stock market, but there is no evidence of abnormal trading volume on the expiration day, or price reversal after expiration. Thus, the existence of expiration day effects cannot be confirmed in the Hong Kong market. [JEL classification: G13; G14; G15]. 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Jrl Fut Mark 23:67,86, 2003 [source]


Captures of the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae on spheres of different colours

ENTOMOLOGIA EXPERIMENTALIS ET APPLICATA, Issue 2 2001
Byron I. Katsoyannos
Abstract Alighting and capture of wild olive fruit flies, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera, Tephritidae), on spheres of seven different colours was studied on Chios island, Greece. The 70-mm-diam plastic spheres, coated with adhesive, were suspended on olive trees. Yellow and orange spheres trapped the greatest number of males while red and black spheres trapped the greatest number of females. White and blue spheres were the least effective for both sexes. Peak captures occurred in the late afternoon and especially around sunset. Since mating takes place in the last hours of the photophase, the increased captures during that period may be related to the sexual behaviour of the fly. When red spheres were assessed against glass McPhail traps baited with 2% ammonium sulphate, which consist a standard tool for monitoring the olive fruit fly in Greece, there were no significant differences in male captures. However, spheres trapped almost three times as many females as McPhail traps. The possible mechanisms underlying colour discrimination, the motivation of alighting flies and the possible use of red spheres for monitoring and controlling B. oleae are discussed. [source]


New approach in flow-cytometric determination of endotoxin during endotoxic shock

BRITISH JOURNAL OF SURGERY (NOW INCLUDES EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SURGERY), Issue 7 2000
K.-H. Staubach
Background Serum endotoxin was formerly measured with the non-specific Limulus lysate assay. The present approach was to quantitate the amount of endotoxin bound by peripheral mononuclear cells in order to develop a method for the diagnosis of early septic shock. Methods Using a murine monoclonal antibody (WN1-222/5), which binds highly specifically to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a new method for measuring the amount of LPS bound to peripheral mononuclear cells was developed. Ten pigs were studied under sedation and peripheral mononuclear cells were taken every 4 h to determine the concentration of endotoxin by flow cytometry. The results are shown in the Table. Results Time after LPS infusion (h) 0 1 4 6 8 Marked cells (%) 32 61 75 72 85 The percentage of marked mononuclear cells increased during shock. Only in the last hours before death did the rate of increase decline. Conclusion Preliminary data on marked mononuclear cells showed that the amount of natural incorporated endotoxin, i.e. the quantity of bound endotoxin before infusion, was 32 per cent. 2000 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd [source]