Korean Subjects (korean + subject)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Characteristics of skin aging in Korean men and women

J. H. Chung
Introduction Korea is located between Japan and Mainland China. The people of these three countries have similar appearances and it is difficult to differentiate between them. Although the population of Asia is more than half of the total population of the Earth, the inherent characteristics of Asian skin have not been well investigated. Commercial markets for cosmetics and drugs for photoaged skin are rapidly expanding in many Asian countries. Therefore, many investigators in the field of dermatology and cosmetology have become interested in brown Asian skin. Clinical characteristics of skin aging and photoaging in Asians Skin aging can be divided into two basic processes: intrinsic aging and photoaging [1]. Intrinsic aging is characterized by smooth, dry, pale, and finely wrinkled skin, whereas photoaging, which indicates premature skin aging in chronically photodamaged skin, is characterized by severe wrinkling and irregular pigmentation. The pattern of wrinkling in Asians seems to differ from that in Caucasians. Asians have coarser, thicker and deep wrinkles, particularly in the forehead, perioral and Crow's foot areas. In contrast, Caucasians usually have relatively fine cheek and Crow's foot wrinkles. The reasons for these differences are not known and need further investigation. There are racial, ethnic and genetic differences, and differences of skin structure and function, between the brown skin of Asians and the white skin of Caucasians. As Asian skin is more pigmented, acute and chronic cutaneous responses to UV irradiation differ from those in white skin. Many people believe, based on clinical impressions, that the main process of photoaging in Asians involves pigmentary changes, rather than wrinkling. However, no study has been performed to confirm this belief. Risk factors for skin wrinkles and their relative risks in Korean skin [2] Various factors such as age, sun-exposure, and smoking are known to be important risk factors for wrinkles. However, the relative risks of each factor on wrinkles in the brown skin of Asians have not been investigated, and they could differ from those in Caucasians. An evaluation system for skin wrinkling is necessary for Asian skin [3]. Thus, we developed an eight-point photographic scale for assessing wrinkles in both Korean genders [2]. This scale can probably be applied to the populations of other Asian countries, at least to the Japanese and Chinese. The pattern of wrinkles in both genders appears to be similar. Age Age is an important risk factor for wrinkling in Asians, as in Caucasians. Korean subjects in their 60s showed a 12-fold increased risk of wrinkling, while subjects in their 70s have a 56-fold increased risk compared with young age group. UV light It is well known that the UV component in sunlight can cause and accelerate photoaging. The pigmented skin of Asian may better protect skin from acute and chronic UV damage. However, we found a strong association between sun-exposure and the development of wrinkling in Koreans. It was found that sun exposure of more than 5 h per day was associated with a 4.8-fold increased risk in wrinkling versus less than 2 h of sun-exposure in Koreans. Estrogen deficiency Korean females have more wrinkles than men, after controlling for age, sun exposure, and smoking, it was found that they have a 3.6-fold increased risk of developing wrinkles than their male counterparts [2]. It has also been reported, that the relative risk for wrinkling in women is higher than in men as for in white Caucasians [4]. The reason why women show more wrinkles remains to be determined. It is possible that a reduction in skin collagen because of estrogen deficiency in postmenopausal woman may aggravate wrinkling severity. Korean women with more than 10 years since menopause showed a 3.9-fold higher risk of wrinkling than the women 5 years of beyond menopause [5]. We demonstrated that women with a history of HRT have a significantly lower risk, more specifically, one fifth of the risk of facial wrinkling relative to those who had no history of HRT. Interestingly, we found that wrinkle severity significantly increased with an increasing number of full term pregnancies. The relative risk for severe wrinkling is increased by approximately 1.8-fold per full term pregnancy. Smoking It is known that smoking causes skin wrinkling in Caucasians, and that it plays no role in Blacks [6, 7]. Koreans with have a smoking history of more than 30 pack years showed a more than 2.8-fold increased risk of wrinkles [2]. The relative risks of wrinkles associated with a 30,50 pack-years history of smoking were 2.8- and 5.5-fold, respectively. Dyspigmentation in Asian skin To follow pigmentary changes, six photographic standards for both genders were developed for Korean skin, to produce a 6-point scale [2, 8]. Hyperpigmented spots, mostly lentigines, were prominent among women, while seborrheic keratosis tended to be more prominent in men. Seborrheic keratosis in Korean men Seborrheic keratoses (SKs) are benign cutaneous tumors. They have diverse clinical and histopathological appearances and are very common in the elderly (over 50 years old). The etiology of SKs is not well understood, although patients with a great number of lesionsshow a familial trait with an autosomal dominant pattern, and human papilloma virus has been suggested as possible cause because of verrucous appearance of the lesions. Exposure to sunlight has been suggested to be a risk factor for SKs. However, there is still some debate in terms of the role of sunlight. Recently, we have investigated the clinical characteristics of SKs and relationship between SKs and sunlight exposure in Korean males [9]. The prevalence of SKs in Koreans increases with age; it rose from 78.9% at 40 years, to 93.9% at 50 years and 98.7% in those over 60 years. Exposed areas, i.e. the face, neck and dorsum of the hands, demonstrate a significant increase in the prevalence of SKs by decade, whereas partly exposed areas, although SKs tended to increase in prevalence with age, this trend was not significant. When the estimated body surface area (BSA) is taken into account, the number of SKs on both the face and dorsum of the hands (0.51 ± 0.08 per 1% BSA) was over-represented compared with the trunk. SKs were also concentrated on the neck (0.38 ± 0.07 per 1% BSA) and in the V-area (0.47 ± 0.09 per 1% BSA). Outer forearms also showed 3-fold more SKs per unit area than neighboring arms and inner forearms, which are classified as partly exposed area (0.09 ± 0.02, 0.03 ± 0.01, respectively). The total area covered by SKs on exposed area also became significantly larger with aging than on intermittently exposed areas. These results indicate that exposure to sunlight might be related to SK growth. Our results indicated that excessive sun exposure is an independent risk factor of SKs. After controlling for age, smoking, and skin type, subjects with a sun exposure history of more than 6 hours per day showed a 2.28-fold increased risk of having severe SKs (n , 6) compared with those exposed for less that 3 h per day. These findings indicated that sun-exposure may play an important role in SK development. In summary, SKs are very common in Korean males and represent one of the major pigmentary problems. SKs concentrate on exposed skin, especially on the face and dorsum of the hands. Both age and lifetime cumulative sunlight exposure are important contributing factors and may work in a synergistic manner. Conclusion Many people tend to believe that wrinkles are not a prominent feature of Asian photoaged skin, and that dyspigmentation is a major manifestation in Asian skin. Contrary to this impression, wrinkling is also a major problem in the photoaged skin of Asians, and Korean people showing severe pigmentary changes usually tend to have severe wrinkles. In conclusion, the wrinkling patterns and pigmentary changes of photoaged skin in East Asians differ from those of Caucasians, and the relative risks of aggravating factors may be different from those of Caucasian skin. References 1.,Gilchrest, B.A. Skin aging and photoaging: an overview. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 21, 610,613 (1989). 2.,Chung, J.H. et al. Cutaneous photodamage in Koreans: influence of sex, sun exposure, smoking, and skin color. Arch. Dermatol. 137, 1043,1051 (2001). 3.,Griffiths, C.E. et al. A photonumeric scale for the assessment of cutaneous photodamage. Arch. Dermatol. 128, 347,351 (1992). 4.,Ernster, V.L. et al. Facial wrinkling in men and women, by smoking status. Am. J. Public Health. 85, 78,82 (1995). 5.,Youn, C.S. et al. Effect of pregnancy and menopause on facial wrinkling in women. Acta Derm. Venereol. 83, 419,424 (2003). 6.,Kadunce, D.P. et al. Cigarette smoking: risk factor for premature facial wrinkling. Ann. Intern. Med. 114, 840,844 (1991). 7.,Allen, H.B., Johnson, B.L. and Diamond, S.M. Smoker's wrinkles? JAMA. 225, 1067,1069 (1973). 8.,Chung, J.H. Photoaging in Asians. Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. 19, 109,121 (2003). 9.,Kwon, O.S. et al. Seborrheic keratosis in the Korean males: causative role of sunlight. Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. 19, 73,80 (2003). [source]

Comparison of genetic polymorphisms of the NAT2 gene between Korean and four other ethnic groups

T. S. Kang MS
Summary Background and objective:,N -acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) is responsible for the acetylation of numerous drugs and in the transformation of aromatic and heterocyclinc amines into carcinogenic intermediates. Polymorphism of NAT2 may contribute to interindividual variability in such acetylation. The aim of this study was to determine the allele frequencies of polymorphisms of the NAT2 gene, analyse linkage disequilibrium (LD) block and haplotypes in Koreans and compare them with those of other ethnic groups. Methods:, We analysed genetic polymorphisms in all functional promoter and exons of the NAT2 gene by direct sequencing of genomic DNA from 192 healthy Korean subjects. The LD and haplotype blocks of these subjects were constructed from genotype data using an expectation,maximization algorithm. We compared these allele frequencies, LD block and haplotype structure with those of other ethnic groups registered on the International HapMap database. Results and discussion:, We identified 33 polymorphisms including six novel single nucleotide polymorphisms, ,10778T>C, ,10777A>G, ,10351A>G, ,10199C>T and ,10104G>T in promoter and 578C>T in exon2 (T193M) in the Korean subjects tested. All allele frequencies reported in the Koreans were similar to those of Asians except for one allele (rs4345600, ,9306A>G), whereas African and European groups had different frequencies in exon2. The haplotype structure and LD block among the five groups also revealed significant differences. Conclusion:, Ethnic differences in the NAT2 genotype frequencies may be one of the important factors explaining variability in cancer incidence and drug toxicity. Our observations could be useful in assessing the susceptibility of different populations to cancer and contribute to better predictions of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs that are metabolized by NAT2, in different populations. [source]

Reflux esophagitis facilitates low Helicobacter pylori infection rate and gastric inflammation

Tae Jung Jang
Abstract Background:Helicobacter pylori is regarded as an important pathogen in upper gastrointestinal diseases. However, little is known about the relationship between H. pylori infection and reflux esophagitis. Therefore, an investigation was undertaken in Korean subjects regarding the incidence of H. pylori infection, and a histopathological study of reflux esophagitis was also carried out. Methods: Analysis of gastric biopsy specimens was conducted for 73 patients with reflux esophagitis and 132 control subjects without reflux esophagitis. The H. pylori infection was assessed by using rapid urease test and the immunohistochemical method, and gastric mucosal morphologic change was analyzed according to the updated Sydney system. Results: The prevalence of H. pylori infection was significantly lower in patients with reflux esophagitis than in the non-reflux group. Grade of inflammation and glandular atrophy in the antrum and body were higher in patients in the non-reflux group compared with those in the reflux esophagitis group. Conclusions: It is suggested that H. pylori infection decreases the risk of reflux esophagitis by inducing atrophic gastritis. © 2002 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd [source]

Prevalence of hypouricaemia and SLC22A12 mutations in healthy Korean subjects

NEPHROLOGY, Issue 8 2008
SUMMARY: Aim: Mutations in the SLC22A12 gene, which encodes a uric acid transporter, URAT1, are associated with renal hypouricaemia. This study was designed to measure serum uric acid (Sua) levels and allele frequencies of two common mutations in SLC22A12, W258X and R90H, in healthy Korean subjects. Methods: A total of 909 unrelated Korean adults (male : female, 1:1.23; mean age, 48.4 ± 11.0 years) were recruited among those who had taken a routine health check-up in a health centre in 2003. None of them had hypertension, diabetes mellitus, kidney diseases or liver diseases. Genotyping for W258X and R90H was performed using the TaqMan method. Results: The prevalences of hyperuricaemia (Sua levels, >416 µmol/L) and hypouricaemia (Sua levels, <178 µmol/L) were 4.6% and 3.3%, respectively. A marked male preponderance in the hyperuricaemic group was noted, and the men revealed higher Sua than the women. The Sua showed a positive correlation with serum creatinine level and blood pressure. In the hypouricaemic group, the allele frequencies of W258X and R90H were 11.7% and 6.7%, respectively, and the proportion of subjects with one or both of the mutant alleles was 33.3%. Hyperuricaemic subjects never had either mutation. Conclusion: The W258X and/or R90H mutations in the SLC22A12 gene are one of the major factors responsible for hypouricaemia, and one-third of the hypouricaemic subjects had one or both of the mutant alleles. [source]

HLA,DPB1 and DPB2 are genetic loci for systemic sclerosis: A genome-wide association study in Koreans with replication in North Americans

Xiaodong Zhou
Objective To identify systemic sclerosis (SSc) susceptibility loci via a genome-wide association study. Methods A genome-wide association study was performed in 137 patients with SSc and 564 controls from Korea using the Affymetrix Human SNP Array 5.0. After fine-mapping studies, the results were replicated in 1,107 SSc patients and 2,747 controls from a US Caucasian population. Results The single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs3128930, rs7763822, rs7764491, rs3117230, and rs3128965) of HLA,DPB1 and DPB2 on chromosome 6 formed a distinctive peak with log P values for association with SSc susceptibility (P = 8.16 × 10,13). Subtyping analysis of HLA,DPB1 showed that DPB1*1301 (P = 7.61 × 10,8) and DPB1*0901 (P = 2.55 × 10,5) were the subtypes most susceptible to SSc in Korean subjects. In US Caucasians, 2 pairs of SNPs, rs7763822/rs7764491 and rs3117230/rs3128965, showed strong association with SSc patients who had either circulating anti,DNA topoisomerase I (P = 7.58 × 10,17/4.84 × 10,16) or anticentromere autoantibodies (P = 1.12 × 10,3/3.2 × 10,5), respectively. Conclusion The results of our genome-wide association study in Korean subjects indicate that the region of HLA,DPB1 and DPB2 contains the loci most susceptible to SSc in a Korean population. The confirmatory studies in US Caucasians indicate that specific SNPs of HLA,DPB1 and/or DPB2 are strongly associated with US Caucasian patients with SSc who are positive for anti,DNA topoisomerase I or anticentromere autoantibodies. [source]

Effect of age on anterior chamber angle configuration in Asians determined by anterior segment optical coherence tomography; clinic-based study

Mi Hyun Cheon
Acta Ophthalmol. 2010: 88: e205,e210 Abstract. Purpose:, To evaluate the distribution of anterior chamber angle (ACA) parameters and to assess association of these parameters with age in Asian subjects. Methods:, Four hundred and thirty-nine consecutive Korean subjects aged from 30 to 89 were enrolled from a university clinic. All participants were scanned using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT, Visante, version 2.0). We measured ACA parameters such as anterior chamber depth (ACD), angle opening distance at 500 and 750 ,m (AOD500,750), angle recess area at 500 and 750 ,m (ARA500,750), trabecular iris space area at 500 and 750 ,m (TISA500,750), and determined age-related changes in these parameters with use of a linear mixed effect model that adjusted for gender, axial length, intraocular pressure, and keratometry data. Slopes of ACA parameters as a function of age were determined. For various AS-OCT parameters, the normalized slope was calculated by dividing the slope by the mean value. Results:, All analysed ACA parameters decreased with age in both nasal and temporal quadrants. Axial length and keratometry data were significant covariates for ACA changes. The slopes of ACD were ,0.02396 mm/year, AOD500, ARA500, and TISA500 measured at the temporal angle were ,0.00634 mm/year, ,0.0019 mm2/year, and ,0.00177 mm2/year, respectively. There was no age-dependent difference in central corneal thickness (p value; 0.4597) Based on the normalized slopes, the AOD showed the steepest slope at both temporal and nasal sectors. Conclusion:, All ACA parameters assessed by AS-OCT, which accounted for other ocular biometric parameters, showed significant negative slopes with increasing age. These results should be considered when assessing changes in the anterior chamber over time. [source]

Polymorphisms of ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 are associated with phenotypes of type 2 diabetes in Koreans

Jin Taek Kim
Summary Objective, Adiponectin receptors 1 and 2 (ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2) are considered as candidate genes for type 2 diabetes because they mediate the metabolic effects of adiponectin on target tissues. We investigated whether common polymorphisms of ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 are associated with type 2 diabetes or its related phenotypes in Koreans. Design and patients, By sequencing of the DNA samples from 24 unrelated Korean subjects, we selected seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from ADIPOR1 and four SNPs from ADIPOR2 for genotyping in 757 type 2 diabetic patients and 644 nondiabetic subjects. Results, None of the SNPs were associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes. However, g.,7309A>G (rs75172865) in ADIPOR1 was associated with lower insulin resistance, measured by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Thereafter, we transfected three different human cell lines with plasmids harbouring g.,7309A>G and found that this variant reduced the promoter activity of ADIPOR1. In ADIPOR2, g.,63442G (novel SNP) and g.33447T (rs1044471) were associated with smaller waist circumference. Conclusions, None of the SNPs in either ADIPOR1 or ADIPOR2 were associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes in Koreans. However, the altered activity of the ADIPOR1 promoter was associated with insulin resistance and SNPs of ADIPOR2 were associated with waist circumference. [source]