Latin America (latin + america)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Humanities and Social Sciences

Selected Abstracts


Hypercrowding out occurs when fiscally dominated governments' domestic credit demands are so intrusive to a nation's financial system that a move toward fiscal surplus lowers interest rates and increases growth. We sample nine Latin American countries to test for these relationships. The impulse-response results of vector error correction models, six nations test positive for these two connections, suggesting market concern despite recent efforts toward fiscal balance. (JEL E430, E620, O230, O540) [source]


Intermediation spreads in Latin America are high by international standards. This paper examines the determinants of bank interest margins in that region using bank- and country-level data from 85 countries, including 14 Latin American economies. The results suggest that Latin America has higher interest rates, less efficient banks, and larger reserve requirements than other regions and that these factors have a significant impact on spreads. However, Latin American countries do not differ markedly from their peers in other aspects that are found important in determining the cost of financial intermediation, such as inflation and bank profit taxation. (JEL E43, E44, G21, O54) [source]


First page of article [source]


This paper analyses the mechanisms of, and draws lessons from, currency crises in Asian and Latin American countries in the 1990s and 2000s. In Asian countries fiscal deficits were insignificant in size, and were not part of a crisis trigger, while in Latin America they played a major role in the crisis story. Crisis management by international financial institutions has been evolving over the last 10 years, and private-sector involvement (PSI) has occupied centre-stage in efforts to reform the international financial architecture. Sovereign debts, a focus of PSI discussions, were neither a cause nor a propagation of the Asian crises. [source]

Availability of Formal Academic Programs in Conservation Biology in Latin America

Martín Mendez
First page of article [source]


ABSTRACT A subcategory of medical tourism, reproductive tourism has been the subject of much public and policy debate in recent years. Specific concerns include: the exploitation of individuals and communities, access to needed health care services, fair allocation of limited resources, and the quality and safety of services provided by private clinics. To date, the focus of attention has been on the thriving medical and reproductive tourism sectors in Asia and Eastern Europe; there has been much less consideration given to more recent ,players' in Latin America, notably fertility clinics in Chile, Brazil, Mexico and Argentina. In this paper, we examine the context-specific ethical and policy implications of private Argentinean fertility clinics that market reproductive services via the internet. Whether or not one agrees that reproductive services should be made available as consumer goods, the fact is that they are provided as such by private clinics around the world. We argue that basic national regulatory mechanisms are required in countries such as Argentina that are marketing fertility services to local and international publics. Specifically, regular oversight of all fertility clinics is essential to ensure that consumer information is accurate and that marketed services are safe and effective. It is in the best interests of consumers, health professionals and policy makers that the reproductive tourism industry adopts safe and responsible medical practices. [source]

Access to Essential Drugs: Latin America, South Africa, Kenya

Article first published online: 28 JUN 200

Reflections on Latin American Rural Studies in the Neoliberal Globalization Period: A New Rurality?

Cristóbal Kay
ABSTRACT This article explores the emergence over the last decade of a new approach to rural development studies in Latin America known as the ,new rurality'. The various interpretations and ambiguities of this approach as well as the ensuing debates are discussed. Analysis focuses on four major transformations in the rural economy and society which are usually highlighted by the ,new ruralists'. These changes are interpreted as arising from the region's neoliberal shift and its closer insertion into the global system. A novel distinction is made between reformist and communitarian proposals for a new rurality. The merits as well as the limitations of this new approach to rural studies are examined. [source]

New Developments in Latin America's Social Policy

Armando Barrientos
ABSTRACT This article introduces a special section focusing on the social policy reforms of recent years in Latin America. The essay identifies and discusses the principal trends and challenges in social policy in the region since the 1980s, before providing a summary of the special section and linking up the themes of the four contributions that follow. These highlight the variety of approaches adopted, as well as the differing assessments of recent developments. The authors note that while the reform process itself is unfolding, it is striking that social policy has become a highly visible and contested issue in the region. [source]

The ,Neoliberal Turn' and the New Social Policy in Latin America: How Neoliberal, How New?

Maxine Molyneux
ABSTRACT The term neoliberal is widely used as shorthand to describe the policy environment of the last three decades. Yet the experience of the Latin American region suggests that it is too broad a descriptor for what is in fact a sequenced, fragmented and politically indeterminate process. This article examines the evolution of social protection in the region, and argues for a more grounded, historical approach to neoliberalism, and for some analytic refinement to capture the different ,moments' in its policy evolution, its variant regional modalities, and its co-existence with earlier policies and institutional forms. It suggests that totalizing conceptions of neoliberalism as imposing an inexorable market logic with predetermined social and political outcomes fail to capture the variant modalities, adaptations and indeed resistance to the global diffusion of the structural reforms. This article outlines the systems of social welfare prevailing in Latin America prior to the reforms, and then examines the principle elements of what has been termed the ,New Social Policy' in Latin America, engaging three issues: the periodization of neoliberalism; the role of the state; and the place of politics in the neoliberal reform agenda. [source]

On the Spatial Dynamics of Democratic Politics: Analysing the Bolivian Case

David Slater
After an initial discussion of the ,diverse spaces of democracy', which sets out the main points of the author's approach to democratic politics, this article considers three perspectives on the relations between governmental decentralization and territorial democracy in Latin America. These two interrelated sections provide a thematic and conceptual background to a more specific treatment of the development and dynamics of decentralization in the Bolivian case. In examining the decentralization process in Bolivia, the article highlights the two spatial modes of this process , the regional and the local , and includes an appraisal of the relation between both modes and the nature of democratic politics. [source]

Democratization and State Feminism: Gender Politics in Africa and Latin America

Ihejirika, Philomina E. Okeke
This article addresses the link between state feminism and democratization in the global South. The authors use the contrasting cases of Chile and Nigeria to show some of the factors that encourage women to exploit the opportunities presented by transitions to democracy, and link the outcome of state feminism to the strategies and discourses available to women during democratization. Based on evidence from the cases analysed, the authors propose that the strategic options available to women are shaped by at least three factors: (1) the existence of a unified women's movement capable of making political demands; (2) existing patterns of gender relations, which influence women's access to arenas of political influence and power; and (3) the content of existing gender ideologies, and whether women can creatively deploy them to further their own interests. State feminism emerged in Chile out of the demands of a broad,based women's movement in a context of democratic transition that provided feminists with access to political institutions. In Nigeria, attempts at creating state feminism have consistently failed due to a political transition from military to civilian rule that has not provided feminists with access to political arenas of influence, and the absence of a powerful women's movement. [source]

The Rise of China: Implications for Latin American Development

Eva Paus
This article analyses the implications of the rapid economic rise of China for the development prospects of Latin America. Based on an analysis of the changing trade relations between China and 15 Latin American countries over the period 2000,6, it argues that these relations have significantly exacerbated the subcontinent's dilemma of being caught in the middle-income trap. At the same time, some of the key drivers behind China's economic success point to a possible solution, first and foremost the lessons provided by its proactive development strategy which has focused on developing domestic technological capabilities and diversifying the productive structure with a move up the value chain. [source]

The Experience of Conditional Cash Transfers in Latin America and the Caribbean

Sudhanshu Handa
This article discusses the experience of six conditional cash transfer programmes in Latin America, a model of social safety-nets which has grown to dominate the social protection sector in the region during the past decade. While they have been generally successful in terms of achieving their core objective, it is still not clear whether these programmes constitute the most cost-efficient or sustainable solution to the development bottleneck they seek to address. Furthermore, the almost exclusive focus on the human capital accumulation of children leads to missed opportunties in terms of impact on household welfare and the broader rural development context. [source]

Reducing Child Poverty with Cash Transfers: A Sure Thing?

Armando Barrientos
Children are disproportionately represented among the income-poor, many suffer from severe deprivation, and their poverty and vulnerability have cumulative and long-term consequences. This article provides a comparative examination of the poverty-reduction effectiveness of cash transfer programmes targeting children, focusing on three types of such programmes: the Child Support Grant in South Africa, family allowances in transition countries, and targeted conditional cash transfer programmes in Latin America and the Caribbean. It finds that, despite differences in design, cash transfer programmes targeting children in poor households are an effective way of reducing poverty. [source]

Can Latin America Protect the Elderly with Non-Contributory Programmes?

The Case of Uruguay
Coverage of contributory pension programmes has been quite disappointing in Latin America in the aftermath of the reforms. The question thus arises as to whether non-contributory programmes could fill the gap. Uruguay is atypical in this region in that the proportion of the elderly receiving contributory pensions is high, and the incidence of poverty among the aged population is lower than among any other age group. But several observers fear that this situation could deteriorate in the future, because the conditions for accessing the pensions have been significantly tightened in the past decade. This article assesses several options for reforming the existing non-contributory pension programme, and estimates their fiscal cost. [source]

The Nutrition Transition in the Developing World

Barry M. Popkin
This article explores shifts in nutrition transition from the period termed the receding famine pattern to one dominated by nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases (NR-NCDs). It examines the speed of these changes, summarises dietary and physical activity changes, and provides some sense of the health effects and economic costs. The focus is on the lower- and middle-income countries of Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Latin America. The article shows that changes are occurring at great speed and at earlier stages of countries' economic and social development. The burden of disease from NR-NCDs is shifting towards the poor and the costs are also becoming greater than those for under-nutrition. Policy options are identified. [source]

The Rapid Rise of Supermarkets in Latin America: Challenges and Opportunities for Development

Thomas Reardon
First page of article [source]

Retiring the Puppets, Bringing Latin America Back In: Recent Scholarship on United States,Latin American Relations

Max Paul Friedman
First page of article [source]

Revealing the socioeconomic impact of small disasters in Colombia using the DesInventar database

DISASTERS, Issue 2 2010
Mabel C. Marulanda
Small disasters are usually the product of climate variability and climate change. Analysis of them illustrates that they increase difficulties for local development,frequently affecting the livelihoods of poor people and perpetuating their level of poverty and human insecurity,and entail challenges for a country's development. In contrast to extreme events, small disasters are often invisible at the national level and their effects are not considered as relevant from a macroeconomic standpoint. Nevertheless, their accumulated impact causes economic, environmental and social problems. This paper presents the results of an evaluation of the DesInventar database, developed in 1994 by the Network for Social Studies in Disaster Prevention in Latin America. In addition, it proposes a new version of the Local Disaster Index developed in 2005 within the framework of the Disaster Risk and Management Indicators Program for the Americas, with the support of the Inter-American Development Bank. [source]

Alcohol: No Ordinary Commodity , a summary of the second edition

ADDICTION, Issue 5 2010
Alcohol, Public Policy Group
ABSTRACT This article summarizes the contents of Alcohol: No Ordinary Commodity (2nd edn). The first part of the book describes why alcohol is not an ordinary commodity, and reviews epidemiological data that establish alcohol as a major contributor to the global burden of disease, disability and death in high-, middle- and low-income countries. This section also documents how international beer and spirits production has been consolidated recently by a small number of global corporations that are expanding their operations in Eastern Europe, Asia, Africa and Latin America. In the second part of the book, the scientific evidence for strategies and interventions that can prevent or minimize alcohol-related harm is reviewed critically in seven key areas: pricing and taxation, regulating the physical availability of alcohol, modifying the drinking context, drink-driving countermeasures, restrictions on marketing, education and persuasion strategies, and treatment and early intervention services. Finally, the book addresses the policy-making process at the local, national and international levels and provides ratings of the effectiveness of strategies and interventions from a public health perspective. Overall, the strongest, most cost-effective strategies include taxation that increases prices, restrictions on the physical availability of alcohol, drink-driving countermeasures, brief interventions with at risk drinkers and treatment of drinkers with alcohol dependence. [source]


Intermediation spreads in Latin America are high by international standards. This paper examines the determinants of bank interest margins in that region using bank- and country-level data from 85 countries, including 14 Latin American economies. The results suggest that Latin America has higher interest rates, less efficient banks, and larger reserve requirements than other regions and that these factors have a significant impact on spreads. However, Latin American countries do not differ markedly from their peers in other aspects that are found important in determining the cost of financial intermediation, such as inflation and bank profit taxation. (JEL E43, E44, G21, O54) [source]

Faecal shedding and serological cross-sectional study of Lawsonia intracellularis in horses in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

C. V. Guimarães-Ladeira
Summary Reason for performing the study: Proliferative enteropathy, caused by the intracellular bacterium Lawsonia intracellularis, has been described in horses in Australia, the USA, Canada and European countries but has not been reported in Latin America. The prevalence of the disease in horses worldwide is unknown. Objective: To evaluate the presence of subclinical L. intracellularis infection in horses in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Methods: A longitudinal study using serology and PCR for detecting antibodies (IgG) and shedding of L. intracellularis in faecal samples, respectively, was conducted using a total of 223 horses from 14 different horse farms in Minas Gerais, and from the Veterinary School of UFMG equine herds in Minas Gerais. The immunoperoxidase technique in glass slides was used as the serological test. Results: Twenty-one horse sera had immunoglobulin G titres of 1:60 and were considered positive. The PCR technique in faeces for L. intracellularis DNA identified 7 horses as faecal shedders. Horses shedding the organism appeared healthy, indicating that subclinical infection of L. intracellularis occurred in the horses. Conclusion: Seropositivity and detection of faecal shedding of L. intracellularis indicates the presence of the agent in the equine population in Minas Gerais. Potential relevance: Results of this study should alert clinicians in countries where proliferative enteropthy in horses has not been reported to consider this disease as a possible cause of enteric disease. [source]

Bad Neighbor Policy: Washington's Futile War on Drugs in Latin America

ADDICTION, Issue 1 2004
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Tolerance to non-opioid analgesics in PAG involves unresponsiveness of medullary pain-modulating neurons in male rats

Victor Tortorici
Abstract Opiate analgesia can be hampered by a reduction in pharmacological effectiveness (tolerance), and this crucially depends on the periaqueductal gray matter (PAG). Non-opioids like metamizol (dipyrone) or aspirin also induce PAG-dependent analgesia and tolerance, but the neuronal bases of this tolerance are unknown. Metamizol is a pyrazolon derivative and cyclooxygenase inhibitor with widespread use as an analgesic in Europe and Latin America. Metamizol was microinjected into the PAG of awake male rats, and antinociception was assessed by the tail flick (TF) and hot plate (HP) tests. Microinjection twice daily for 2.5 days caused tolerance to metamizol. The rats were then anesthetized and recordings from pain-facilitating on-cells and pain-inhibiting off-cells of the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) were performed. PAG microinjection of morphine or metamizol depresses on-cells, activates off-cells and thus inhibits nociception, including TF and HP. In metamizol-tolerant rats, however, PAG microinjection of metamizol failed to affect on- or off-cells, and this is interpreted as the reason for tolerance. In metamizol-tolerant rats morphine microinjection into PAG also failed to affect RVM neurons or nociception (cross-tolerance). In naïve, non-tolerant rats the antinociceptive effect of PAG-microinjected metamizol or morphine was blocked when CTOP, a ,-opioid antagonist, was previously microinjected into the same PAG site. These results emphasize a close relationship between opioid and non-opioid analgesic mechanisms in the PAG and show that, like morphine, tolerance to metamizol involves a failure of on- and off-cells to, respectively, disfacilitate and inhibit nociception. Cross-tolerance between non-opioid and opioid analgesics should be important in the clinical setting. [source]

Detection of a homotetrameric structure and protein,protein interactions of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis formamidase lead to new functional insights

Clayton Luiz Borges
Abstract Paracoccidioides brasiliensis causes paracoccidioidomycosis, a systemic mycosis in Latin America. Formamidases hydrolyze formamide, putatively plays a role in fungal nitrogen metabolism. An abundant 45-kDa protein was identified as the P. brasiliensis formamidase. In this study, recombinant formamidase was overexpressed in bacteria and a polyclonal antibody to this protein was produced. We identified a 180-kDa protein species reactive to the antibody produced in mice against the P. brasiliensis recombinant purified formamidase of 45 kDa. The 180-kDa purified protein yielded a heat-denatured species of 45 kDa. Both protein species of 180 and 45 kDa were identified as formamidase by peptide mass fingerprinting using MS. The identical mass spectra generated by the 180 and the 45-kDa protein species indicated that the fungal formamidase is most likely homotetrameric in its native conformation. Furthermore, the purified formamidase migrated as a protein of 191 kDa in native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, thus revealing that the enzyme forms a homotetrameric structure in its native state. This enzyme is present in the fungus cytoplasm and the cell wall. Use of a yeast two-hybrid system revealed cell wall membrane proteins, in addition to cytosolic proteins interacting with formamidase. These data provide new insights into formamidase structure as well as potential roles for formamidase and its interaction partners in nitrogen metabolism. [source]

Characterization and functional analysis of the ,-1,3-glucanosyltransferase 3 of the human pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

Nadya Da Silva Castro
Abstract The fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis causes paracoccidioidomycosis, a systemic granulomatous mycosis prevalent in Latin America. In an effort to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in fungus cell wall assembly and morphogenesis, ,-1,3-glucanosyltransferase 3 (PbGel3p) is presented here. PbGel3p presented functional similarity to the glucan-elongating/glycophospholipid-anchored surface/pH-regulated /essential for pseudohyphal development protein families, which are involved in fungal cell wall biosynthesis and morphogenesis. The full-length cDNA and gene were obtained. Southern blot and in silico analysis suggested that there is one copy of the gene in P. brasiliensis. The recombinant PbGel3p was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and a polyclonal antibody was obtained. The PbGEL3 mRNA, as well as the protein, was detected at the highest level in the mycelium phase. The protein was immunolocalized at the surface in both the mycelium and the yeast phases. We addressed the potential role of PbGel3p in cell wall biosynthesis and morphogenesis by assessing its ability to rescue the phenotype of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae gas1, mutant. The results indicated that PbGel3p is a cell wall-associated protein that probably works as a ,-1,3-glucan elongase capable of mediating fungal cell wall integrity. [source]

Informal Work in Latin America: Competing Perspectives and Recent Debates

James J. Biles
During the ,lost decade' of the 1980s, informal work and self-employment emerged as the most prevalent forms of work throughout Latin America. In response to the economic crisis, the majority of Latin American countries adopted a series of sweeping neoliberal reforms designed to open nations to trade and investment, promote export-led growth, and generate employment, ultimately reducing the incidence of informal work. Despite the widespread adherence to the neoliberal model and implementation of structural adjustment reforms during the past quarter century, informal work has not diminished and in much of Latin America the odds of finding ,decent work' are no better today than during the economic crisis of the 1980s. In light of this seeming paradox, this article offers an overview of the recent debates and controversies surrounding informal work in Latin America. Drawing on recent research, as well as reports and policy documents from key international organizations, I pose and attempt to answer four core questions: What counts as informal work? Who works informally in Latin America? Why do men and women throughout Latin America increasingly resort to informal work? What role does informal work play as a livelihood strategy in Latin America and how has this role changed in recent years? [source]

Teaching and Learning Guide for: The Geopolitics of Climate Change

Jon Barnett
Author's Introduction Climate change is a security problem in as much as the kinds of environmental changes that may result pose risks to peace and development. However, responsibilities for the causes of climate change, vulnerability to its effects, and capacity to solve the problem, are not equally distributed between countries, classes and cultures. There is no uniformity in the geopolitics of climate change, and this impedes solutions. Author Recommends 1.,Adger, W. N., et al. (eds) (2006). Fairness in adaptation to climate change. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. A comprehensive collection of articles on the justice dimensions of adaptation to climate change. Chapters discuss potential points at which climate change becomes ,dangerous', the issue of adaptation under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the unequal outcomes of adaptation within a society, the effects of violent conflict on adaptation, the costs of adaptation, and examples from Bangladesh, Tanzania, Botswana, and Hungary. 2.,Leichenko, R., and O'Brien, K. (2008). Environmental change and globalization: double exposures. New York: Oxford University Press. This book uses examples from around the world to show the way global economic and political processes interact with environmental changes to create unequal outcomes within and across societies. A very clear demonstration of the way vulnerability to environmental change is as much driven by social processes as environmental ones, and how solutions lie within the realm of decisions about ,development' and ,environment'. 3.,Nordås, R., and Gleditsch, N. (2007). Climate conflict: common sense or nonsense? Political Geography 26 (6), pp. 627,638. doi:10.1016/j.polgeo.2007.06.003 An up-to-date, systematic and balanced review of research on the links between climate change and violent conflict. See also the other papers in this special issue of Political Geography. 4.,Parry, M., et al. (eds) (2007). Climate change 2007: impacts adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. The definitive review of all the peer-reviewed research on the way climate change may impact on places and sectors across the world. Includes chapters on ecosystems, health, human settlements, primary industries, water resources, and the major regions of the world. All chapters are available online at 5.,Salehyan, I. (2008). From climate change to conflict? No consensus yet. Journal of Peace Research 45 (3), pp. 315,326. doi:10.1177/0022343308088812 A balanced review of research on the links between climate change and conflict, with attention to existing evidence. 6.,Schwartz, P., and Randall, D. (2003). An abrupt climate change scenario and its implications for United States national security. San Francisco, CA: Global Business Network. Gives insight into how the US security policy community is framing the problem of climate change. This needs to be read critically. Available at 7.,German Advisory Council on Global Change. (2007). World in transition: climate change as a security risk. Berlin, Germany: WBGU. A major report from the German Advisory Council on Global Change on the risks climate changes poses to peace and stability. Needs to be read with caution. Summary and background studies are available online at 8.,Yamin, F., and Depedge, J. (2004). The International climate change regime: a guide to rules, institutions and procedures. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. A clear and very detailed explanation of the UNFCCC's objectives, actors, history, and challenges. A must read for anyone seeking to understand the UNFCCC process, written by two scholars with practical experience in negotiations. Online Materials 1.,Environmental Change and Security Program at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars The major website for information about environmental security. From here, you can download many reports and studies, including the Environmental Change and Security Project Report. 2.,Global Environmental Change and Human Security Project This website is a clearing house for work and events on environmental change and human security. 3.,Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) From this website, you can download all the chapters of all the IPCC's reports, including its comprehensive and highly influential assessment reports, the most recent of which was published in 2007. The IPCC were awarded of the Nobel Peace Prize ,for their efforts to build up and disseminate greater knowledge about man-made (sic) climate change, and to lay the foundations for the measures that are needed to counteract such change'. 4.,Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research The website of a major centre for research on climate change, and probably the world's leading centre for social science based analysis of climate change. From this site, you can download many publications about mitigation of and adaptation to climate change, and about various issues in the UNFCCC. 5.,United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change The website contains every major document relation to the UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol, including the text of the agreements, national communications, country submissions, negotiated outcomes, and background documents about most key issues. Sample Syllabus: The Geopolitics of Climate Change topics for lecture and discussion Week I: Introduction Barnett, J. (2007). The geopolitics of climate change. Geography Compass 1 (6), pp. 1361,1375. United Nations Secretary General, Kofi Annan, address to the 12th Conference of Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Nairobi, 15 November 2006. Available online at Week II: The History and Geography of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Topic: The drivers of climate change in space and time Reading Baer, P. (2006). Adaptation: who pays whom? In: Adger, N., et al. (eds) Fairness in adaptation to climate change. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 131,154. Boyden, S., and Dovers, S. (1992). Natural-resource consumption and its environmental impacts in the Western World: impacts of increasing per capita consumption. Ambio 21 (1), pp. 63,69. Week III: The Environmental Consequences of climate change Topic: The risks climate change poses to environmental systems Reading Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (2007). Climate change 2007: climate change impacts, adaptation and vulnerability: summary for policymakers. Geneva, Switzerland: IPCC Secretariat. Watch: Al Gore. The Inconvenient Truth. Weeks IV and V: The Social Consequences of Climate Change Topic: The risks climate change poses to social systems Reading Adger, W. N. (1999). Social vulnerability to climate change and extremes in coastal Vietnam. World Development 27, pp. 249,269. Comrie, A. (2007). Climate change and human health. Geography Compass 1 (3), pp. 325,339. Leary, N., et al. (2006). For whom the bell tolls: vulnerability in a changing climate. A Synthesis from the AIACC project, AIACC Working Paper No. 21, International START Secretariat, Florida. Stern, N. (2007). Economics of climate change: the Stern review. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press (Chapters 3,5). Week VI: Mitigation of Climate Change: The UNFCCC Topic: The UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol Reading Najam, A., Huq, S., and Sokona, Y. (2003). Climate negotiations beyond Kyoto: developing countries concerns and interests. Climate Policy 3 (3), pp. 221,231. UNFCCC Secretariat. (2005). Caring for climate: a guide to the climate change convention and the Kyoto Protocol. Bonn, Germany: UN Framework Convention on Climate Change Secretariat. Weeks VII and VIII: Adaptation to Climate Change Topic: What can be done to allow societies to adapt to avoid climate impacts? Reading Adger, N., et al. (2007). Assessment of adaptation practices, options, constraints and capacity. In: Parry, M., et al. (eds) Climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, pp. 717,744. Burton, I., et al. (2002). From impacts assessment to adaptation priorities: the shaping of adaptation policy. Climate Policy 2 (2,3), pp. 145,159. Eakin, H., and Lemos, M. C. (2006). Adaptation and the state: Latin America and the challenge of capacity-building under globalization. Global Environmental Change: Human and Policy Dimensions 16 (1), pp. 7,18. Ziervogel, G., Bharwani, S., and Downing, T. (2006). Adapting to climate variability: pumpkins, people and policy. Natural Resources Forum 30, pp. 294,305. Weeks IX and X: Climate Change and Migration Topic: Will climate change force migration? Readings Gaim, K. (1997). Environmental causes and impact of refugee movements: a critique of the current debate. Disasters 21 (1), pp. 20,38. McLeman, R., and Smit, B. (2006). Migration as adaptation to climate change. Climatic Change 76 (1), pp. 31,53. Myers, N. (2002). Environmental refugees: a growing phenomenon of the 21st century. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 357 (1420), pp. 609,613. Perch-Nielsen, S., Bättig, M., and Imboden, D. (2008). Exploring the link between climate change and migration. Climatic Change (online first, forthcoming); doi:10.1007/s10584-008-9416-y Weeks XI and XII: Climate Change and Violent Conflict Topic: Will Climate change cause violent conflict? Readings Barnett, J., and Adger, N. (2007). Climate change, human security and violent conflict. Political Geography 26 (6), pp. 639,655. Centre for Strategic and International Studies. (2007). The age of consequences: the foreign policy and national security implications of global climate change. Washington, DC: CSIS. Nordås, R., and Gleditsch, N. (2007). Climate conflict: common sense or nonsense? Political Geography 26 (6), pp. 627,638. Schwartz, P., and Randall, D. (2003). An abrupt climate change scenario and its implications for United States national security. San Francisco, CA: Global Business Network. [online]. Retrieved on 8 April 2007 from Focus Questions 1Who is most responsible for climate change? 2Who is most vulnerable to climate change? 3Does everyone have equal power in the UNFCCC process? 4Will climate change force people to migrate? Who? 5What is the relationship between adaptation to climate change and violent conflict? [source]

Development Section, April 2008

Cheryl McEwan
EDITORIAL It is a great privilege to serve as Editor for the Development section of Geography Compass. The journal is an exciting new venture in electronic publishing that aims to publish state-of-the-art peer-reviewed surveys of key contemporary issues in geographical scholarship. As the first Editor of this section, it is my responsibility to establish the key aims and innovations for this section of the journal. These include: publishing reviews of scholarship on topics of contemporary relevance that are accessible and useful to researchers, teachers, students and practitioners; developing the range of topics covered across the spectrum of development geography; helping to set agendas in development geography by identifying gaps in existing empirical and conceptual research; commissioning articles from both established and graduate/early career researchers who are working at the frontiers of development geography; and communicating the distinctiveness of Geography Compass. Part of this distinctiveness is in publishing articles that are both of scholarly excellence and accessible to a wide audience. The first volume of Geography Compass was published in 2007, covering a wide range of topics (e.g. migration, children, technology, grassroots women's organizations, civil society, biodiversity, tourism, inequality, agrarian change, participatory development, disability, spirituality) in a number of specific geographical areas (e.g. Africa/southern Africa, Caribbean, China, Peru). Forthcoming in 2008/2009 are articles on the Gambia, Latin America, the Philippines, Southeast Asia, Bangladesh and South Africa, focusing on topics such as food security, comparative post-socialism, foreign aid and fair trade. Building on these diverse and excellent articles, I plan to communicate the distinctiveness of Development in a number of ways. First, I encourage an ecumenical approach to the notion of ,development geography' and welcome contributions from scholars across a range of social science disciplines whose work would be useful to a geography audience. This is important, not least because both development and geography, in disciplinary terms, are largely European inventions. Many scholars in Latin America, Africa and Asia, for example, do not refer to themselves as either development specialists or geographers but are producing important research in areas of direct relevance to students and researchers of ,development geography'. As the first editions illustrate, I also seek to publish articles that reflect ,development' in its broadest sense, encompassing economic, (geo)political, social, cultural and environmental issues. 2008 will be an interesting year for development, with a number of important issues and events shaping discourse and policy. These include: the Beijing Olympics and increasing focus on China's role in international development; political change in a number of African countries (Kenya, Zimbabwe, South Africa); the US presidential elections and potential shifts in policy on climate change, trade and security; the impacts of the Bali roadmap on climate change in the current economic context; the increasing number of impoverished people in Asia (notably China and India), sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America (notably Brazil) that even the World Bank has acknowledged; the implications of the increasing role of philanthropic foundations (e.g. the Gates Foundation and those emerging in India and Russia) in international development. I hope to see some of these issues covered in this journal. Second, I am keen to break down the association between ,development' and parts of the world variously categorized as ,Third World', ,Global South' or ,Developing World' by publishing articles that cut across North and South, East and West. The intellectual and disciplinary practices within (Western) geography that separate those researching issues in the South and post-socialist contexts from those researching similar issues in advanced capitalist economies are, it seems, no longer sustainable or sensible. Moreover, while studies of transnational and ethical trade, neoliberalism, household economies and ,commodity chains', for example, incorporate a multitude of case studies from across the world, these tend to be understood through conceptual lenses that almost always have their theoretical antecedents in Western theorization. The notion of ,learning from' debates, policy and practice in other parts of the world is still relatively alien within the discipline. There are thus issues in how we research and teach ethically and responsibly in and about different parts of the world, and in which this journal might make a contribution. Third, and related, part of my responsibility is to ensure that Compass reflects the breadth of debate about ,development' by publishing articles written by a truly international range of scholars. This has proved to be a challenge to date, in part reflecting the newness of the journal and the difficulties posed by English language publication. However, an immediate aim is to publish the work and ideas of scholars based outside of Anglophone contexts, in the Global South and in post-socialist contexts, and to use international referees who are able to provide valuable commentaries on the articles. A longer-term aim is to also further internationalize the Editorial Board. Currently, one-third of the Editorial Board is non-UK and I plan to increase this to at least 50% in future. Fourth, I plan to ensure that the Development section takes full advantage of electronic publication and the opportunities this offers. Thus, while I am keen to retain a word limit in the interest of publishing accessible articles, the lack of constraint regarding page space enables authors to include a wide range of illustrative and other material that is impossible in print journals. I plan to encourage authors to make greater use of visual materials (maps, photographs/photo-essays, video, sound recordings, model simulations and datasets) alongside text as well as more innovative forms of presentation where this might be appropriate. Finally, in the coming year, I intend to work more closely with other Compass section Editors to realize the potential for fostering debate that cuts across subdisciplinary and even disciplinary boundaries. The journal publishes across the full spectrum of the discipline and there is thus scope for publishing articles and/or special issues on development-related topics that might best be approached through dialogue between the natural and social sciences. Such topics might include resources (e.g. water, oil, bio-fuels), hazard and risk (from environmental issues to human and state security), and sustainability and quality of life (planned for 2008). Part of the distinctiveness of Compass is that electronic-only publication ensures that articles are published in relatively quick time , in some cases less than 3 months from initial submission to publication. It thus provides an important outlet for researchers working in fast-changing contexts and for those, such as graduate and early-career researchers, who might require swift publication for career purposes. Of course, as Editor I am reliant on referees both engaging with Manuscript Central and providing reports on articles in a relatively short space of time to fully expedite the process. My experience so far has been generally very positive and I would like to thank the referees for working within the spirit of the journal. Editing a journal is, of course, a collaborative and shared endeavour. The Development Editorial Board has been central to the successful launch of Development by working so generously to highlight topics and potential authors and to review articles; I would like to take this opportunity to thank Tony Bebbington, Reg Cline-Cole, Sara Kindon, Claire Mercer, Giles Mohan, Warwick Murray, Richa Nagar, Rob Potter, Saraswati Raju, Jonathan Rigg, Jenny Robinson and Alison Stenning. The Editors-in-Chief , Mike Bradshaw and Basil Gomez , have provided invaluable advice while adding humour (and colour) to the editorial process. Colleagues at Wiley-Blackwell have provided superb support, in particular, Helen Ashton who is constantly on hand to provide advice and assistance. I look forward to working closely with these people again in the coming year, as well as with the authors and readers who are vital to ensuring that Geography Compass fulfils its remit. [source]