Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Lakes

  • acidic lake
  • alpine lake
  • arctic lake
  • boreal lake
  • clearwater lake
  • danish lake
  • deep lake
  • dry lake
  • european lake
  • eutrophic lake
  • floodplain lake
  • freshwater lake
  • glacial lake
  • great lake
  • great salt lake
  • humic lake
  • inland lake
  • large lake
  • laurentian great lake
  • mediterranean lake
  • mesotrophic lake
  • mountain lake
  • natural lake
  • oligotrophic lake
  • other lake
  • oxbow lake
  • productive lake
  • proglacial lake
  • salt lake
  • shallow eutrophic lake
  • shallow lake
  • shallow mediterranean lake
  • small lake
  • study lake
  • sub-arctic lake
  • subarctic lake
  • temperate lake
  • temperate shallow lake
  • turbid lake

  • Terms modified by Lakes

  • lake area
  • lake basin
  • lake bottom
  • lake city
  • lake community
  • lake deposit
  • lake depth
  • lake district
  • lake ecosystem
  • lake environment
  • lake food web
  • lake level
  • lake malawi
  • lake michigan
  • lake morphometry
  • lake ontario
  • lake outlet
  • lake population
  • lake process
  • lake productivity
  • lake region
  • lake response
  • lake sediment
  • lake size
  • lake sturgeon
  • lake superior
  • lake surface
  • lake surface area
  • lake system
  • lake tahoe basin
  • lake trout
  • lake type
  • lake valley
  • lake victoria
  • lake water
  • lake watershed

  • Selected Abstracts


    EVOLUTION, Issue 8 2007
    S. Bergek
    Gene flow between coexisting or nearby populations normally prevents genetic divergence and local adaptation. Despite this, there are an increasing number of reports of sympatric sister taxa, indicating potential divergence and speciation in the face of gene flow. A large number of such reported cases involve lake-dwelling fish, which are expected to run into few physical barriers to dispersal within their aquatic habitat. However, such cases may not necessarily reflect sympatric speciation if cryptic dispersal barriers are common in lakes and other aquatic systems. In this study, we examined genetic differentiation in perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) from nine locations in a single, small lake (24 km2), using microsatellites. We detected significant genetic differentiation in all but two pairwise comparisons. These patterns were not consistent with divergence by distance or the existence of kin groups. Instead, they suggest that cryptic barriers to dispersal exist within the lake, allowing small-scale genetic divergence. Such an observation suggests that allopatric (or parapatric) divergence may be possible, even in small, apparently homogenous environments such as lakes. This has important consequences for how we currently view evidence from nature for sympatric speciation. [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 6 2005
    Sylvia Bonilla
    We investigated the fine pigment structure and composition of phytoplankton and benthic cyanobacterial mats in Ward Hunt Lake at the northern limit of High Arctic Canada and the responses of these two communities to in situ nutrient enrichment. The HPLC analyses showed that more than 98% of the total pigment stocks occurred in the benthos. The phytoplankton contained Chrysophyceae, low concentrations of other protists and Cyanobacteria (notably picocyanobacteria), and the accessory pigments chl c2, fucoxanthin, diadinoxanthin, violaxanthin, and zeaxanthin. The benthic community contained the accessory pigments chl b, chl c2, and a set of carotenoids dominated by glycosidic xanthophylls, characteristic of filamentous cyanobacteria. The black surface layer of the mats was rich in the UV-screening compounds scytonemin, red scytonemin-like, and mycosporine-like amino acids, and the blue-green basal stratum contained high concentrations of light-harvesting pigments. In a first bioassay of the benthic mats, there was no significant photosynthetic or growth response to inorganic carbon or full nutrient enrichment over 15 days. This bioassay was repeated with increased replication and HPLC analysis in a subsequent season, and the results confirmed the lack of significant response to added nutrients. In contrast, the phytoplankton in samples from the overlying water column responded strongly to enrichment, and chl a biomass increased by a factor of 19.2 over 2 weeks. These results underscore the divergent ecophysiology of benthic versus planktonic communities in extreme latitudes and show that cold lake ecosystems can be dominated by benthic phototrophs that are nutrient sufficient despite their ultraoligotrophic overlying waters. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 3 2003
    R. Stoks
    Abstract In a large behavioral experiment we reconstructed the evolution of behavioral responses to predators to explore how interactions with predators have shaped the evolution of their prey,behavior. All Enallagma damselfly species reduced both movement and feeding in the presence of coexisting predators. Some Enallagma species inhabit water bodies with both fish and dragonflies, and these species responded to the presence of both predators, whereas other Enallagma species inhabit water bodies that have only large dragonflies as predators, and these species only responded to the presence of dragonflies. Lineages that shifted to live with large dragonflies showed no evolution in behaviors expressed in the presence of dragonflies, but they evolved greater movement in the absence of predators and greater movement and feeding in the presence of fish. These results suggest that Enallagma species have evolutionarily lost the ability to recognize fish as a predator. Because species coexisting with only dragonfly predators have also evolved the ability to escape attacking dragonfly predators by swimming, the decreased predation risk associated with foraging appears to have shifted the balance of the foraging/predation risk trade-off to allow increased activity in the absence of mortality threats to evolve in these lineages. Our results suggest that evolution in response to changes in predation regime may have greater consequences for characters expressed in the absence of mortality threats because of how the balance between the conflicting demands of growth and predation risk are altered. [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 4 2008
    Scott N. Higgins
    Cladophora glomerata (L.) Kütz. is, potentially, the most widely distributed macroalga throughout the world's freshwater ecosystems. C. glomerata has been described throughout North America, Europe, the Atlantic Islands, the Caribbean Islands, Asia, Africa, Australia and New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands. Cladophora blooms were a common feature of the lower North American Great Lakes (Erie, Michigan, Ontario) from the 1950s through the early 1980s and were largely eradicated through the implementation of a multibillion-dollar phosphorus (P) abatement program. The return of widespread blooms in these lakes since the mid-1990s, however, was not associated with increases in P loading. Instead, current evidence indicates that the resurgence in blooms was directly related to ecosystem level changes in substratum availability, water clarity, and P recycling associated with the establishment of dense colonies of invasive dreissenid mussels. These results support the hypothesis that dreissenid mussel invasions may induce dramatic shifts in energy and nutrient flow from pelagic zones to the benthic zone. [source]


    H.J. Carrick
    Factors that regulate phytoplankton dynamics in shallow, productive lakes are poorly understood, due to their predisposition for frequent algal blooms and sediment resuspension events. In Lake Apopka, greatest phytoplankton biomass reflects wind-induced resuspension of algae (meroplankton) that exists on the aphotic lake bottom in a layer approximately 5 cm thick; this assemblage is dominated by diatoms (>60% of total biomass) that can occur in resting stages. Once exposed to moderate light, meroplankton are capable of growth and photosynthetic rates comparable with surface populations. In Lake Okeechobee, remote sensing was used to assess the basin-wide distribution of suspended particles. Satellite reflectance values agreed well with in situ particle densities at 20 in-lake stations (average r2; LANDSAT = 0.81, AVHRR = 0.53), and maps of algal blooms (r2 = 0.79, p , 0.01). The greatest chlorophyll concentrations occurred in the vicinity of tributary nutrient inputs at the lake's perimeter, while turbidity increased towards the center of the lake reflecting predominant water circulation patterns. These results underscore the importance of physical-biological interactions in lakes. [source]

    Evaluating the Predicted Local Extinction of a Once-Common Mouse

    Chicago; declinación de especies comunes; extinción pronosticada; Peromyscus leucopus; Peromyscus maniculatus bairdii Abstract:,In an earlier paper (Pergams & Nyberg 2001) we found that the proportion of the prairie deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus bairdii), among all local Peromyscus museum specimens collected in the Chicago region, had significantly declined over time. This proportion changed from about 50% before 1900 to <10% in the last 25 years. Based on this proportion a regression model predicted the local extinction of the prairie deer mouse in 2009. To evaluate that prediction, we estimated current deer mouse abundance by live trapping small mammals at 15 preserves in Cook and Lake counties, Illinois (USA) at which prairie deer mice had previously been caught or that still contained their preferred open habitat. In 1900 trap nights, 477 mammals were caught, including 251 white-footed mice (P. leucopus), but only one prairie deer mouse. The observed proportion of Peromyscus that were prairie deer mice, 0.4%, was even lower than the 4.5% predicted for 2000. Here we also introduce a simple, new community proportions model, which for any given geographic region compares the proportions of species recently caught with the proportions of species in museums. We compared proportions of seven species collected in Cook and Lake counties and examined by Hoffmeister (1989) with proportions of these species that we caught. Ten percent of the museum community was prairie deer mice, but only 0.2% of our catch was. The current local scarcity of the prairie deer mouse is consistent with the regression-based prediction of its eminent local extinction. More conservation attention should be paid to changes in relative abundance of once-common species. Resumen:,En un artículo previo (Pergams & Nyberg 2001) encontramos que la proporción de Peromyscus maniculatus bairdii, entre todos los especimenes de museo de Peromyscus recolectados en la región de Chicago, había declinado significativamente. Esta proporción cambió de 50% antes de 1900 a <10% en los últimos 25 años. Con base en esta proporción, un modelo de regresión pronosticó la extinción local de P. m. bairdii en 2009. Para evaluar esa predicción, estimamos la abundancia actual de P. m. bairdii mediante el trampeo de mamíferos pequeños en 25 reservas en los condados Cook y Lake, Illinois (E.U.A.) en las que se había capturado a P. m. bairdii previamente o que aun contenían su hábitat abierto preferido. En 1900 noches-trampa, capturamos a 477 mamíferos, incluyendo a 251 P. leucopus pero solo a un P. m. bairdii. La proporción observada de P. m. bairdii, 0.4%, fue menor a 4.5% pronosticado para 2000. Aquí también introducimos un modelo, nuevo y sencillo, de proporciones de la comunidad que compara, para cualquier región geográfica, las proporciones de especies recientemente capturadas con la proporciones de especies en los museos. Comparamos las proporciones de siete especies recolectadas en los condados Cook y Lake y examinadas por Hoffmeister (1989) con las proporciones de especies que capturamos. Diez por ciento de la comunidad de museos era P. m. bairdii, pero solo 0.2% de nuestra muestra lo fue. La actual escasez local de P. m. bairdii es consistente con la predicción de su inminente extinción local con base en la regresión. La conservación debe prestar mayor atención a los cambios en la abundancia relativa de una especie anteriormente común. [source]

    Metropolitan Open-Space Protection with Uncertain Site Availability

    acceso público; Chicago; modelo de selección de sitio; optimización; representación de especies Abstract:,Urban planners acquire open space to protect natural areas and provide public access to recreation opportunities. Because of limited budgets and dynamic land markets, acquisitions take place sequentially depending on available funds and sites. To address these planning features, we formulated a two-period site selection model with two objectives: maximize the expected number of species represented in protected sites and maximize the expected number of people with access to protected sites. These objectives were both maximized subject to an upper bound on area protected over two periods. The trade-off between species representation and public access was generated by the weighting method of multiobjective programming. Uncertainty was represented with a set of probabilistic scenarios of site availability in a linear-integer formulation. We used data for 27 rare species in 31 candidate sites in western Lake County, near the city of Chicago, to illustrate the model. Each trade-off curve had a concave shape in which species representation dropped at an increasing rate as public accessibility increased, with the trade-off being smaller at higher levels of the area budget. Several sites were included in optimal solutions regardless of objective function weights, and these core sites had high species richness and public access per unit area. The area protected in period one depended on current site availability and on the probabilities of sites being undeveloped and available in the second period. Although the numerical results are specific for our study, the methodology is general and applicable elsewhere. Resumen:,Planificadores urbanos adquieren espacios abiertos para proteger áreas naturales y proporcionar acceso público a oportunidades de recreación. Debido a presupuestos limitados y a la dinámica de los mercados de terrenos, las adquisiciones se llevan a cabo secuencialmente en función de la disponibilidad de fondos y sitios. Para atender estas características de la planificación, formulamos un modelo de selección de sitios de dos períodos con dos objetivos: maximizar el número esperado de especies representado en sitios protegidos y maximizar el número esperado de personas con acceso a sitios protegidos. Ambos objetivos fueron maximizados con un límite superior en la superficie protegida en los dos períodos. El balance entre la representación de especies y el acceso público fue generado por el método de ponderación de programación de multiobjetivos. La incertidumbre fue representada con un conjunto de escenarios probabilísticos de la disponibilidad de sitios en una formulación lineal-integral. Para demostrar el modelo, utilizamos datos para 27 especies raras en 31 sitios potenciales en el oeste del Condado Lake, cerca de la ciudad de Chicago. Cada curva tenía forma cóncava y la representación de especies descendió a medida que incrementó la accesibilidad pública, con un menor equilibrio en niveles altos del presupuesto para el área. Varios sitios fueron incluidos en soluciones óptimas independientemente de las funciones de ponderación de los objetivos, y estos sitios tuvieron alta riqueza de especies y acceso público por unidad de área. La superficie protegida en el período uno dependió de la disponibilidad de sitios y de las probabilidades de que los sitios no fueran desarrollados y de su disponibilidad en el segundo período. Aunque los resultados numéricos son específicos a nuestro estudio, la metodología es general y aplicable en otros sitios. [source]

    A Rb/Sr record of catchment weathering response to Holocene climate change in Inner Mongolia

    Zhangdong Jin
    Abstract Variation in the rubidium to strontium (Rb/Sr) ratio of the loess,palaeosol sequences has been proposed to reflect the degree of pedogenesis and weathering in the northwestern region of China. To characterize the Rb/Sr ratio of the dissolved loads of a single catchment, we analysed a 12·08 m sediment core from Daihai Lake in Inner Mongolia, north China. Dating control was provided by 210Pb, 137Cs and AMS- 14C. Sequential extraction experiments were conducted to investigate the concentrations of Rb and Sr on various chemical fractions in the lake sediments. Down-core variation in the Rb/Sr ratios provides a record of Holocene weathering history. From 9 to 3·5 ka bp, accelerated chemical weathering was experienced throughout the Daihai catchment under mainly warm and humid conditions, and this reached a maximum at c. 5 ka bp. However, weathering was reduced between c. 8·25 and 7·90 ka bp, which may reflect the global 8·2 ka cooling event. After c. 2·5 ka bp, increased Rb/Sr ratios with higher frequency of fluctuations indicate reduced weathering within the Daihai catchment. The highest Rb/Sr ratios in the Little Ice Age lake sediments indicate the weakest phase of Holocene chemical weathering, resulting from a marked reduction in Sr flux into the basin. The Rb/Sr record also shows an enhancement of chemical weathering under today's climate, but its intensity is less than that of the Medieval Warm Period. Increased Rb/Sr in lake sediment corresponding to reduced catchment weathering is in striking contrast to Rb/Sr decrease in the glacial loess layers in the loess,palaeosol sequence. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Geomorphic and sedimentological signature of a two-phase outburst ,ood from moraine-dammed Queen Bess Lake, British Columbia, Canada

    Jane A. Kershaw
    Abstract On 12 August 1997, the lower part of Diadem Glacier in the southern Coast Mountains of British Columbia fell into Queen Bess Lake and produced a train of large waves. The waves overtopped the broad end moraine at the east end of the lake and ,ooded the valley of the west fork of Nostetuko River. The displacement waves also incised the out,ow channel across the moraine. Stratigraphic and sedimentologic evidence supports the conclusion that the ,ood had two phases, one related to wave overtopping and a second to breach formation. Empirical equations were used to calculate the peak discharge of the ,ood at various points along the west fork of the Nostetuko valley and to describe the attenuation of the ,ood wave. The velocity of the ,ood was also calculated to determine the time it took for the ,ood to reach the main fork of Nostetuko River. The highest peak discharges were achieved in the upper reach of the valley during the displacement phase of the ,ood. Peak discharge declined rapidly just below the moraine dam, with little change thereafter for approximately 7 km. Empirical formulae and boulder measurements indicate a rise in peak discharge in the lower part of the west fork valley. We suggest that ,ow in the upper part of the valley records the passage of two separate ,ood peaks and that the rise in discharge in the lower part of the valley is due to amalgamation of the wave and breach peaks. Hydraulic ponding in con,ned reaches of the valley extended the duration of the ,ood. In addition, erosion of vegetation and sediment in the channel and valley sides may also have exerted an in,uence on the duration and nature of ,ooding. Sediments were deposited both upstream and downstream of channel constrictions and on a large fan extending out into the trunk Nostetuko River valley. This study extends our understanding of the variety and complexity of outburst ,oods from naturally dammed lakes. It also shows that simple empirical and other models for estimating peak discharges of outburst ,oods are likely to yield erroneous results. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Linking upstream channel instability to downstream degradation: Grenada Lake and the Skuna and Yalobusha River Basins, Mississippi

    ECOHYDROLOGY, Issue 3 2009
    Sean J. Bennett
    Abstract Unstable fluvial systems are characterized by actively migrating knickpoints, incising channel beds, failing banks, and recruitment of large woody debris and it would appear that river corridors downstream of these processes would be adversely affected or impaired because of higher fluxes of sediment and other riverine products. In north-central Mississippi, the Yalobusha River is one such system and the characteristics of two downstream locations are examined to explore this geomorphic linkage between upstream instability and downstream degradation. For the large woody debris plug along the Yalobusha River, it is found that (1) the deposit is composed mostly of sand covered with a veneer of silt and clay, (2) agrichemicals and enriched concentrations of elements are prevalent, and (3) excessive sedimentation and wood accumulation have forced river flow entirely out-of-bank. For Grenada Lake, it is found that (1) the impounded sediment is predominantly clay, (2) agrichemicals and elements observed throughout the reservoir show no spatial variation, (3) little difference exists in the amount and quality between the sediments deposited in Skuna and Yalobusha River arms, and (4) only a small fraction of the reservoir's storage capacity has been lost because of sedimentation. While excessive sedimentation and large woody debris recruitment have had a marked affect on stream corridor function in the area of the debris plug, the high sediment loads associated with the unstable portions of the Yalobusha River and their associated products have not been communicated to Grenada Lake. The fish consumption advisories within Grenada Lake and its tributaries due to bioaccumulated trace elements and agrichemicals, appear to be independent of the pervasive river channel instability occurring upstream. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Visions of stream restoration; the need for long-term, big-picture projects: Interview with Sam Lake

    Tein McDonald
    First page of article [source]

    Does morphological variation between young-of-the-year perch from two Swedish lakes depend on genetic differences?

    M. Heynen
    Heynen M, Hellström G, Magnhagen C, Borcherding J. Does morphological variation between young-of-the-year perch from two Swedish lakes depend on genetic differences? Ecology of Freshwater Fish 2010: 19: 163,169. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S Abstract,,, Different local environmental conditions have often been found to generate phenotypic diversity. In the present study we examined morphological differences between young-of-the-year perch from two lake populations with differences in size-specific predation risk. A common garden setup was used to examine the genetic and environmental components of the morphological variation. We found differences in head and jaw length and slight differences in body depth between the wild young-of-the-year perch from Lake Ängersjön and Lake Fisksjön. The differences found between the wild fish from the two lakes were not maintained under common garden rearing. The observed morphological divergence between the wild young-of-the-year perch from Lake Ängersjön and Lake Fisksjön seems to stem mainly from a plastic response to different environmental conditions in the two lakes. It is clear that the morphological traits are not influenced by direct reaction to the size-specific risk of cannibalism, but probably stem from a combination of different environment characteristics, including resource and habitat use, and the density of other piscivores, such as pike. [source]

    Diet dynamics of the juvenile piscivorous fish community in Spirit Lake, Iowa, USA, 1997,1998

    M. E. Pelham
    Abstract , We assessed temporal dynamics and variation among species and age-classes in the diets of age 0 and age 1 piscivorous fish species in Spirit Lake, Iowa, USA during 1997 and 1998. Species included walleye Stizostedion vitreum, yellow perch Perca flavescens, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieui, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus and white bass Morone chrysops. Thirty taxa were identified in diets, including 12 species of fish. We found dramatic differences in diets among species, among age-classes within species and over time. Walleye, largemouth bass, smallmouth bass and white bass were piscivorous at age 0. Black crappie began piscivory at age 1. Yellow perch also began piscivory at age 1, but fish were a very small fraction of age-1 diets. The primary temporal pattern, seen in several species and age-classes, was an increase in piscivory from spring to fall. This pattern was due to the lack of small, age-0 prey fish in spring. Although some patterns were evident, the taxonomic composition of the diets of all species was highly variable over time, making generalizations difficult. A surprising result was the absence of yellow perch in the diet of age-0 walleye, despite their abundance in Spirit Lake and prominence in diets of age-1 walleye and other age 1-piscivores. Age-0 yellow perch were consistently too large to be eaten by age-0 piscivores, which preyed primarily on invertebrates and smaller fish such as johnny darters Etheostoma nigrum and age 0 bluegill Lepomis macrochirus. This finding suggests that predator-prey interactions and resulting population dynamics may be quite different in Spirit Lake than in other systems dominated by walleye and yellow perch., [source]

    Changes in yellow perch (Perca flavescens) growth associated with the establishment of a walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) population in Canadarago Lake, New York (USA)

    M. H. Olson
    Abstract , Piscivorous fish can affect prey growth in two ways: directly by reducing prey density and indirectly by inducing predator-avoidance behaviors. We investigated these two pathways in yellow perch (Perca flavescens) growth responses to walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) stocking in Canadarago Lake, New York (USA) using a 25-year time series. Before walleye stocking, yellow perch growth rate was low and independent of body size. As walleye abundance increased, yellow perch growth increased and became size-dependent. The switch to size-dependent growth occurred in 1 year, indicating a rapid behavioral response to predators. Mean growth rate increased more gradually and was linearly related to walleye density, indicating a slower numerical effect of walleye on yellow perch densities. Although the net effect was an increase in perch growth, small perch growth initially decreased as walleye became established. Therefore, the combination of numerical and behavioral effects produced a complex pattern of size-dependent changes in growth of yellow perch. [source]

    Sources for sedimentary bacteriohopanepolyols as revealed by 16S rDNA stratigraphy

    Marco J. L. Coolen
    Summary Bacteriohopanoids are widespread lipid biomarkers in the sedimentary record. Many aerobic and anaerobic bacteria are potential sources of these lipids which sometimes complicates the use of these biomarkers as proxies for ecological and environmental changes. Therefore, we applied preserved 16S ribosomal RNA genes to identify likely Holocene biological sources of bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs) in the sulfidic sediments of the permanently stratified postglacial Ace Lake, Antarctica. A suite of intact BHPs were identified, which revealed a variety of structural forms whose composition differed through the sediment core reflecting changes in bacterial populations induced by large changes in lake salinity. Stable isotopic compositions of the hopanols formed from periodic acid-cleaved BHPs, showed that some were substantially depleted in 13C, indicative of their methanotrophic origin. Using sensitive molecular tools, we found that Type I and II methanotrophic bacteria (respectively Methylomonas and Methylocystis) were unique to the oldest lacustrine sediments (> 9400 years BP), but quantification of fossil DNA revealed that the Type I methanotrophs, including methanotrophs related to methanotrophic gill symbionts of deep-sea cold-seep mussels, were the main precursors of the 35-amino BHPs (i.e. aminopentol, -tetrol and -triols). After isolation of the lake ,3000 years ago, one Type I methanotroph of the ,methanotrophic gill symbionts cluster' remained the most obvious source of aminotetrol and -triol. We, furthermore, identified a Synechococcus phylotype related to pelagic freshwater strains in the oldest lacustrine sediments as a putative source of 2-methylbacteriohopanetetrol (2-Me BHT). This combined application of advanced geochemical and paleogenomical tools further refined our knowledge about Holocene biogeochemical processes in Ace Lake. [source]

    Microbial community dynamics in a humic lake: differential persistence of common freshwater phylotypes

    Ryan J. Newton
    Summary In an effort to better understand the factors contributing to patterns in freshwater bacterioplankton community composition and diversity, we coupled automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) to analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences to follow the persistence patterns of 46 individual phylotypes over 3 years in Crystal Bog Lake. Additionally, we sought to identify linkages between the observed phylotype variations and known chemical and biological drivers. Sequencing of 16S rRNA genes obtained from the water column indicated the presence of phylotypes associated with the Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, TM7 and Verrucomicrobia phyla, as well as phylotypes with unknown affiliation. Employment of the 16S rRNA gene/ARISA method revealed that specific phylotypes varied independently of the entire bacterial community dynamics. Actinobacteria, which were present on greater than 95% of sampling dates, did not share the large temporal variability of the other identified phyla. Examination of phylotype relative abundance patterns (inferred using ARISA fragment relative fluorescence) revealed a strong correlation between the dominant phytoplankton succession and the relative abundance patterns of the majority of individual phylotypes. Further analysis revealed covariation among unique phylotypes, which formed several distinct bacterial assemblages correlated with particular phytoplankton communities. These data indicate the existence of unique persistence patterns for different common freshwater phylotypes, which may be linked to the presence of dominant phytoplankton species. [source]

    Extracellular phosphatase activity of natural plankton studied with ELF97 phosphate: fluorescence quantification and labelling kinetics

    í Nedoma
    Summary ELF®97 phosphate (ELFP) is a phosphatase substrate which produces ELF®97 alcohol (ELFA), a fluorescent water-insoluble product, upon hydrolysis. We studied the kinetics of ELFA precipitation in freshwater samples at levels of total plankton and single phytoplankton cells, and tested the suitability of ELFP for measurement of surface-bound algal extracellular phosphatases. Samples from acidic Ple,né Lake (pH , 5; high phosphatase activity) and eutrophic ,ímov reservoir (pH ,7,10; moderate phosphatase activity) were incubated with ELFP for 5,300 min, fixed with HgCl2 and filtered through polycarbonate filters. Relative fluorescence of filter-retained ELFA precipitates was quantified with image analysis. Time-courses of ELFA formation exhibited lag periods followed by finite periods of linear increase. In Ple,né Lake, lag-times were shorter (1,18 min) and rates of increase in ELFA fluorescence higher (by ,2 orders of magnitude) than in ,ímov reservoir (lag-times 30,200 min). Similar patterns of ELFA formation kinetics were also observed in Ple,né Lake samples in cuvette spectrofluorometer measurements (which failed in ,ímov reservoir). Linear regression of seasonal data on rates of increase in ELFA fluorescence from image cytometry and spectrofluorometry (r2 = 0.65, n = 10) allowed for calibration of image cytometry in terms of amount of cell-associated ELFA. Preliminary measurements of extracellular phosphatase activities of several algae resulted in rates (10,2260 fmol cell,1 h,1) which are comparable to data reported in the literature for algal cultures. [source]

    Seasonal succession of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii and Aphanizomenon ovalisporum blooms with cylindrospermopsin occurrence in the volcanic Lake Albano, Central Italy

    Valentina Messineo
    Abstract The cyanobacterial toxin cylindrospermopsin is rapidly spreading in the European temperate Countries. Cylindrospermopsin was detected for the first time in Italy in 2004; in this study, the presence of this toxin in Albano Lake (Central Italy) has been correlated to the cyanobacterial species Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii and Aphanizomenon ovalisporum and their population dynamics. In 2004, these two species succeeded in the lake during spring, summer, and early autumn without overlapping, causing superficial blooms. Cylindrospermopsin was detected in lake samples by LC-MS/MS and ELISA immunoassay, showing extracellular superficial values ranging from 2.6 to 126 ,g/L, and water column values ranging from 0.41 to 18.4 ,g/L. Twenty-six of 30 positive water samples (86%) exceeded the recommended limit of 1 ,g/L. Intracellular values up to 42.3 ,g/g were measured. Moreover, cylindrospermopsin was detected in tissues from two Salmo trutta trouts (up to 2.7 ng/g) and in a well for drinking water supply (1.6 ,g/L). For the first time, two cyanobacterial species producing cylindrospermopsin were detected in the same lake in Italy. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 2010. [source]

    Attenuating effects of natural organic matter on microcystin toxicity in zebra fish (Danio rerio) embryos,benefits and costs of microcystin detoxication

    Jimena Cazenave
    Abstract To contribute to the understanding of joined factors in the environment, impact of pure microcystins (-RR and -LF) on zebra fish (Danio rerio) embryos were investigated individually and in combination with a natural organic matter (NOM). The applied NOM was a reverse osmosis isolate from Lake Schwarzer See (i.e., Black Lake, BL-NOM). Teratogenic effects were evaluated through changes in embryonic development within 48 h of exposure. Detoxication activities were assessed by the activities of phase II biotransformation enzymes, soluble and microsomal glutathione S -transferase (s, mGST). Oxidative stress was assessed by determining both the production of hydrogen peroxide and by analyzing the activities of the antioxidative enzymes, guajacol peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and the glutathione restoring enzyme glutathione reductase (GR). Energetic costs were evaluated by determining contents of fat, carbohydrates, and proteins in both exposed and control embryos. BL-NOM attenuated toxic effects of MC-LF and MC-RR verified by less pronounced teratological effects within 24 h, in particular, as well as less rise in the activity of s-GST, when compared with embryos exposed to either pure toxins or in combination with organic matter. BL-NOM also diminished oxidative effects caused by MC-LF; however, it failed to attenuate oxidative stress caused by MC-RR. Content of lipids was significantly reduced in exposed embryos following a trend similar to that obtained with teratological and enzymatic assays confirming the attenuating effect of BL-NOM. Physiological responses to microcystins and NOM required energetic costs, which were compensated to the expense of the energy resources of the yolk, which in turn might affect the normal development of embryos. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 21: 22,32, 2006. [source]

    Seasonal production and molecular characterization of microcystins in Oneida Lake, New York, USA

    Amber Hotto
    Abstract Oneida Lake, northeast of Syracuse, New York, in the United States, is a shallow eutrophic lake with a well-established toxic cyanobacterial population. Samples for DNA, toxin, and phycological analyses were collected from six stations throughout the summers of 2002 (78 samples) and 2003 (95 samples). DNA was amplified by PCR using primer sets specific to the nonribosomal microcystin synthetase complex (mcyB and mcyD). PCR analysis in 2002 indicated that the microcystin genes were present in the water column from mid-June through October, as 88% of the samples tested positive for mcyB and 79% of the samples tested positive for mcyD. In both years the onset of microcystin production was detected as early as mid-July by the protein phosphatase inhibition assay, reaching a maximum in 2002 of 2.9 ,g L,1 and in 2003 of 3.4 ,g L,1. Beginning in mid- to late August of both years the microcystin level at all six stations was in excess of the World Health Organization (WHO) advisory level of 1.0 ,g L,1. In the present study we compared microcystin occurrence and potential production at the six stations using protein phosphatase inhibition assay, high-performance liquid chromatography, and polymerase chain reaction analyses. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 20: 243,248, 2005. [source]

    Concentrations of selenium and mercury in eared grebes (Podiceps nigricollis) from Utah's great Salt Lake, USA

    Michael R. Conover
    Abstract We examined selenium and mercury concentrations in eared grebes (Podiceps nigricollis) that spent the fall of 2006 on the Great Salt Lake (UT, USA), where their diet consisted mainly of brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana). Selenium concentrations in livers varied based on when the grebes were collected (lower in September [mean ± standard error, 9.4 ± 0.7 ,g/g dry wt] than in November [14.5 ± 1.4 ,g/g]), on where the birds were collected on the Great Salt Lake (Antelope Island, 8.6 ± 0.5 ,g/g; Stansbury Island, 15.2 ± 1.4 ,g/g), and on the grebe's age (juveniles, 8.5 ± 1.5 ,g/g; adults, 15.8 ± 1.3 ,g/g), but not by sex. Selenium concentrations in blood differed only by collection site (Antelope Island, 16.8 ± 2.3 ,g/g; Stansbury Island, 25.4 ± 3.0 ,g/g). Mercury concentration in the blood of grebes varied by when the grebes were collected (September, 5.6 ± 0.5 ,g/g; November, 8.4 ± 1.2 ,g/g), where the birds were collected (Antelope Island, 4.3 ± 0.5 ,g/g; Stansbury Island, 10.1 ± 2.6 ,g/g), and the grebe's age (juveniles, 5.5 ± 0.8 ,g/g; adults, 8.4 ± 1.0 ,g/g), but not by sex. Selenium concentrations in blood were correlated with selenium concentrations in the liver and with mercury concentrations in both blood and liver. Body mass of grebes increased dramatically from September (381 ± 14 g wet wt) to November (591 ± 11 g). Body, liver, and spleen mass either were not correlated with selenium or mercury concentrations or the relationship was positive. These results suggest that high mercury and selenium levels were not preventing grebes from increasing or maintaining mass. [source]

    Selenium and mercury concentrations in California gulls breeding on the Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA

    Michael R. Conover
    Abstract We examined selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) concentrations in adult California gulls (Larus californicus) nesting on the Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA, during 2006 and 2007. During 2006, the mean Se concentration (± standard error) was 18.1 ± 1.5 ,g/g in blood on a dry-weight basis and 8.1 ± 0.4 ,g/g in liver. During 2007, Se concentrations were 15.7 ± 1.5 ,g/g in blood and 8.3 ± 0.4 ,g/g in liver; Hg concentrations were 2.4 ± 0.3 ,g/g in blood and 4.1 ± 0.5 ,g/g in liver. Gulls collected from a freshwater colony located within the watershed of the Great Salt Lake had similar levels of Se in the blood and liver as gulls collected on the Great Salt Lake but lower Hg concentrations. Body mass of adult gulls was not correlated with Se or Hg concentrations in their blood or liver. Selenium concentration in California gull eggs collected during 2006 was 3.0 ± 0.10 ,g/g. Of 72 eggs randomly collected from Great Salt Lake colonies, only one was infertile, and none of the embryos exhibited signs of malposition or deformities. We examined 100 newly hatched California gull chicks from Great Salt Lake colonies for teratogenesis; all chicks appeared normal. Hence, the elevated Se and Hg concentrations in adult gulls nesting on the Great Salt Lake did not appear to impair gulls' health or reproductive ability. [source]

    Effects of estimates from different geochemical models on metal fate predicted by coupled speciation-fate models,

    Satyendra P. Bhavsar
    Abstract Coupled metal speciation-fate models are an improvement over stand-alone fate-transport models for accurately assessing metal fate and transport. These coupled models estimate fate-controlling partition coefficients using geochemical speciation/complexation models. Commercially available geochemical models are practical options for a two-step, loose coupling with fate-transport models. These models differ in their partitioning estimates because of differences in assumptions, databases, and so on. The present study examines the effects of differences in estimates from geochemical models on estimates of cationic metal fate using two geochemical models: the Windermere humic aqueous model (WHAM) and the minicomputer equilibrium+ model (MINEQL+). The results from each geochemical model were used as input to the fate module of TRANSPEC (a general, coupled metal transport and speciation model). The two versions of the TRANSPEC model were then used to assess the fate of five cationic metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in Ross Lake (Flin Flon, MB, Canada; alkaline, eutrophic, mine impacted), Kelly Lake (Sudbury, ON, Canada; circumneutral, mesotrophic, mine influenced), and Lake Tantaré (Quebec City, QC, Canada; acidic, oligotrophic, pristine). For relatively soluble metals (Cd, Ni, and Zn), the WHAM and MINEQL+ estimates of speciation/complexation were similar for Ross and Kelly lakes but differed for Lake Tantaré. These differences, however, did not result in significant differences in overall fate estimates. Marked differences were observed between the WHAM and MINEQL+ estimates of partition coefficient, Kd, for more particle-reactive Cu and Pb that translated into the greatest impact on fate in mesotrophic Kelly Lake, in which particle movement is important for fate. [source]

    Bioassays with caged Hyalella azteca to determine in situ toxicity downstream of two Saskatchewan, Canada, uranium operations,

    Erin L. Robertson
    Abstract The main objectives of this in situ study were to evaluate the usefulness of an in situ bioassay to determine if downstream water bodies at the Key Lake and Rabbit Lake uranium operations (Saskatchewan, Canada) were toxic to Hyalella azteca and, if toxicity was observed, to differentiate between the contribution of surface water and sediment contamination to in situ toxicity. These objectives were achieved by performing 4-d in situ bioassays with laboratory-reared H. azteca confined in specially designed, paired, surface water and sediment exposure chambers. Results from the in situ bioassays revealed significant mortality, relative to the respective reference site, at the exposure sites at both Key Lake (p , 0.001) and Rabbit Lake (p = 0.001). No statistical differences were found between survival in surface water and sediment exposure chambers at either Key Lake (p = 0.232) or Rabbit Lake (p = 0.072). This suggests that surface water (the common feature of both types of exposure chambers) was the primary cause of in situ mortality of H. azteca at both operations, although this relationship was stronger at Key Lake. At Key Lake, the primary cause of aquatic toxicity to H. azteca did not appear to be correlated with the variables measured in this study, but most likely with a pulse of organic mill-process chemicals released during the time of the in situ study , a transient event that was caused by a problem with the mill's solvent extraction process. The suspected cause of in situ toxicity to H. azteca at Rabbit Lake was high levels of uranium in surface water, sediment, and pore water. [source]

    Bioaccumulation of the hepatotoxic microcystins in various organs of a freshwater snail from a subtropical Chinese Lake, Taihu Lake, with dense toxic Microcystis blooms

    Dawen Zhang
    Abstract In this paper, we describe the seasonal dynamics of three common microcystins (MCs; MC-RR, MC-YR, and MC-LR) in the whole body, hepatopancreas, intestine, gonad, foot, remaining tissue, and offspring of a freshwater snail, Bellamya aeruginosa, from Gonghu Bay of Lake Taihu, China, where dense toxic Microcystis blooms occur in the warm seasons. Microcystins were determined by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrum. Microcystin (MC-RR + MC-YR + MC-LR) content of the offspring and gonad showed high positive correlation, indicating that microcystins could transfer from adult females to their young with physiological connection. This study is the first to report the presence of microcystins in the offspring of the adult snail. The majority of the toxins were present in the intestine (53.6%) and hepatopancreas (29.9%), whereas other tissues contained only 16.5%. If intestines are excluded, up to 64.3% of the toxin burden was allocated in the hepatopancreas. The microcystin content in the intestine, hepatopancreas, and gonad were correlated with the biomass of Microcystis and intracellular and extracellular toxins. Of the analyzed foot samples, 18.2% were above the tolerable daily microcystin intake recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for human consumption. This result indicates that public health warnings regarding human ingestion of snails from Taihu Lake are warranted. In addition, further studies are needed to evaluate the occurrence by Microcystis in relation to spatial and temporal changes in water quality. [source]

    Impacts of aircraft deicer and anti-icer runoff on receiving waters from Dallas/Fort worth International Airport, Texas, USA

    Steven R. Corsi
    Abstract From October 2002 to April 2004, data were collected from Dallas/Fort Worth (DFW) International Airport (TX, USA) outfalls and receiving waters (Trigg Lake and Big Bear Creek) to document the magnitude and potential effects of aircraft deicer and anti-icer fluid (ADAF) runoff on water quality. Glycol concentrations at outfalls ranged from less than 18 to 23,800 mg/L, whereas concentrations in Big Bear Creek were less because of dilution, dispersion, and degradation, ranging from less than 18 to 230 mg/L. Annual loading results indicate that 10 and 35% of what was applied to aircraft was discharged to Big Bear Creek in 2003 and 2004, respectively. Glycol that entered Trigg Lake was diluted and degraded before reaching the lake outlet. Dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations at airport outfalls sometimes were low (<2.0 mg/L) but typical of what was measured in an urban reference stream. In comparison, the DO concentration at Trigg Lake monitoring sites was consistently greater than 5.5 mg/L during the monitoring period, probably because of the installation of aerators in the lake by DFW personnel. The DO concentration in Big Bear Creek was very similar at sites upstream and downstream of airport influence (>5.0 mg/L). Results of toxicity tests indicate that effects on Ceriodaphnia dubia, Pimephales promelas, and Selanastrum capricornutum are influenced by type IV ADAF (anti-icer), not just type I ADAF (deicer) as is more commonly assumed. [source]

    Biochemical and histopathological effects in pearl dace (Margariscus margarita) chronically exposed to a synthetic estrogen in a whole lake experiment

    Vince P. Palace
    Abstract Potential effects of exposure to the synthetic estrogen 17,-ethynylestradiol (EE2) were examined in several species of fish from a lake experimentally treated with environmentally relevant concentrations of the contaminant. Ethynylestradiol was added to Lake 260, a small Precambrian shield lake at the Experimental Lakes Area in northwestern Ontario, Canada, from May to October of 2001, 2002, and 2003. Mean concentrations of EE2 in epilimnetic waters ranged between 4.5 and 8.1 ng/L during the three years, with overall means of 6.1 (±2.8), 5.0 (±1.8), and 4.8 (±1.0) ng/L for the three years, respectively. Male and female pearl dace (Margariscus margarita) captured after EE2 additions began contained up to 4,000-fold higher concentrations of the egg yolk precursor vitellogenin than fish captured from the same lake before the EE2 additions or when compared to fish from reference lakes. Edema in the ovaries, inhibited development of testicular tissue, intersex, and histopathological kidney lesions were all evident in fish exposed to EE2. Some indications that EE2 exposure affected in vitro steroidogenic capacity of the ovaries and the testes existed, although results were not always consistent between years. Pearl dace abundance was similar in the lake treated with EE2 and the reference lake. A trend exists toward a reduced overall population of pearl dace from the treated and reference lakes, as do indications that young-of-the-year size classes are less abundant in the EE2-treated lake. Biochemical and histopathological impacts observed in fish exposed to EE2 in this study have not yet been linked to clear population level impacts in pearl dace. Monitoring of these populations is ongoing. [source]

    Dynamic coupled metal transport-speciation model: Application to assess a zinc-contaminated lake

    Satyendra P. Bhavsar
    Abstract A coupled metal transport and speciation/complexation model (TRANSPEC) has been developed to estimate the speciation and fate of multiple interconverting species in surface aquatic systems. Dynamic-TRANSPEC loosely, sequentially couples the speciation/complexation and fate modules that, for the unsteady state formulation, run alternatively at every time step. The speciation module first estimates species abundance using, in this version, MINEQL+ considering time-dependent changes in water and pore-water chemistry. The fate module is based on the quantitative water air sediment interaction (QWASI) model and fugacity/aquivalence formulation, with the option of using a pseudo-steady state solution to account for past discharges. Similarly to the QWASI model for organic contaminants, TRANSPEC assumes the instantaneous equilibrium distribution of metal species among dissolved, colloidal, and particulate phases based on ambient chemistry parameters that can be collected through conventional field methods. The model is illustrated with its application to Ross Lake (Manitoba, Canada) that has elevated Zn concentrations due to discharges over 70 years from a mining operation. Using measurements from field studies, the model reproduces year-round variations in Zn water concentrations. A 10-year projection for current conditions suggests decreasing Zn remobilization and export from the lake. Decreasing Zn loadings increases sediment-to-water transport but decreases water concentrations, and vice versa. Species distribution is affected by pH such that a decrease in pH increases metal export from the lake and vice versa. [source]

    Development of a coupled metal speciation-fate model for surface aquatic systems

    Satyendra P. Bhavsar
    Abstract A coupled metal transport and speciation model (TRANSPEC) has been developed for surface aquatic systems that explicitly considers the influence of metal speciation on fate. The TRANSPEC, which is general to most metal and surface aquatic systems, is constructed by sequentially coupling the speciation/complexation module (in this application MINEQL+) with the fugacity/aquivalence approach for the fate calculations. This model formulation increases the mechanistic detail, predictive power, and fidelity to reality of current fugacity-aquivalence fate models for metals by estimating aqueous speciation and complexation, rather than relying on empirically derived partition coefficients. A pseudo-steady state version of TRANSPEC was used to simulate Zn dynamics in Ross Lake (Flin Flon, MB, Canada) that received elevated metal and organic matter inputs for over 50 years. Field studies revealed that ZnS forms soluble ZnL, Zn2+, and ZnSO40 increasing pore water concentrations when surficial sediments turn oxic during fall. The model results for three seasonal scenarios suggest that Zn remobilization is driven by resuspension of insoluble ZnS and the contribution of diffusion is negligible, even during fall when ZnS dissolves to increase the concentration of soluble species under oxic conditions in the sediments. The low diffusive flux is due to the binding of Zn to colloidal dissolved organic matter (DOM) for which sediment-water diffusion is relatively slow, a result that was obtained as a result of considering metal speciation in the fate calculations. [source]

    Theoretical framework for the distribution of trace metals among the operationally defined speciation phases of a sediment

    René A. Nome
    Abstract The use of a model based on Langmuir's isotherm to evaluate the metal associated with separate geochemical phases of a sediment is proposed and its validity tested with sediments of certified composition. The model takes into account a standard procedure for a certified reference material (CRM601), which defines, experimentally, a set of sequential extractions that divide the sediment into four operational fractions. The derived equations allow the treatment of data from sediment of Flumendosa Lake, Italy, and certified material CRM601 and also allow the computation of corrected concentrations, i.e., the metal affinities for each fraction. Experimental values for Ni show its low sensitivity and an equal distribution among different phases, which suggests a similar adsorption mechanism in all cases. In the case of Cd, the corrected concentration in the Fe/Mn oxide phase is nine times higher than for the residual fraction. For sediment of the Bèsos River, Spain, results show the percentage distribution of Ni over different fractions. Affinity values for Ni on a Flumendosa Lake sediment have also been calculated. The present model is simple to apply and shows satisfactory agreement with experimental data. [source]