Last 30 Days (last 30 + days)

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Selected Abstracts

Illicit tranquilliser use and dependence among female opiate users

Abstract This study determined the predictors of 12-month dependence on illicit tranquillisers among female opiate users attending three services in Glasgow, Scotland, UK. Twelve-month drug dependence was measured using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. The Revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R) measured current neurotic symptoms. 60% (159/266) had used illicit tranquillisers in the past 30 days, and 50% (132/266) met criteria for 12-month dependence on illicit tranquillisers. Polydrug use, injecting drug use, childhood and adulthood abuse, adverse life experiences and current and previous mental health problems were associated with 12-month dependence on illicit tranquillisers. Using multiple logistic regression, polydrug use in last 30 days (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.5,7.0), history of deliberate self-harm (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.4-4.4), history of injecting drug use (OR 2.5, 1.2,5.2) and likely to need treatment for current neurotic symptoms (CIS-R , 18) (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.3,4.4) predicted 12-month dependence on illicit tranquillisers. Drug users in general and female drug users in particular who are using illicit tranquillisers are also particularly likely to have psychiatric symptoms requiring treatment. Mental health problems should be assessed and monitored among this client group and counselling and psychosocial support should be provided when indicated. [source]

Flashblood: blood sharing among female injecting drug users in Tanzania

ADDICTION, Issue 6 2010
Sheryl A. McCurdy
ABSTRACT Aims This study examined the association between the blood-sharing practice of ,flashblood' use and demographic factors, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status and variables associated with risky sex and drug behaviors among female injecting drug users. Flashblood is a syringe-full of blood passed from someone who has just injected heroin to someone else who injects it in lieu of heroin. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Participants One hundred and sixty-nine female injecting drug users (IDUs) were recruited using purposive sampling for hard-to-reach populations. Measurements The association between flashblood use, demographic and personal characteristics and risky sex and drug use variables was analyzed by t -test and ,2 test. The association between flashblood use and residential neighborhood was mapped. Findings Flashblood users were more likely to: be married (P = 0.05), have lived in the current housing situation for a shorter time (P < 0.000), have been forced as a child to have sex by a family member (P = 0.007), inject heroin more in the last 30 days (P = 0.005), smoke marijuana at an earlier age (P = 0.04), use contaminated rinse-water (P < 0.03), pool money for drugs (P < 0.03) and share drugs (P = 0.000). Non-flashblood users were more likely to live with their parents (P = 0.003). Neighborhood flashblood use was highest near downtown and in the next two adjoining suburbs and lowest in the most distant suburbs. Conclusions These data indicate that more vulnerable women who are heavy users and living in shorter-term housing are injecting flashblood. The practice of flashblood appears to be spreading from the inner city to the suburbs. [source]

Geographical clustering of eating disordered behaviors in U.S. high school students,,

Valerie L. Forman-Hoffman PhD
Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to determine if eating disorder behaviors geographically clustered among U.S high school students. Method: Our sample consisted of 15,349 high school students who responded to the 1999 Youth Risk Behavior Study (YRBS). Weight control and eating disordered behaviors under investigation included dieting, exercising, fasting, using diet pills, and purging to control weight in the last 30 days. We calculated pairwise odds ratios (PWORs) to determine the degree of within-county clustering. Results: Among all participants, adjusted analyses revealed that having any weight control or eating disorder symptom, severe restricting, dieting, exercising, and diet pill use each showed significant clustering (p < .05). Purging did not significantly cluster by county. The magnitude of clustering was stronger for female students than male students. Conclusion: The significant clustering of weight control and eating disorder behavior in U.S. high school students confirms evidence of a social contagion effect of eating disorders. © 2007 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2008 [source]

Environmental and Varietal Influences on the Fatty Acid Composition of Rapeseed, Soybeans and Sunflowers

M. Werteker
Abstract The fatty acid (FA) composition of oil crops is of some importance under technological as well as under nutritional aspects. The influence of temperature on this parameter in rapeseed, soybeans and sunflowers was investigated under practical agricultural conditions, whereby varietal variations were taken into account. The analysed plant material originated from variety testing trials located in different climatic zones of Austria. As a measure of the climatic conditions of a location, the mean temperature of the last 30 days before harvest was calculated. Despite the low temperature differences between the various locations, moderate but significant negative correlations between temperature and the share of linolenic (18 : 3), respectively, linoleic (18 : 2) acid on the whole quantity of FAs in rapeseed (R˛ = 0.18,0.42), soybeans (R˛ = 0.11,0.13) and sunflowers (R˛ = 0.15) were found. Furthermore, there was a good negative correlation in the case of sunflower seeds between temperature and oil level (R˛ = 0.45). The environmental influence on the share of polyunsaturated FAs differed between the different species. The results show that quality of vegetable oils is as well a question of environment as of variety. [source]

Antioxidant effect of 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy benzoic acid on ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

Nadana Saravanan
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is one of the most common diseases in society. A large number of studies are in progress to identify natural substances that are effective in reducing the severity of ALD. 2-Hydroxy-4-methoxy benzoic acid (HMBA), the active principle of Hemidesmus indicus, an indigenous Ayurvedic medicinal plant in India, is expected to significantly inhibit the development of liver injury in ethanol administration. It is expected to reduce the severity of liver damage in terms of body weight, hepatic marker enzymes, oxidative stress, antioxidant status and histological changes in ethanol-induced hepatotoxic rats. Hepatotoxicity was induced by administering 20% ethanol (5 g kg,1 daily) for 60 days to male Wistar rats, which resulted in significantly decreased body weight and an increase in liver-body weight ratio. The liver marker enzymes aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, ,-glutamyl transpeptidase and lactate dehydrogenase were elevated. In addition, the levels of plasma, erythrocyte and hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, hydroperoxides and conjugated dienes were also elevated in ethanol-fed rats as compared with those of the experimental control rats. Decreased activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione, vitamin C and ,-tocopherol was also observed on alcohol administration as compared with experimental control rats. HMBA was co-administered at a dose of 200 ,gkg,1 daily for the last 30 days of the experiment to rats with alcohol-induced liver injury, which significantly increased body weight, significantly decreased the liver-body weight ratio, transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, ,-glutamyl transpeptidase and lactate dehydrogenase, significantly decreased the levels of lipid peroxidative markers, significantly elevated the activity of enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants in plasma, erythrocytes and liver and also increased levels of plasma and liver vitamin C and ,-tocopherol at the end of the experimental period as compared with untreated ethanol-administered rats. The histological changes were also in correlation with the biochemical findings. The results suggest that HMBA administration may afford protection against ethanol-induced liver injury in rats. [source]

Characterizing and Reaching High-Risk Drinkers Using Audience Segmentation

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 8 2009
Howard B. Moss
Background:, Market or audience segmentation is widely used in social marketing efforts to help planners identify segments of a population to target for tailored program interventions. Market-based segments are typically defined by behaviors, attitudes, knowledge, opinions, or lifestyles. They are more helpful to health communication and marketing planning than epidemiologically defined groups because market-based segments are similar in respect to how they behave or might react to marketing and communication efforts. However, market segmentation has rarely been used in alcohol research. As an illustration of its utility, we employed commercial data that describes the sociodemographic characteristics of high-risk drinkers as an audience segment, including where they tend to live, lifestyles, interests, consumer behaviors, alcohol consumption behaviors, other health-related behaviors, and cultural values. Such information can be extremely valuable in targeting and planning public health campaigns, targeted mailings, prevention interventions, and research efforts. Methods:, We described the results of a segmentation analysis of those individuals who self-reported to consume 5 or more drinks per drinking episode at least twice in the last 30 days. The study used the proprietary PRIZMÔ (Claritas, Inc., San Diego, CA) audience segmentation database merged with the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) database. The top 10 of the 66 PRIZMÔ audience segments for this risky drinking pattern are described. For five of these segments we provided additional in-depth details about consumer behavior and the estimates of the market areas where these risky drinkers resided. Results:, The top 10 audience segments (PRIZM clusters) most likely to engage in high-risk drinking are described. The cluster with the highest concentration of binge-drinking behavior is referred to as the "Cyber Millenials." This cluster is characterized as "the nation's tech-savvy singles and couples living in fashionable neighborhoods on the urban fringe." Almost 65% of Cyber Millenials households are found in the Pacific and Middle Atlantic regions of the United States. Additional consumer behaviors of the Cyber Millenials and other segments are also described. Conclusions:, Audience segmentation can assist in identifying and describing target audience segments, as well as identifying places where segments congregate on- or offline. This information can be helpful for recruiting subjects for alcohol prevention research as well as planning health promotion campaigns. Through commercial data about high-risk drinkers as "consumers," planners can develop interventions that have heightened salience in terms of opportunities, perceptions, and motivations, and have better media channel identification. [source]

Effect of Extended-Release Naltrexone (XR-NTX) on Quality of Life in Alcohol-Dependent Patients

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 2 2009
Helen M. Pettinati
Background:, Extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) is a once-a-month injectable formulation for the treatment of alcohol dependence previously shown to reduce drinking and heavy drinking relative to placebo (Garbutt et al., 2005). A 24-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study established the efficacy and safety of XR-NTX in this patient population. In this report, the effect of XR-NTX on quality of life (QOL) was examined. Methods:, Alcohol-dependent patients were randomly assigned to receive XR-NTX 380 mg (N = 205), XR-NTX 190 mg (N = 210), or placebo (N = 209), combined with a standardized psychosocial intervention. QOL was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item short-form health survey, administered at baseline and at 4-week intervals during 24 weeks of treatment. Results:, Compared with U.S. population norms, patients showed initial impairment in the health-related QOL domains of mental health, social functioning, and problems with work or other daily activities due to emotional problems. Adherence to all 6 injections was 65% for XR-NTX 190 mg, 63% for XR-NTX 380 mg, and 64% for placebo. Generalized estimating equations analyses using an intention-to-treat sample revealed that XR-NTX 380 mg was associated with significantly greater improvements from baseline in mental health (p = 0.0496), social functioning (p = 0.010), general health (p = 0.048), and physical functioning (p = 0.028), compared with placebo. Linear regression analyses revealed that reductions from baseline in drinking (percentage of drinking days and percentage of heavy drinking days in the last 30 days) were significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with improvements in quality of life. Conclusion:, Extended-release naltrexone 380 mg in combination with psychosocial intervention was associated with improvements in QOL, specifically in the domains of mental health, social functioning, general health, and physical functioning. [source]

Health and risk behaviors in survivors of childhood acute myeloid leukemia: A report from the Children's Oncology Group,

Kris Ann P. Schultz MD
Abstract Background Survivors of childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) face increased risks of chronic disease and secondary malignancies. Substance exposure may compound these risks. Procedures Participants were diagnosed with AML at <21 years of age and survived ,5 years following diagnosis. All underwent chemotherapy alone or followed by autologous BMT (chemo,±,autoBMT) or underwent allogeneic BMT (alloBMT) if an HLA-matched related donor was available. Survivors completed a health questionnaire and a Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). Results Of eligible survivors, 117 were ,18 years of age and completed a YRBS. Survivors were a mean age of 10 years at diagnosis and 24 years at interview. Of the substance exposures assessed by YRBS, tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana were most common. Twenty-two percent (22%) had smoked cigarettes in the last 30 days. One-quarter (25%) reported binge drinking in the last month. None of these exposures varied by treatment group. Less than 10% of survivors reported cocaine, heroin, or methamphetamine use. Men were more likely to report high substance exposure (P,=,0.004). Sadness/suicidality score was associated with cancer-related anxiety (P,=,0.006) and multiple health conditions (P,=,0.006). Conclusions This analysis reveals exposure to tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana in young adults with few differences based on treatment received. Survivors with cancer-related anxiety or multiple health conditions were more likely to report sadness/hopelessness. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2010;55:157,164. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Growth and digestive enzymes of Macrobrachium rosenbergii juveniles: effect of different stocktypes and dietary protein levels under a similar culture environment

Vidya Sagar
Abstract A feeding trial was conducted to study the effect of dietary protein (DP) levels on the growth and digestive enzyme activities of different wild stocks of Macrobrachium rosenbergii juveniles. Wild juveniles of M. rosenbergii were collected from the west coast of India, Gujarat (G), Maharashtra (M) and from the east coast of India, Andhra Pradesh (A), and raised in culture ponds of 200 m2 at 1 juvenile m,2. All the animals were tagged individually with Elastomer tags of a particular colour assigned to their respective stock and acclimatized for 7 days before being released into the pond at a ratio of 70:65:65 (A:M:G). Each of the two feeds, the first with 27% DP, termed the suboptimum level (S), and the second 32% DP, termed the optimum level (O), was fed in duplicate ponds at 6% of the body mass for the first 30 days and 4% for the last 30 days. The average weight of stocked prawn, respectively, in O DP and S DP fed ponds was 0.90 ± 0.04 and 1.06 ± 0.08 g for the G stock, 0.80 ± 0.07 and 1.01 ± 0.1 g for the M stock and 3.06 ± 0.13 and 3.10 ± 0.23 g for the A stock. Both the protein level and the stock type had a significant (P<0.05) effect on the weight gain% of the prawn. There was an approximate 95% change in weight gain with a DP change. Similarly, G and M stocks exhibited significantly higher (P<0.05) growth rates of approximately 90% than the A stock, although no difference was noted between the G and the M stocks. However, for protein × stock (interaction) levels, there was no significant difference (P>0.05) among the groups. Although insignificant, the survival rates among the different stocks varied from 56% to 77%. Optimum protein level showed a significant increase (P<0.05) in the specific growth rate (SGR). Feed conversion ratio, feed efficiency ratio, protein efficiency ratio and net protein utilization were not affected either due to DP, stock type or their interaction. The O × A group exhibited the maximum variation in body weight. Digestive enzyme activities were similar in all the groups, but enzymes for phospho-monoesterase were significantly higher (P<0.05) at O DP. Both the G and the M stock showed a significantly higher (P<0.05) alkaline phosphatase activity while acid phosphatase activity was significantly higher (P<0.05) in the M stock only. Overall, the G and M stocks showed higher growth responses compared with the A stock. [source]

Parental divorce and adolescent cigarette smoking and alcohol use: assessing the importance of family conflict

Alfgeir Logi Kristjansson
Abstract Aim: To investigate how family conflict contributes to the relationship between parental divorce and adolescent cigarette smoking and alcohol use. Design: Population-based cross-sectional survey. Setting: School classrooms in Iceland in which an anonymous questionnaire was administered to respondents by supervising teachers. Participants were 7430 (81.4%) of 9124 14- to 16-year-old adolescents. Main outcome measure: Cigarette smoking and alcohol use during the last 30 days were assessed by self-report. Results: Parental divorce was related to adolescent cigarette smoking during the last 30 days (OR = 2.12, 95% CI 1.84,2.44) when controlling for gender only, but was insignificant (OR = 1.18 95%, CI 0.99,1.44) when controlling for relationship with parents, disruptive social changes and family conflict. There was a significant relationship between parental divorce and adolescent alcohol use during last 30 days (OR = 1.66, 95% CI 1.48,1.87), controlling only for gender; however, the relationship disappeared (OR = 1.04, 95% CI 0.91,1.20) when controlling for other variables. Conclusion: Family conflicts are important contributors to the relationship between parental divorce and adolescent cigarette smoking and alcohol use. Conflict between parents and adolescents, but not inter-parental conflict, appears to be the most important factor in the relationship between family conflict and adolescent substance use. [source]