Last Half (last + half)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Terms modified by Last Half

  • last half century

  • Selected Abstracts

    The Death of "Till Death Us Do Part": The Transformation of Pair-Bonding in the 20th Century,

    FAMILY PROCESS, Issue 2 2002
    William M. Pinsof Ph.D.
    During the last half of the 20th century within Western civilization, for the first time in human history, divorce replaced death as the most common endpoint of marriage. In this article I explore the history of this death-to-divorce transition, the forces associated with the transition, and what the transition may have revealed about the human capacity for monogamous, lifelong pair-bonding. The impact and consequences of the transition for the generations that came of age during it and immediately afterwards are examined, with particular attention to the emergence of new, alternative pair-bonding structures such as cohabitation and nonmarital co-parenting. The article highlights the inability of the dichotomous marriage-versus-being-single paradigm to encompass the new pair-bonding structures and the normalizing of divorce. Precepts for a new, more encompassing, veridical and humane pair-bonding paradigm are presented, and some of their implications for social policy, family law, social science, and couple and family therapy are elaborated. [source]

    Changes in age-associated neurodegenerative diseases in the last half century

    Asao Hirano
    Age-associated neurodegenerative diseases are a serious and growing problem for mankind, and their etiologies are still unknown. The author has been studying the neuropathology of fatal neurodegenerative diseases endemic to the native Chamorro population on Guam during the last half a century. During this time, remarkable advances in scientific technology, such as the application of electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry and molecular genetics, have contributed to numerous discoveries in classic neurological diseases. In addition, various new diseases have been recognized. This communication reviews Alzheimer's neurofibrillary tangles and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase positive Lewy body-like inclusions in the anterior horn cells, in order to elucidate these pathological findings as well as remarkable changes observed in certain other age-related neurodegenerative diseases. [source]

    Thucydides and Modern Realism

    This paper makes two main arguments about the relationship between Thucydides, modern realism, and the key conceptual ideas they introduce to situate and explain international politics. First, Thucydides refutes the central claim underlying modern realist scholarship, that the sources of state behavior can be located not in the character of the primary political units but in the decentralized system or structure created by their interaction. Second, however, analyses that discuss Thucydides exclusively with respect to this "third-image" realism do not take into account the most important emendation made to political realism in the last half of the twentieth century, Kenneth Waltz's Theory of International Politics. Waltz reformulates the theory of how anarchic political structures affect the behavior of their constituent units and suggests that the question posed by realism,and to be asked of Thucydides,is not whether states behave according to the Athenian thesis or consistently observe the power-political laws of nature, but whether they suffer "costs" in terms of political autonomy, security, and cultural integrity if they do not. Many scholars are therefore incorrect to assume that demonstrating the importance of non-structural factors in The Peloponnesian War severs the connection between Thucydides and structural realism. Thucydides may in fact be a realist, but not for reasons conventionally assumed. [source]

    Nuclear and chloroplast microsatellites reveal extreme population differentiation and limited gene flow in the Aegean endemic Brassica cretica (Brassicaceae)

    MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 23 2007
    Abstract Nuclear and chloroplast microsatellite markers were used to study population structure and gene flow among seven Cretan populations of the Aegean endemic plant species Brassica cretica (Brassicaceae). Both nuclear and chloroplast markers revealed exceptionally high levels of population differentiation (overall FST = 0.628 and 1.000, respectively) and relatively little within-population diversity (overall HS = 0.211 and 0.000, respectively). Maximum-likelihood estimates of directional migration rates were low among all pairs of populations (average Nm = 0.286). There was no evidence that differences in flower colour between populations had any influence on historical levels of gene flow. In addition, a haplotype network showed that all five chloroplast haplotypes found in the sample were closely related. Together, these results suggest that current patterns of diversification in B. cretica are mainly a result of genetic drift during the last half million years. The main conclusions from the present study are consistent with the prevailing hypothesis that plant diversification in the Aegean region is driven by random rather than adaptive differentiation among isolated populations. [source]

    Japan's Power Shift and Its DPRK Policy

    PACIFIC FOCUS, Issue 2 2010
    Yoshinori Kaseda
    Many serious issues exist between Japan and North Korea (DPRK), such as nuclear, missile, abduction, and colonial issues. Progress on their resolution has been limited. Consequently, the two countries have remained unfriendly neighbors. Their relations recently deteriorated as a result of the DPRK's satellite launch and its second nuclear test in the first half of 2009, and Japan's strong response to them. In the middle of this period of significant tension, in August 2009, the Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ) won a landslide victory in the lower house elections, ending the dominance of the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) over the last half a century. This political sea change in Japan has not resulted in major improvements in the Japan,DPRK relations. Yet, the DPJ's stance toward the DPRK's military threat and the Japan,US alliance is different from that of the LDP. So far, the DPJ has opted to avoid following in the LDP's footsteps of strengthening the alliance and expanding Japan's military operations in response to the DPRK's military threat. Instead, it intends to increase Japan's independence from the USA, and reduce US military presence in Japan. Given such intentions, the DPJ seems willing to improve Japan's relations with the DPRK. The question is whether its willingness will be translated into real actions to bring about major improvements. [source]

    Social contexts, syndemics, and infectious disease in northern Aboriginal populations,

    D. Ann Herring
    Until the last half of the 20th century, infectious diseases dominated the health profile of northern North American Aboriginal communities. Research on the 1918 influenza pandemic exemplifies some of the ways in which the social context of European contact and ensuing economic developments affected the nature of infectious disease ecology as well as the frequency and severity of the problem. To understand these impacts it is necessary to consider the web of interactions among multiple pathogens, the biology of the human host, and the social environment in which people lived. At the very least, an understanding of the history of the impact of infectious diseases on northern North American communities requires attention not only to potential interactions among cocirculating pathogens, but their links to key social, historical, and economic factors that exacerbated their adverse effects and contributed to excess mortality. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 19:190,202, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Atlantic air,sea interaction and seasonal predictability

    M. J. Rodwell
    Abstract We analyse patterns of North Atlantic air,sea interaction in observations and model output throughout the annual cycle with the dual aims of validating natural variability in climate models, and quantifying seasonal predictability of the atmosphere and of ocean surface temperatures. The Met Office's HadCM3 coupled ocean,atmosphere model is shown to represent well the atmospheric forcing of sea surface temperature (SST) in the North Atlantic region through the action of latent-heat fluxes. Winter ocean temperature anomalies in both observations and model appear to be preserved below the shallow summer mixed layer and to re-emerge in the following autumn. We find observational evidence from the last half of the twentieth century for SST forcing of the atmospheric circulation in the North Atlantic region. Results validate our atmospheric model (HadAM2b) and confirm the levels of potential predictability of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) that have been found in recent modelling studies. We suggest that the ultimate correlation skill of a winter NAO hindcast in this period is in the range 0.45 to 0.63. Analysis of observational and atmospheric model data from the first half of the twentieth century identifies very little predictability of the winter NAO. We suggest that the change in seasonal predictability is genuine and may be related to the strength of decadal oscillations. The ocean,atmosphere model, which incorporates a different atmospheric component (HadAM3), fails to show a causal link between North Atlantic temperatures and the atmospheric circulation even during periods where low-frequency variability is as strong as in the recent observations. A brief observational investigation suggests that any implied predictability of the winter NAO based on a knowledge of South Atlantic SSTs depends on the existence of secular trends in the data. Tropical Pacific SSTs appear to influence the winter climate of the North Atlantic region, but not via trends in the NAO. © Crown copyright, 2002. [source]

    Intraspecific changes in plant morphology, associated with grazing, and effects on litter quality, carbon and nutrient dynamics during decomposition

    AUSTRAL ECOLOGY, Issue 1 2006
    Abstract: Continuous biomass removal by grazing usually changes the resource allocation pattern of plants. These changes often increase resistance to tissue removal and produce individuals with different morphometric traits, such as root to shoot or blade to sheath ratios. Shifts in morphometric traits, in turn, may alter nutrient cycling through changes in the average quality of litter that decomposes in soil. Previous work has shown that Paspalum dilatatum, a native grass from the Pampas grasslands, which inhabits a vast area and supports a wide range of grazing conditions, increases its blade to sheath ratio under continuous grazing with respect to ungrazed conditions. Here, we explored the consequences of these changes apparently associated with grazing regime on litter quality and nutrient dynamics during litter breakdown in soil. We separately analysed litter quality of blades and sheaths of P. dilatatum and determined under controlled conditions their decomposition and nutrient release kinetics over a maximum period of 1 year. We also studied the mineral nitrogen contents in soil amended with each litter type. Blade quality was significantly higher than sheath quality, nitrogen concentrations of blades and sheaths were approximately 1% and 0.6%, respectively, and lignin to nitrogen ratios were approximately 5 and 11 for blades and sheaths, respectively. Phosphorus concentration, however, was similar in both litter types. Blades decomposed 10% faster than sheaths, released 20% more nitrogen and released 15% more phosphorus than sheaths during the last half of the incubation period. During the first 3 months, the soil nitrogen content of litter-amended incubations indicated immobilization with respect to non-amended control; however, later blade incubations mineralized nitrogen, whereas sheath incubations continued immobilizing it. Results revealed that grazing potentially accelerates nutrient cycling during decomposition by increasing the blade to sheath ratio of P. dilatatum individuals, and suggest that this may be an important mechanism underlying grazing impact on nutrient cycling. [source]

    Immediate outcome of twin,twin transfusion syndrome following selective laser photocoagulation of communicating vessels at the NSW Fetal Therapy Centre

    Objective:, To audit the outcome for laser photocoagulation for twin,twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) as managed by the New South Wales Fetal Therapy Centre (NSW FTC). Methods: A retrospective cohort study. Outcome data were reviewed for referrals between June 2003 and June 2008. The outcome measures included the severity of TTTS at presentation, delivery details (gestational age at delivery, birth weight and Apgar score at 5 min) and perinatal outcome (spontaneous miscarriage, premature rupture of membranes, intrauterine death, placental abruption and neonatal death). Results: Seventy-nine patients were treated with laser therapy for stage I,IV TTTS (median stage III). Median gestational age at treatment was 20 weeks (range 16,25). Median gestational age at delivery was 32 weeks (range 24,40). Survival of at least one baby in this study was 90.7% (88.9% for anterior and 92.1% for posterior placenta), and of both babies was 60.0%. Median birth weight was 1788 g (range 490,3695). Median Apgar score was nine at 5 min. Three women required repeat laser treatment for persistent TTTS. Conclusions: Selective laser photocoagulation of communicating vessels remains the treatment of choice for TTTS. Referrals to the NSW FTC have increased from five cases in the last half of 2003, to 18 cases in the first half of 2008. Local outcome figures at least equal any in the published international literature and support a continued policy of centralised care in Australia. A two-year follow-up study on neonatal outcome for survivors is underway. [source]

    The Development of Symbol-Infused Joint Engagement

    CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 4 2004
    Lauren B. Adamson
    Fifty-six children were observed longitudinally from 18 to 30 months of age interacting with their mothers during a Communication Play that contained 8 scenes designed to encourage interacting, requesting, commenting, and narrating. Of primary concern was how often symbols infused the child's states of engagement with people and objects and how experience in such symbol-infused states related to language acquisition. Findings indicate that symbols increasingly infuse joint engagement, and that both the timing and the trajectory vary widely among typically developing toddlers, especially during the last half of the 2nd year. Moreover, variations in amount of symbol-infused supported joint engagement may both be influenced by variations in the onset of language and contribute to differences in language facility at 30 months. [source]