Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Laparoscopy

  • conventional laparoscopy
  • diagnostic laparoscopy
  • gynaecological laparoscopy
  • operative laparoscopy
  • staging laparoscopy

  • Selected Abstracts


    ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 5 2006
    Charles H. C. Pilgrim
    Although much has been written about the role of laparoscopy in the acute setting for victims of blunt and penetrating trauma, little has been published on delayed laparoscopy relating specifically to complications of conservative management of liver trauma. There has been a shift towards managing liver trauma conservatively, with haemodynamic instability being the key indication for emergency laparotomy, rather than computed tomography findings. However, as a side-effect of more liver injuries being treated non-operatively, bile leak from a disrupted biliary tree presenting later in admission has appeared as a new problem to manage. We describe in this article three cases that have been managed by laparoscopy and drainage alone, outlining the advantages of this technique and defining a new role for delayed laparoscopy in blunt liver trauma. [source]

    Laparoscopic findings in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    Shuichi Seki
    Background:, Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is prevalent worldwide, but little attention has been paid to the gross visual appearance of NASH. The present study was performed to address the laparoscopic features of NASH and the relationship between laparoscopic and histologicalal findings. Methods:, Eleven patients were examined by laparoscopy with liver biopsy. Histological findings were examined according to the criteria of Brunt et al. with minor modification. Mallory bodies were immunohistochemically detected by an antibody to ubiquitin in addition to hematoxylin eosin staining. Results:, Laparoscopic features of NASH were swelling of the liver, formation of many depressions, and dull edges of the liver. When steatosis was present in more than one-third of lobules, yellowish markings appeared on the liver surface. NASH progressed from a smooth liver surface with or without yellowish markings, to formation of depressions on the liver surface, to cirrhosis with or without hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Conclusion:, Laparoscopy may provide useful information in the diagnosis and progression of NASH. [source]

    Laparoscopic findings of liver cirrhosis due to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    Teruki Miyake
    A 42-year-old Japanese man was admitted to our hospital for investigation of abnormal liver function tests. He had no history of drug use, and drank little alcohol. Body mass index was 30. Serum was negative for viral markers and autoantibodies. Laparoscopy revealed diffuse small nodules on the liver surface. Liver biopsy revealed small nodules with pericellular fibrosis and macrovesicular fat deposition throughout the acini. Some inflammatory changes were observed. Liver cirrhosis due to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) was diagnosed. NASH displays similar histological and laparoscopic characteristics to alcoholic liver diseases. [source]

    Laparoscopy in horses with abdominal pain

    J. P. Walmsley
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Long-term survival with stage IV poorly differentiated pancreatic adenocarcinoma

    HPB, Issue 2 2004
    BF Levy
    Background Metastatic poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of the pancreas has a poor outcome despite the use of various chemotherapy regimes. Case outline A 57-year-old woman presented with a 3-month history of generalised abdominal pain associated with weight loss. Computed tomography (CT) showed a large tumour in the head and body of pancreas, and needle biopsy confirmed a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Laparoscopy revealed liver metastases in both lobes, again histologically shown to be poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Six cycles of cisplatin, epirubicin and infusional 5-fluorouracil were given. Five years later the patient remains completely well. Repeat CT scans show a complete radiological response. Discussion Previous studies using numerous chemotherapy regimes have not significantly altered the outcome of pancreatic cancer. To the best of our knowledge this is the longest surviving case of a patient with advanced metastatic adenocarcinoma (stage IV) of the pancreas treated with chemotherapy. [source]

    Laparoscopy: a tool for the diagnosis and treatment of omental torsion

    A. Siddika
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Intra-abdominal testis with loop-like epididymis and intra-canalicular vas and vessels

    Abstract A case of intra-abdominal testis with loop-like epididymis and intra-canalicular vas and vessels is presented. A 3-year-old male with left impalpable testis since birth was admitted to our department. Physical examination and ultrasonography were inconclusive. Laparoscopy revealed a small left abdominal testis with surrounding adhesions close to the left-obliterated umbilical artery. The vas deferens and spermatic vessels were entering into the internal inguinal ring. The processus vaginalis was patent. At inguinal exploration the testis was atrophic and the epididymis was loop-like, joining the vas deferens in the inguinal canal. The spermatic vessels continued to the atrophic testis in a loop-like manner. The testis, epididymis and the vas deferens were removed. Histopathological examination of the testis revealed Sertoli cells only. If inguinal exploration had been performed without laparoscopy, the presence of the vas deferens and spermatic vessels in the inguinal canal with the absence of the testis could have been misdiagnosed as vanishing testis. Abdominal testis would thus have been missed, with increased risk of complications, particularly malignancy. [source]

    Primary omental ectopic pregnancy

    Wai Chung Wong
    Abstract Omental ectopic pregnancy is a rare form of ectopic pregnancy. Presented here is a case primary omental ectopic pregnancy according to Studdiford's criteria. This patient presented with epigastric pain and anemia without vaginal bleeding, lower abdominal or pelvic pain. Pregnancy status was confirmed after admission. Transvaginal ultrasound examination revealed intrauterine contraceptive device in situ and a large amount of free peritoneal fluid, but no intrauterine sac or adnexal mass. Laparoscopy was performed but pelvic pathology did not account for the 2500 mL of haemoperitoneum. Laparotomy was carried out and partial omentectomy was performed. [source]

    Combined diagnostic approach of laparoscopy and hysteroscopy in the evaluation of female infertility: Results of 612 patients

    Tarek A. Shokeir
    Abstract Aim:, To clarify the role of a combined diagnostic approach using laparoscopy and hysteroscopy in the evaluation of female infertility in developing countries. Methods:, In a prospective study, 612 consecutive infertile women underwent complete fertility evaluation at a tertiary university infertility clinic: 300 complained of primary infertility, 221 of secondary infertility, and 91 were requesting reversal of a previous tubal ligation. All the patients were examined by simultaneous combined laparoscopy and hysteroscopy as a part of their routine infertility evaluation. Focused hysteroscopic evaluation of the region of utero-tubal junction was attempted. Results:, Laparoscopy was successful in 608 and hysteroscopy in 597 patients. The most frequent pathologies detected hysteroscopically in the infertile group were adhesive in nature and believed to be post-traumatic and/or post-phlogistic. The number of intrauterine abnormalities found by hysteroscopy was significantly greater than by hysterosalpingography. The rate of diagnosis of significant lesions by laparoscopy of 64.3% rose to 76.6% when the hysteroscopic findings were included. A significant number of women with secondary infertility had abnormal hysteroscopic findings when compared to either women with primary infertility or those requesting sterilization reversal. Hysteroscopic evaluation of the region of utero-tubal junction revealed significant lesions believed to have caused infertility in comparison with those requesting sterilization reversal. Conclusion:, The combined diagnostic approach of laparoscopy and hysteroscopy is recommended in the evaluation of female infertility in communities where the risk of pelvic infections is great. [source]

    Laparoscopic Diagnosis of Pancreatic Disease in Dogs and Cats

    C.B. Webb
    Background: Histopathology is the gold standard for the diagnosis of pancreatic disease. Laparoscopy offers a minimally invasive route by which to obtain pancreatic biopsies. Hypothesis: Laparoscopy is a safe and effective technique for evaluating the pancreas in small animal patients. Animals: Medical records of 18 dogs and 13 cats examined between 1999 and 2007 that underwent laparoscopy during which observation or biopsy of the pancreas was recorded. Methods: The database for the Laparoscopy Laboratory at Colorado State University was searched for records that contained "pancreatitis,""pancreas," or "pancreatic." The presenting complaints, imaging studies, and histopathologic findings of animals were recorded. All hospital admissions were searched for animals with the same presenting complaints and of those it was determined which animals had exploratory surgery and their pancreas biopsied. Results: Thirteen cats and 18 dogs underwent laparoscopy for presumptive pancreatic disease or had the appearance of the pancreas described, pancreatic biopsies obtained, or both. In 14 animals a laparoscopic biopsy of the pancreas resulted in a histopathologic diagnosis when the sonographic findings or the gross assessment failed to do so. In 35% of the animals a biopsy of the pancreas was not obtained despite findings consistent with pancreatic disease. Those animals examined for vomiting or anorexia were significantly more likely to have a biopsy of the pancreas obtained through laparoscopy versus surgery (P < .0001). Conclusions and Clinical Importance: Laparoscopy and pancreatic biopsy is useful for evaluation of pancreatic disease. [source]

    Technical Aspects of Laparoscopic Ovarian Autograft in Ewes After Cryopreservation by Slow-Cooling Protocol

    J Massardier
    Contents Iatrogenic ovarian failure and infertility are long term-term side effects of anticancerous gonadotoxic treatments in children or women of reproductive year. Ovarian cortex cryopreservation can be a solution to preserve immature germinal cells before gonadotoxic treatment, for later transplantation. The aim of our study was to prove the efficiency of a laparoscopic technique for orthotopic graft after a slow-freezing/thawing protocol, and to evaluate the effect of ovarian cryopreservation and autograft on the primordial follicle survival rate. Experimental surgical study was performed on 6- to 12-month-old ewes. The study was approved by the ethic committee of the Lyon-veterinary-school. The left ovary was removed by laparoscopy and cut in half, and medulla was excised. In group 1 (n = 6), autograft was performed immediately on the right ovary, and in group 2 (n = 6), graft was performed after a slow-freezing/thawing protocol. The second hemi-ovary served as an ungrafted control fragment. A polypropylene/polyglactin mesh was included between graft and base to separate the two structures, to help histological analysis. The mean graft performance time was 71 ± 8 min in the first group and 57 ± 10 min in the second. Freezing did not affect the number of primordial follicles. In the ungraft control fragments, the global anomaly rate (cytoplasm plus nuclear anomaly) increased after freezing (p < 0.05). Others results did not reach signification. Pelvic adhesion occurred only once. The post-graft primordial follicle survival rate was 5.1 ± 2.8% in the non-frozen group vs. 6.3 ± 2.3% after freezing/thawing. Kruskal,Wallis and Wilkoxon non-parametric tests were used for statistical analysis. Laparoscopy seems to be a well-adapted technique for ovarian tissue orthotopic autograft. The main follicle loss occurs before graft revascularization. Our orthotopic graft's procedure has to be improved to obtain a better graft's neovascularization, and to have a better long-term post-graft primordial follicle survival rate. [source]

    Hepatopulmonary syndrome associated with autoimmune liver cirrhosis

    RESPIROLOGY, Issue 2 2001
    Nobukazu Takada
    A 46-year-old woman presented for evaluation of liver dysfunction and dyspnoea. Laboratory examination showed high levels of ,-globulin, immunoglobulin (Ig)G, and antinuclear antibodies. Laparoscopy demonstrated hepatic cirrhosis. Despite normal spirometry, hypoxaemia (which was worse in standing position) and a low diffusing capacity were present. The shunt ratio calculated using arterial blood gas was 6.4%, but was 40% when measured using 99mTc-macroaggregated albumin scanning. The discrepancy between the ratios indicated that hypoxaemia was caused by intrapulmonary vascular dilatation. The patient was diagnosed with hepatopulmonary syndrome associated with autoimmune liver cirrhosis. [source]

    Laparoscopic management of primary hepatic pregnancy

    Pui-See CHIN
    A 30-year-old woman presented with epigastric pain with elevated serum human chorionic gonadotropin level (hCG), absence of intrauterine gestational sac and absence of an abnormal adnexal mass on pelvic ultrasonography. Laparoscopy revealed a ruptured hepatic ectopic pregnancy. This was removed by laparoscopic suctioning and haemostasis secured with Surgicel® FribrillaÔ Absorbable Hemostat. Intramuscular methotrexate was administered post-operatively. Patient recovered uneventfully and serum hCG returned to normal. [source]

    Laparoscopy in the treatment of ovarian tumours of low malignant potential

    Andreas OBERMAIR
    Abstract Laparoscopy is increasingly used by gynaecologists for the investigation of adnexal masses. Uncertainty exists whether ovarian tumours of low malignant potential can effectively be treated by laparoscopy, whether staging bears a benefit for all patients, whether port-site metastases are a problem and how long patients need to be followed up after surgery. This review summarises the evidence to address these important questions. [source]

    Laparoscopy in paediatric urology: present status

    BJU INTERNATIONAL, Issue 1 2007
    Marc C. Smaldone
    The spectrum of laparoscopic surgery in children has developed dramatically; what was initially used as a diagnostic method to identify an impalpable testis is now commonly used for complex reconstructive procedures such as pyeloplasty. Laparoscopic orchidopexy and nephrectomy are well established and are used at many centres. Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy, adrenalectomy and dismembered pyeloplasty series have reported shorter hospital stays and operative times that are comparable with that of open techniques, and/or decreasing with experience. The initial experiences with laparoscopic ureteric re-implantation and laparoscopically assisted bladder reconstructive surgery are reported, with encouraging results for feasibility, hospital stay, and cosmetic outcome. [source]

    Laparoscopy for impalpable testes

    BJU INTERNATIONAL, Issue 5 2005
    Kalpna K. Patil
    First page of article [source]

    Laparoscopy in urology: indications and training

    BJU INTERNATIONAL, Issue 3 2002
    S.A. McNeill
    First page of article [source]

    Influence of laparoscopy on postoperative recurrence and survival in patients with ruptured hepatocellular carcinoma undergoing hepatic resection

    B. H. H. Lang
    Background: Use of laparoscopy in patients with gastrointestinal cancer has been associated with port-site and peritoneal tumour metastases. The effect of laparoscopy on tumour recurrence and long-term survival in patients undergoing resection of ruptured hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unknown. Methods: Between June 1994 and December 2001, 59 patients with ruptured HCC underwent surgical exploration with a view to hepatic resection. Laparoscopy with laparoscopic ultrasonography was performed in 33 patients; the other 26 patients underwent exploratory laparotomy without laparoscopy. Perioperative and long-term outcomes were compared between the two groups. Results: Exploratory laparotomy was avoided in 12 of 13 patients with irresectable HCC who had a laparoscopy. The hospital stay of these 12 patients was significantly shorter than that of eight patients found to have irresectable HCC at exploratory laparotomy (median 11 versus 15 days; P = 0·043). Twenty patients had a laparoscopy followed by open resection of HCC, whereas 18 patients underwent laparotomy and resection without laparoscopy. There were no significant differences in disease-free (16 versus 19 per cent; P = 0·525) and overall (32 versus 48 per cent; P = 0·176) survival at 3 years between the two groups. The tumour recurrence pattern was similar between the two groups, and there were no port-site or wound metastases. Conclusion: Use of diagnostic laparoscopy in patients with ruptured HCC helps avoid unnecessary exploratory laparotomy. The present data suggest that laparoscopy does not have an adverse effect on tumour recurrence or survival in patients who undergo resection. Copyright © 2004 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Role of relaparoscopy in the management of minor bile leakage after laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    V. L. Wills
    Background: Bile leakage in the absence of major ductal injury may occur from the liver bed or from the cystic duct remnant after cholecystectomy. The early limitations of minimally invasive surgery led to reliance on endoscopic methods to manage this complication. However, repeat laparoscopy permits drainage of the bile collection and direct control of the site of leakage in selected situations. Methods: Details of 15 patients with bile leakage after laparoscopic cholecystectomy were recorded prospectively and are reviewed. Results: Postoperative bile leakage occurred after 15 (0·8 per cent) of 1779 laparoscopic chole-cystectomies. Two patients with bile in drainage fluid had spontaneous resolution. Ten patients with a subvesical duct leak had repeat laparoscopy. The leak was successfully controlled by suturing in eight patients, and by a laparoscopically placed drain in two. One patient required a subsequent laparotomy for a loculated pelvic collection. Three patients had cystic duct stump leakage. This was managed successfully by laparoscopy in one case but required endoscopic management in two. Conclusion: Laparoscopy is useful in the management of minor bile leaks after laparoscopic chole-cystectomy. Selection of appropriate patients relies on a characteristic clinical presentation after an otherwise uncomplicated cholecystectomy. © 2000 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd [source]

    Laparoscopy in the management of closed loop sigmoid volvulus

    COLORECTAL DISEASE, Issue 4 2008
    T. Cartwright-Terry
    Abstract Objective, To investigate the feasibility and surgical outcome of elective laparoscopic surgery for acute closed loop sigmoid volvulus. Method, A prospectively electronic database of colorectal laparoscopic procedures identified nine consecutive patients with sigmoid volvulus managed by colonoscopic decompression followed by same admission laparoscopic recto-sigmoidectomy. Results, Between January 2001 and February 2007, nine patients, ASA I (one), II (four), III (four) with sigmoid volvulus were treated: seven were women. Their age distribution was 37,87 years (median 64). The volvulus was the first episode in one patient, the second episode for four and the third (or more) for the remainder. The median operation time was 115 min (45,145). No anastomosis was de-functioned. Postoperative analgesia was parenteral paracetamol (eight) supplemented by 10 mg oral morphine in one case; a ninth patient received patient controlled parenteral morphine for 36 h. Complications included: ileus (one), myocardial infarct (one) and wound infection (one). There was one death on day 32 from a brainstem infarct. Seven had an uncomplicated recovery. The median postoperative stay was 4 days (2,32). Conclusion, Laparoscopic recto-sigmoidectomy postcolonoscopic decompression is a good option for patients with sigmoid volvulus. Surgical complications are minimal and recovery is quick. [source]

    Laparoscopic findings in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    Shuichi Seki
    Background:, Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is prevalent worldwide, but little attention has been paid to the gross visual appearance of NASH. The present study was performed to address the laparoscopic features of NASH and the relationship between laparoscopic and histologicalal findings. Methods:, Eleven patients were examined by laparoscopy with liver biopsy. Histological findings were examined according to the criteria of Brunt et al. with minor modification. Mallory bodies were immunohistochemically detected by an antibody to ubiquitin in addition to hematoxylin eosin staining. Results:, Laparoscopic features of NASH were swelling of the liver, formation of many depressions, and dull edges of the liver. When steatosis was present in more than one-third of lobules, yellowish markings appeared on the liver surface. NASH progressed from a smooth liver surface with or without yellowish markings, to formation of depressions on the liver surface, to cirrhosis with or without hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Conclusion:, Laparoscopy may provide useful information in the diagnosis and progression of NASH. [source]

    Role of laparoscopy and thoracoscopy in the treatment of esophageal adenocarcinoma*

    B. K. Oelschlager

    Epiphrenic diverticula: minimal invasive approach and repair in five patients

    D. L. Van Der Peet
    Epiphrenic esophageal diverticula are rare and often asymptomatic. If surgery is mandatory, a thoracotomy is used to resect the diverticulum. The results of a minimal invasive approach and repair in five patients are presented. These patients, who all presented with an epiphrenic diverticulum, were evaluated using barium swallow study, esophagoscopy, and manometry. The diverticula were approached by thoracoscopy in all patients and a description of the surgical technique is given. The diverticula were resected using a right-sided approach in four patients. One patient with a diverticulum in the distal esophagus required conversion to laparoscopy. A myotomy was performed in two patients because of high pressures in the lower esophageal sphincter. The postoperative course was uncomplicated in four patients. One patient with Ehlers,Danlos disease had a complicated course owing to leakage, resulting in two re-operations by means of thoracotomy. There was no mortality. The minimal invasive approach of epiphrenic diverticula is feasible. The long-term results are awaited. [source]

    Cardiopulmonary, blood and peritoneal fluid alterations associated with abdominal insufflation of carbon dioxide in standing horses

    Summary Reasons for performing study: Abdominal insufflation is performed routinely during laparoscopy in horses to improve visualisation and facilitate instrument and visceral manipulations during surgery. It has been shown that high-pressure pneumoperitoneum with carbon dioxide (CO2) has deleterious cardiopulmonary effects in dorsally recumbent, mechanically ventilated, halothane-anaesthetised horses. There is no information on the effects of CO2 pneumoperitoneum on cardiopulmonary function and haematology, plasma chemistry and peritoneal fluid (PF) variables in standing sedated horses during laparoscopic surgery. Objectives: To determine the effects of high pressure CO2 pneumoperitoneum in standing sedated horses on cardiopulmonary function, blood gas, haematology, plasma chemistry and PF variables. Methods: Six healthy, mature horses were sedated with an i.v. bolus of detomidine (0.02 mg/kg bwt) and butorphanol (0.02 mg/kg bwt) and instrumented to determine the changes in cardiopulmonary function, haematology, serum chemistry and PF values during and after pneumoperitoneum with CO2 to 15 mmHg pressure for standing laparoscopy. Each horse was assigned at random to either a standing left flank exploratory laparoscopy (LFL) with CO2 pneumoperitoneum or sham procedure (SLFL) without insufflation, and instrumented for measurement of cardiopulmonary variables. Each horse underwent a second procedure in crossover fashion one month later so that all 6 horses had both an LFL and SLFL performed. Cardiopulmonary variables and blood gas analyses were obtained 5 mins after sedation and every 15 mins during 60 mins baseline (BL), insufflation (15 mmHg) and desufflation. Haematology, serum chemistry analysis and PF analysis were performed at BL, insufflation and desufflation, and 24 h after the conclusion of each procedure. Results: Significant decreases in heart rate, cardiac output and cardiac index and significant increases in mean right atrial pressure, systemic vascular resistance and pulmonary vascular resistance were recorded immediately after and during sedation in both groups of horses. Pneumoperitoneum with CO2 at 15 mmHg had no significant effect on cardiopulmonary function during surgery. There were no significant differences in blood gas, haematology or plasma chemistry values within or between groups at any time interval during the study. There was a significant increase in the PF total nucleated cell count 24 h following LFL compared to baseline values for LFL or SLFL at 24 h. There were no differences in PF protein concentrations within or between groups at any time interval. Conclusions: Pneumoperitoneum with CO2 during standing laparoscopy in healthy horses does not cause adverse alterations in cardiopulmonary, haematology or plasma chemistry variables, but does induce a mild inflammatory response within the peritoneal cavity. Potential relevance: High pressure (15 mmHg) pneumoperitoneum in standing sedated mature horses for laparoscopic surgery can be performed safely without any short-term or cumulative adverse effects on haemodynamic or cardiopulmonary function. [source]

    Open versus laparoscopic resection for liver tumours

    HPB, Issue 6 2009
    Thomas Van Gulik
    Abstract Background:, The issue under debate is whether laparoscopic liver resections for malignant tumours produce outcomes which are comparable with conventional, open liver resections. Methods:, Literature review on liver resection and laparoscopy. Results:, There are no randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published that provide any evidence for the benefits of laparoscopic liver resections for liver tumours. In case,control series reporting short-term outcomes, laparoscopic liver resection has been shown to have the advantage of a reduced length of hospital stay. There are as yet, however, no adequate long-term survival studies demonstrating that laparoscopic liver resection is oncologically equivalent to open resection. Discussion:, The challenge for the near future is to test the oncological integrity of laparoscopic liver resection in controlled trials in the same way that we have learned from the RCTs carried out in laparoscopic resection for colorectal cancer. It is likely that laparoscopic liver resection will then have to compete with fast-track, open liver resection. Already, concerns have been raised regarding the learning curve required to master the techniques of laparoscopic liver resection. [source]

    Hilar cholangiocarcinoma: diagnosis and staging

    HPB, Issue 4 2005
    William Jarnagin
    Cancer arising from the proximal biliary tree, or hilar cholangiocarcinoma, remains a difficult clinical problem. Significant experience with these uncommon tumors has been limited to a small number of centers, which has greatly hindered progress. Complete resection of hilar cholangiocarcinoma is the most effective and only potentially curative therapy, and it now clear that concomitant hepatic resection is required in most cases. Simply stated, long-term survival is generally possible only with an en bloc resection of the liver with the extrahepatic biliary apparatus, leaving behind a well perfused liver remnant with adequate biliary-enteric drainage. Preoperative imaging studies should aim to assess this possibility and must evaluate a number of tumor-related factors that influence resectability. Advances in imaging technology have improved patient selection, but a large proportion of patients are found to have unresectable disease only at the time of exploration. Staging laparoscopy and 13fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) may help to identify some patients with advanced disease; however, local tumor extent, an equally critical determinant of resectability, may be underestimated on preoperative studies. This paper reviews issues pertaining to diagnosis and preoperative evaluation of patients with hilar biliary obstruction. Knowledge of the imaging features of hilar tumors, particularly as they pertain to resectability, is of obvious importance for clinicians managing these patients. [source]

    Preoperative optimization of the liver for resection in patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma

    HPB, Issue 4 2005
    Jacques Belghiti
    Optimal preoperative preparation is required to reduce operative risk of major hepatectomy in jaundiced patients. The role of percutaneous preoperative biliary drainage (PTBD) is, apart from assessment of intraductal extent of the tumour, to allow contralateral hypertrophy if portal vein embolization (PVE) is performed. The increased use of PTBD over a 10-year period was associated with increased resectability rate in this study, while PTBD-related complications decreased. Efficient hypertrophy of the future liver remnant (FLR) requires biliary drainage to reduce the risk of postoperative liver dysfunction. Preoperative staging laparoscopy avoided unnecessary surgical exploration in 20% of patients previously considered resectable. [source]

    Preoperative staging and evaluation of resectability in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    HPB, Issue 1 2004
    R Andersson
    Background Cancer of the pancreas is a common disease, but the large majority of patients have tumours that are irresectable at the time of diagnosis. Moreover, patients whose tumours are clearly beyond surgical cure are best treated non-operatively, if possible, by relief of biliary obstruction and percutaneous biopsy to confirm the diagnosis and then consideration of oncological treatment, notably chemotherapy. These facts underline the importance of a standard protocol for the preoperative determination of operability (is it worth operating?) and resectability (is there a chance that the tumour can be removed?). Recent years have seen the advent of many new techniques, both radiological and endoscopic, for the diagnosis and staging of pancreatic cancer. It would be impracticable in time and cost to submit every patient to every test. This review will evaluate the available techniques and offer a possible algorithm for use in routine clinical practice. Discussion In deciding whether to operate with a view to resecting a pancreatic cancer, the surgeon must take into account factors related to the patient, the tumour and the institution and team entrusted with the patient's care. Patient-related factors include age, general health, pain and the presence or absence of malnutrition and an acute phase inflammatory response. Tumour-related factors include tumour size and evidence of spread, whether to adjacent organs (notably major blood vessels) or further afield. Hospital-related factors chiefly concern the volume of pancreatic cancer treated and thus the experience of the whole team. Determination of resectability is heavily dependent upon detailed imaging. Nowadays conventional ultrasonography can be supplemented by endoscopic, laparoscopic and intra-operative techniques. Computed tomography (CT) remains the single most useful staging modality, but MRI continues to improve. PET scanning may demonstrate unsuspected metastases and likewise laparoscopy. Diagnostic cholangiography can be performed more easily by MR techniques than by endoscopy, but ERCP is still valuable for preoperative biliary decompression in appropriate patients. The role of angiography has declined. Percutaneous biopsy and peritoneal cytology are not usually required in patients with an apparently resectable tumour. The prognostic value of tumour marker levels and bone marrow biopsy is yet to be established. Preoperative chemotherapy or chemoradiation may have a role in down-staging an irresectable tumour sufficiently to render it resectable. Selective use of diagnostic laparoscopy staging is potentially helpful in determination of resectability. Laparotomy remains the definitive method for determining the resectability of pancreatic cancer, with or without portal vein resection, and should be undertaken in suitable patients without clear-cut evidence of irresectability. [source]

    Computer-based endoscopic image-processing technology for endourology and laparoscopic surgery

    Tatsuo Igarashi
    Abstract Endourology and laparoscopic surgery are evolving in accordance with developments in instrumentation and progress in surgical technique. Recent advances in computer and image-processing technology have enabled novel images to be created from conventional endoscopic and laparoscopic video images. Such technology harbors the potential to advance endourology and laparoscopic surgery by adding new value and function to the endoscope. The panoramic and three-dimensional images created by computer processing are two outstanding features that can address the shortcomings of conventional endoscopy and laparoscopy, such as narrow field of view, lack of depth cue, and discontinuous information. The wide panoramic images show an anatomical ,map' of the abdominal cavity and hollow organs with high brightness and resolution, as the images are collected from video images taken in a close-up manner. To assist in laparoscopic surgery, especially in suturing, a three-dimensional movie can be obtained by enhancing movement parallax using a conventional monocular laparoscope. In tubular organs such as the prostatic urethra, reconstruction of three-dimensional structure can be achieved, implying the possibility of a liquid dynamic model for assessing local urethral resistance in urination. Computer-based processing of endoscopic images will establish new tools for endourology and laparoscopic surgery in the near future. [source]

    How to use laparoscopic surgical instruments safely

    Eiji Higashihara
    The development of laparoscopic surgery has been accompanied by a rapid increase in the number of laparoscopic surgical procedures carried out in the field of urology. In 2002 laparoscopic nephrectomy was approved for coverage under Japanese national health insurance, and in 2003 there were over 1000 registered cases in which this procedure was carried out. This suggests that laparoscopic nephrectomy, a procedure formerly conducted at only a few institutions, is now spreading to hospitals across Japan. Laparoscopic surgery involves the use of specialized instruments within a restricted field of vision, and risky surgical techniques can potentially result in visceral or vascular damage. In order to promote the use of safe laparoscopic surgery procedures, the Japanese Urological Association and the Japanese Society of Endourology and Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) have inaugurated a certification program for urologic laparoscopy. This program not only encourages development in this field of surgery and provides technical certification to ensure appropriate levels of expertise, but also reviews methods for the correct use of instruments such as trocars and hemostats. The purpose of this video is to present correct methods for the use of a variety of laparoscopic instruments, in order to increase the safety of this procedure. The video has been designed to be useful not only for practitioners who are just beginning laparoscopy, but also for those who already have extensive laparoscopic experience. The video discusses five laparoscopic instruments (trocar, electric surgical devices, ultrasonic surgery devices, clips and clip appliers and endo-staplers), and demonstrates their correct use. In addition, animal models are used to illustrate the potential complications that can be associated with some methods of use. [source]