Korean Peninsula (korean + peninsula)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Taxonomic review of the genus Gonioctena Chevrolat (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Chrysomelinae) in the Korean Peninsula

ENTOMOLOGICAL RESEARCH, Issue 2 2008
Hee Wook CHO
Abstract A taxonomic review of the genus Gonioctena in the Korean Peninsula is presented. Ten species belonging to three subgenera are recognized. Gonioctena jacobsoni (Ogloblin et Medvedev) and Gonioctnea kamiyai Kimoto are recorded for the first time in Korea. A key, illustrations of diagnostic characters, and the coloration patterns of Korean Gonioctena are provided. [source]


Palaeomagnetic and rock-magnetic studies of Cretaceous rocks in the Gongju Basin, Korea: implication of clockwise rotation

GEOPHYSICAL JOURNAL INTERNATIONAL, Issue 3 2002
Seong-Jae Doh
Summary Palaeomagnetic and rock-magnetic studies have been carried out for Cretaceous non-marine sedimentary rocks (Gongju Group) and volcanic rocks in the Gongju Basin, located along the northern boundary of the Ogcheon Belt, Korea. K,Ar age dating for the volcanic rocks was also performed. It is found that the Gongju Group was remagnetised during the tilting of the strata with the characteristic remanent magnetisation (ChRM) direction of at 30 per cent untilting of the strata with a maximum value of precision parameter (k), while the volcanic rocks are revealed to acquire primary remanence with the direction of after the tilt-correction. The K,Ar ages of the volcanic rocks range from 81.8 ± 2.4 to 73.5 ± 2.2 Ma, corresponding to the Campanian stage of the Late Cretaceous. Electron microscope observations of samples from the Gongju Group show authigenic iron-oxide minerals of various sizes distributed along the cleavage of chlorite and in the pore spaces, indicating that the strata acquired the chemical remanent magnetisation due to the formation of secondary magnetic minerals under the influence of fluids. The palaeomagnetic pole positions are at Lat./Long. = 69.6°N/224.3°E (dp= 3.5°, dm= 5.2°) calculated for the 30 per cent tilt-corrected direction of the Gongju Group and at for the volcanic rocks. Based on the results of this study, it is interpreted that the volcanic rocks acquired the primary magnetisation almost at the same time as the remagnetisation of the Gongju Group in the Late Cretaceous. Comparisons of Cretaceous palaeomagnetic poles from the Korean Peninsula with those from Eurasia implies that the Korean Peninsula underwent clockwise rotation of 21.2°± 5.3° for the middle Early Cretaceous, 12.6°± 5.4° for the late Early Cretaceous, and 7.1°± 9.8° for the Late Cretaceous with respect to Eurasia, due to the sinistral motion of the Tan-Lu Fault. [source]


Sandstone diagenesis of the Lower Cretaceous Sindong Group, Gyeongsang Basin, southeastern Korea: Implications for compositional and paleoenvironmental controls

ISLAND ARC, Issue 1 2008
Yong Il Lee
Abstract The Gyeongsang Basin is a non-marine sedimentary basin formed by extensional tectonism during the Early Cretaceous in the southeastern Korean Peninsula. The sediment fill starts with the Sindong Group distributed along the western margin of the basin. It consists of three lithostratigraphic units: the Nakdong (alluvial fan), Hasandong (fluvial) and Jinju (lacustrine) formations with decreasing age. Sindong Group sandstones are classified into four petrofacies (PF) based on their detrital composition: PF-A consists of the lower Nakdong Formation with average Q73F12R15; PF-B the upper Nakdong and lower Hasandong formations with Q66F15R18; PF-C the middle Hasandong to middle Jinju formations with Q49F29R22; and PF-D the upper Jinju Formation with Q26F34R41. The variations of detrital composition influenced the diagenetic mineral assemblage in the Sindong Group sandstones. Illite and dolomite/ankerite are important diagenetic minerals in PF-A and PF-B, whereas calcite and chlorite are dominant diagenetic minerals in PF-C and PF-D. Most of the diagenetic minerals can be divided into early and late diagenetic stages of formation. Early diagenetic calcites occur mostly in PF-C, probably controlled by arid to semiarid climatic conditions during the sandstone deposition, no early calcite being found in PF-A and PF-B. Late-stage calcites are present in all Sindong Group sandstones. The calcium ions may have been derived from shale diagenesis and dissolution of early stage calcites in the Hasandong and Jinju sandstones. Illite, the only diagenetic clay mineral in PF-A and lower PF-B, is inferred to be a product of kaolinite transformation during deep burial, and the former presence of kaolinite is inferred from the humid paleoclimatic conditions during the deposition of the Nakdong Formation. Chlorites in PF-C and PF-D are interpreted to be the products of transformation of smectitic clay or of precipitation from alkaline pore water under arid to semiarid climatic conditions. The occurrence of late-stage diagenetic minerals largely depended on the distribution of early diagenetic minerals, which was controlled initially by the sediment composition and paleoclimate. [source]


Thrust geometries in unconsolidated Quaternary sediments and evolution of the Eupchon Fault, southeast Korea

ISLAND ARC, Issue 3 2004
Young-Seog Kim
Abstract The Korean peninsula is widely regarded as being located at the relatively stable eastern margin of the Asian continent. However, more than 10 Quaternary faults have recently been discovered in and reported from the southeastern part of the Korean Peninsula. One of these, the Eupchon Fault, was discovered during the construction of a primary school, and it is located close to a nuclear power plant. To understand the nature and characteristics of the Quaternary Eupchon Fault, we carried out two trench surveys near the discovery site. The fault system includes one main reverse fault (N20°E/40°SE) with approximately 4 m displacement, and a series of branch faults, cutting unconsolidated Quaternary sediments. Structures in the fault system include synthetic and antithetic faults, hanging-wall anticlines, drag folds, back thrusts, pop-up structures, flat-ramp geometries and duplexes, which are very similar to those seen in thrust systems in consolidated rocks. In the upper part of the fault system, several tip damage zones are observed, indicating that the fault system propagates upward and terminates in the upper part of the section. Pebbles along the main fault plane show a preferred orientation of long axes, indicating the fault trace. The unconformity surface between the Quaternary deposits and the underlying Tertiary andesites or Cretaceous sedimentary rocks is displaced by this fault with a reverse movement sense. The stratigraphic relationship shows normal slip sense at the lower part of the section, indicating that the fault had a normal slip movement and was reversely reactivated during the Quaternary. The inferred length of the Quaternary thrust fault, based on the relationship between fault length and displacement, is 200,2000 m. The current maximum horizontal compressive stress direction in this area is generally east-northeast,west-southwest, which would be expected to produce oblique slip on the Eupchon Fault, with reverse and right-lateral strike-slip components. [source]


Quaternary reactivation of Tertiary faults in the southeastern Korean Peninsula: Age constraint by optically stimulated luminescence dating

ISLAND ARC, Issue 1 2003
Jin-Han Ree
Abstract Two groups of Quaternary faults occur in the southeastern Korean Peninsula. The first group is north-northeast-striking, high-angle dextral strike,slip faults. The second group is north-northeast-striking, low-angle reverse faults that represent the reactivation of the pre-existing normal faults. Optically stimulated luminescence dating of Quaternary sediments cut by one of the reverse faults constrains the faulting age to post-32 Ka. These faults seem to be capable of further slip under the current tectonic stress regime, as determined by recent earthquake events in northeast Asia. Therefore, the traditional concept that the southeastern Korean Peninsula is seismically stable should be reappraised. [source]


Differentiation of golden-ringed dragonfly Anotogaster sieboldii (Selys, 1854) (Cordulegastridae: Odonata) in the insular East Asia revealed by the mitochondrial gene genealogy with taxonomic implications

JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGICAL SYSTEMATICS AND EVOLUTIONARY RESEARCH, Issue 2 2008
T. Kiyoshi
Abstract Molecular phylogeographical analyses of Anotogaster sieboldii (Selys, 1854) were conducted to reveal the differentiation process of insular populations. The gene genealogy based on 845 bp of the mitochondrial genes (cytochrome oxidase subunit I and subunit II) indicated that A. sieboldii includes two deeply separated lineages. These two major lineages seem to have differentiated in Miocene before the formation of the insular East Asia. One lineage includes three inner clades that correspond to the populations of northern area (the Japanese main islands, Korean Peninsula, Yakushima), Amamioshima and Okinawajima. Populations of Central Ryukyu, including Amamioshima and Okinawajima, might have been divided from the northern populations in early Pleistocene. The other major lineage includes populations of the Yaeyama Group, Taiwan and East China. The former two populations were reconstructed as a reciprocal monophyletic group. Populations of Taiwan and Yaeyama Groups would have been separated from the continental ones in Pleistocene. These two highly divergent lineages should be recognized as distinct species. Furthermore, the mitochondrial lineages revealed six genetically distinct and geographically isolated assemblages: (1) northern populations, (2) Amamioshima, (3) Okinawajima, (4) Yaeyama Group, (5) Taiwan and (6) East China. Zusammenfassung An der Libelle Anotogaster sieboldii wurden molekulare phylogeographische Analysen durchgeführt, um ihre Differenzierungen in Insel-Populationen zu erkennen. Die Gen-Genealogie (basierend auf 845 bp mitochondrialer Gene (COI und COII) zeigte, dass A. sieboldii zwei weit getrennte Abstammungslinien enthält, die sich wahrscheinlich im Miozän vor der Bildung der ostasiatischen Inselwelt differenzierten. Eine Abstammungslinie schließt drei Gruppierungen ein, die den Populationen in den nördlichen Gebieten entsprechen: die japanischen Hauptinseln, die koreanische Halbinsel Yakushima, Amamioshima sowie Okinawajima. Die Populationen von Zentral-Ryukyu, einschließlich Amamioshima und Okinawajima, ist möglicherweise im frühen Pleistozän von den nördlichen Populationen getrennt worden. Die andere größere Abstammungslinie schließt die Populationen der Yaeyama-Gruppe, Taiwan und das Östliche China ein. Zwei dieser Populationen wurden als Teil einer entsprechenden monophyletischen Gruppe rekonstruiert; die Populationen von Taiwan und die Yaeyama-Gruppe sind danach im Pleistozän von den kontinentalen Populationen getrennt worden. Diese zwei sehr differierenden Abstammungslinien sollten als verschiedene Spezies betrachtet werden. Weiterhin werden sechs genetisch verschiedene und geographisch isolierte Gruppierungen deutlich: (1) die nördlichen Populationen, (2) Amamioshima, (3) Okinawajima, (4) die Yaeyama-Gruppe, (5) Taiwan und (6) die Population im östlichen China. [source]


Stability with Uncertainties: U. S.-China Relations and the Korean Peninsula

PACIFIC FOCUS, Issue 1 2005
Fei-Ling Wang
This article describes the U.S.-China relations and its impact on the Korean Peninsula. It outlines the key motivations behind the making of Chinese foreign policy and then reports on the current stability and uncertainties between Beijing and Washington. As a result of its overall objectives in diplomacy, Beijing is seeking a shared strategic interest with the United States on the Korean issue. The PRC prefers the continued survival of the DPRK regime and develops ever-closer relations with the ROK; its basic policy towards the Korean Peninsula remains pro-status quo and anti-nuclearization. However, the uncertainties and complications of the Sino-American relations profoundly affect China's strategic calculation about Korean Peninsula and indicate changes and problems in the Chinese Korea policy. [source]


China on the Korea Peace and Unification Process

PACIFIC FOCUS, Issue 2 2002
Quansheng Zhao
This study examines China's relations with the Korean peninsula by focusing on the issues of Korea peace and unification process. After a brief review of historical legacy, it looks closely at Beijing's attitudes towards Korean unification and peace process, the changing priorities in Chinese foreign policy, balance of power and community-building in the region, and decline of ideology and personal ties in Beijing's foreign policy considerations. It also analyzes Korean minorities in China and Beijing's diplomatic dilemma created by the issue of North Korean refugees. The conclusion section summarizes Beijing's major concerns towards the Korean Peninsula and future directions ofSino-Korean relations. [source]


U.S. Foreign Policy in the Korean Peninsula

PACIFIC FOCUS, Issue 1 2001
Karl DeRouen Jr.
First page of article [source]


Granitoids and Their Magnetic Susceptibility in South Korea

RESOURCE GEOLOGY, Issue 3 2001
Myung, Shik JIN
Abstract: Magnetic susceptibility (MS) measurements were carried out for 1,120 samples in the Middle Proterozoic to Early Tertiary granitoids so far recognized in South Korea, and the lateral and spatial variation of their magnetic susceptibility, i.e., content of magnetite, is studied. The Middle Proterozoic two mica granitoids related to cassiterite (Sn) deposits in northeastern part of the Sobaegsan Massif show very low MS (less than 0.3 A- 10 -3 SI unit), and the Permo-Triassic tonalitic to granodioritic and monzonitic rocks which are barren in mineralization, distributed in the middle part of South Korea also show low MS (less than 1 A- 10 -3 SI unit). On the contrary the Late Triassic to Jurassic granitoids (= Daebo granitoids) which were evolved from tonalite through granodiorite to granite, and are most widely distributed in South Korea, show a wide variation on MS. Particularly in the Andong, Igsan, Gimcheon and Geochang areas, the granitoids which are barren in mineralization, are characterized by high MS (more than 10 A- 10 -3 SI unit). The Chuncheon, Jecheon, Namyang and Geumsan plutons related to molybdenite (Mo) and/or wolframite or scheelite (W), and fluorite (F) mineralizations show a little high MS (more than 3 A- 10 -3 SI unit). However, more than 60% of the Daebo granitoids show low MS (less than 3 A- 10 -3 SI unit) and the rest show a little high MS (more than 3 A- 10 -3 SI unit). Heterogeneous distribution of magnetite content in the Daebo granitoids is considered to reflect heterogeneity of redox state of the source materials for these granitoids. The Cretaceous to Early Tertiary granitoids (= Bulgugsa granitoids) in the Gyeongsang Basin had been generally evolved in the order of tonalite, diorite, granodiorite, granite and alkali-feldspar granites, which are closely related to base metal ore deposits, and mostly show higher MS (more than 3 A- 10 -3 SI unit) than other granitoids mentioned above, although some exceptions are recognized in highly evolved alkali-feldspar granites (SiO2 > 76%). In contrast, as most of the highly oxidized or evolved Cretaceous granitoids distributed in areas other than the Gyeongsang Basin show lower MS than those of the Gyeongsang Basin, and appear to be magnetite free, ilmenite-series granites, but they might be hematite bearing magnetite-series granitoids. Highly oxidized nature of the Bulgugsa granitoids may be due to high Fe2O3/FeO ratio of the source materials and also high level intrusion style of the granitic magma activities. Most of the granitic rocks of the Middle Proterozoic, Permo-Triassic and more than 60% of the Late Triassic to Jurassic (Daebo granitoids) belong to ilmenite,series, however less than 40% of the Daebo granitoids and most Cretaceous ones are magnetite,series. Thus, the granitic magma intruded in Korean Peninsula became oxidized while the intrusive ages become younger. [source]


Sulfur Isotope Study and Re-examination of Ore Mineral Assemblage of the Hol Kol and the Tul Mi Chung Skarn-type Copper,Gold Deposits of the Suan Mining District, Korean Peninsula

RESOURCE GEOLOGY, Issue 4 2000
Akira Imai
Abstract: Ore specimens collected by the late Professor Takeo Watanabe from the Hol Kol and the Tul Mi Chung deposits, Suan mining district, Korean peninsula, were examined. In addition, measurements of sulfur isotopic ratio of ores and preliminary fluid inclusion microthermometry were carried out. Ores from the New orebody of the Hol Kol deposit consist mainly of bornite, wittichenite and chalcopyrite presently, which exhibit lamellae intergrowth texture, associated with native bismuth and electrum. Bismuthian bornite solid solution is considered to be a principal initial phases, while native bismuth was nucleated as molten bismuth melt initially. The occurrence of cubanite, miharaite, carrollite, siegenite, hessite and geikielite are recognized from the New orebody. Ores from the Eastern orebody of the Hol Kol deposit consist chiefly of chalcopyrite, occasionally associated with trace amounts of pyrrhotite, pyrite, bismuthinite and rare tellurobismuthite, while an ore specimen from the Western orebody consists mainly of sphalerite associated with chalcopyrite, pyrite and galena. Ores from the Tul Mi Chung deposit consist mainly of chalcopyrite and pyrite, occasionally associated with magnetite, sphalerite, galena and rare molybdenite. Some portions of magnetite are revealed to be silician magnetite. Sulfur fugacity is supposed to be below the stability field of bismuthinite in the New orebody. A reducing condition is suggested by the occurrence of geikielite without Fe3+ content. The sulfur and oxygen fugacities for the Eastern and Western orebodies of the Hol Kol deposit and for the Tul Mi Chung deposit were higher than the New orebody of the Hol Kol deposit. On the other hand, the Suan granite (porphyritic granodiorite) and the Chil Sing Dai granite (biotite granite porphyry) from the Hol Kol area can be classified as weakly magnetic magnetite-series. Polyphase fluid inclusions are observed in gangue diopside associated with Cu ore of two specimens. The dissolution temperatures of daughter crystals are 394±26°C and 442±45°C, while the disappearing temperatures of vapor bubble were 475±25°C and > 500°C. Highly saline fluids were responsible for the mineralization at the Hol Kol deposit. The ,34S values of ore sulfides of the Hol Kol and the Tul Mi Chung deposit range from +11. 5% to +16. 1%, having anomalous lower values mainly from the Tul Mi Chung deposit. Such anomalous lower 634S values can be caused by isotopic fractionation against oxidized sulfur species. The ,34S value of bulk sulfur in the ore solutions responsible for the Hol Kol and the Tul Mi Chung deposit is estimated to be +13.5±2.5,. [source]


Polymorphic analysis of microsatellite DNA in wild populations of Chinese shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis)

AQUACULTURE RESEARCH, Issue 6 2006
Ping Liu
Abstract Primers were designed for eight microsatellite loci from Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis. Microsatellites were used to characterize three wild populations from the China coast of the Yellow and Bohai Seas (HB), and the west coast (KX) and south coast of the Korean Peninsula (KN). A total of sixty-one alleles were obtained, and the average observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.660 to 0.756. Six of the 24 population-locus cases showed a significant departure from the Hardy,Weinberg equilibrium, three of them from population KN, two from KX and one from HB. The Fst values indicated that genetic variation was greater within populations than between populations. Analysis using unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean showed that the relationship between populations HB and KX was closer than between KN and the other two populations. Polymorphic information contents of the eight microsatellites ranged from 0.598 to 0.918. These results indicated that all eight microsatellite loci would be useful for the analysis of genetic variation in Chinese shrimp (F. chinensis) populations. [source]


PETROGRAPHY AND PROVENANCE INTERPRETATION OF THE STONE MOULDS FOR BRONZE DAGGERS FROM THE GALDONG PREHISTORIC SITE, REPUBLIC OF KOREA*

ARCHAEOMETRY, Issue 1 2010
C. H. LEE
This paper presents material characteristics and raw material provenance of the stone moulds for bronze slender daggers from Galdong. This type of bronze dagger is uniquely distributed in the Korean Peninsula and these stone moulds were the first to be found by excavation. The stone moulds were made of igneous hornblendite with course-grained holocrystalline textures. Based on petrological, mineralogical and geochemical characteristics, the original rock materials of the moulds were inferred to be derived from the Jangsu or Namwon areas which are about 50 km away from the excavation site. It is a notable achievement that this provenance study confirmed the domestic production of Korean-styled daggers. [source]


A New Species of Halophilous Collembola (Insecta) from Korea

ENTOMOLOGICAL RESEARCH, Issue 2 2004
Kyung-Hwa PARK
ABSTRACT Three species of interstitial Collembola in Entomobryidae were identified from South Korean coast. One of them, Sinella (Coecobrya) maritima, is new to science. So far 21 halophilous species in 10 families of Collembola, including the new species in this paper, were reported from the Korean peninsula. [source]


Palynological evidence for late Holocene environmental change on the Gimhae fluvial plain, Southern Korean peninsula: Reconstructing the rise and fall of Golden Crown Gaya State

GEOARCHAEOLOGY: AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL, Issue 8 2003
Sangheon Yi
This paper presents the results of detailed studies of palynomorphs recovered from two cores collected near the Yeanri burial mound on the Gimhae fluvial plain. Two local pollen zones were recognized on the basis of variations in the palynofloral assemblage: a lower Pollen Zone I, dominated by a Pinus-Quercus assemblage, and an upper Pollen Zone II, dominated by a Pinus-Quercus -Gramineae assemblage. The palynological and molluscan analyses indicate that the depositional environments changed from a lower intertidal flat of a shallow bay environment to an upper intertidal flat in a shallow bay (before 1280 ± 110 14C yr B.P.), and finally to a fluvial plain similar to that of today. This environmental change may have resulted from uplift along the Yangsan Fault. Afterward, the exposed area was modified by human activities, as indicated by a sudden increase in grassland herbaceous pollen grains. The loss of this bay likely had a dramatic effect on the Golden Crown Gaya State (3rd,7th centuries A.D.), which used it as a major port for regional trade, and may explain why it eventually merged with the Shilla State. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


A Rogue is a Rogue is a Rogue: US Foreign Policy and the Korean Nuclear Crisis

INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS, Issue 4 2003
Roland Bleiker
Two nuclear crises recently haunted the Korean peninsula, one in 1993/4, the other in 2002/3. In each case the events were strikingly similar: North Korea made public its ambition to acquire nuclear weapons and withdrew from the Nonproliferation Treaty. Then the situation rapidly deteriorated until the peninsular was literally on the verge of war. The dangers of North Korea's actions, often interpreted as nuclear brinkmanship, are evident and much discussed, but not so the underlying patterns that have shaped the conflict in the first place. This article sheds light on some of them. It examines the role of the United States in the crisis, arguing that Washington's inability to see North Korea as anything but a threatening ,rogue state' seriously hinders both an adequate understanding and possible resolution of the conflict. Particularly significant is the current policy of pre-emptive strikes against rogue states, for it reinforces half a century of American nuclear threats towards North Korea. The problematic role of these threats has been largely obscured, not least because the highly technical discourse of security analysis has managed to present the strategic situation on the peninsula in a manner that attributes responsibility for the crisis solely to North Korea's actions, even if the situation is in reality far more complex and interactive. [source]


Sensitivity of the regional climate of East/Southeast Asia to convective parameterizations in the RegCM3 modelling system.

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CLIMATOLOGY, Issue 14 2008
Part 1: Focus on the Korean peninsula
Abstract This study investigates the capability of the regional climate model, RegCM3, to simulate fine-scale regional climate over a narrow peninsula or archipelago. The model is run in one-way double-nested mode with one mother domain and two nested domains. The mother domain encompasses the eastern and southern regions of Asia and adjacent oceans with a grid spacing of 60 km. The first nested domain focuses on the Korean peninsula and the second one covers the Philippine archipelago with a grid spacing of 20 km. The simulation spans a period of 5 years and 1 month, from November 2000 to December 2004. The sensitivity of the two convection schemes, namely, the Grell scheme (Grell) and the MIT-Emanuel scheme (EMU), is studied. Model results obtained with both the Grell and EMU show reasonable performance in capturing the seasonal variation and the spatial characteristics of the East Asian monsoon. However, the Grell simulation appears to have persistent cold and dry biases in the summer season. There is a definite improvement in these model deficiencies by the implementation of EMU. Although the temperature fields in the Grell and EMU simulations are essentially the same in terms of the spatial distribution, the EMU simulation is quantitatively in better agreement with the observed estimates, indicating a substantial reduction in the cold bias. Further, in comparison with the Grell simulation, the EMU simulation shows an improvement in the timing and amplitude of the rain band propagating northward. The spatial distributions of precipitation also have good quality, capturing the localized maxima over Korea. The frequency distributions of daily temperature and precipitation simulated by EMU are closer to observations than those of the Grell simulation. It is found that the convective precipitation derived from different convection parameterizations is a major contributor to the performance of the model in summer. Copyright © 2008 Royal Meteorological Society [source]


Global summer monsoon rainy seasons

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CLIMATOLOGY, Issue 12 2008
Suping Zhang
Abstract A concise and objective definition of monsoon rainy season characteristics is proposed for worldwide monsoon regions. The result highlights six major summer monsoon rainy season domains and the mean dates of the local onset, peak and withdrawal phases of the summer monsoon rainy season. The onset phases occur progressively later poleward in the continental domains but primarily eastward in the oceanic monsoon regions. The rainy season retreats equatorward over the continental and oceanic monsoon regions. The length of the rainy season decreases poleward and shorter rainy season can also be found over the outskirts of warm water. Some exceptions exist in terms of the characteristics of rainy season, e.g. the westward advance of rainy season over North Africa and an apparently prolonged rainy season in the Korean peninsula. The results here are basically compatible with those obtained in previous studies on regional monsoons. A definition of the seasonal wind overturning is proposed. Combining rainfall and winds, we stratify the global monsoon into strong and weak categories. The strong monsoons are typically in the regions with both concentration of summer rainfall and annual reversal of low-level winds, while the weak monsoon features only a contrasting wet,dry season. Seemingly, some mid-latitude regions with wind reversals are not monsoonal because of the reversals being opposite to the monsoon overturning and the rainfall patterns being more or less Mediterranean. The comparison between the monsoon domains derived from Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP) and the 40-year European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Re-Analysis (ERA-40), the Japanese 25-year Reanalysis (JRA-25) and National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) datasets show good capabilities of the reanalyses in demarcation of the major monsoon rainy season domains in the tropics and subtropics. But the reanalyses are less realistic in the mid-latitudes of Eurasia and North America. The result here provides the simple yet objective definitions of monsoon domain, onset, peak and withdrawal which are useful for validation of GCMs. Copyright © 2008 Royal Meteorological Society [source]


International Relations Theory and the Second Korean War

INTERNATIONAL STUDIES QUARTERLY, Issue 3 2003
David C. Kang
Ever since the first Korean war in 1950, scholars and policymakers have been predicting a second one, started by an invasion from the North. Whether seen as arising from preventive, preemptive, desperation, or simple aggressive motivations, the predominant perspective in the west sees North Korea as likely to instigate conflict. Yet for fifty years North Korea has not come close to starting a war. Why were so many scholars so consistently wrong about North Korea's intentions? Social scientists can learn as much from events that did not happen as from those that did. The case of North Korea provides a window with which to examine these theories of conflict initiation, and reveals how the assumptions underlying these theories can become mis-specified. Either scholars misunderstood the initial conditions, or they misunderstood the theory, and I show that scholars have made mistakes in both areas. Social science moves forward from clear statement of a theory, its causal logic, and its predictions. However, just as important is the rigorous assessment of a theory, especially if the predictions fail to materialize. North Korea never had the material capabilities to be a serious contender to the U.S.,ROK alliance, and it quickly fell further behind. The real question has not been whether North Korea would preempt as South Korea caught up, but instead why North Korea might fight as it fell further and further behind. The explanation for a half-century of stability and peace on the Korean peninsula is actually quite simple: deterrence works. [source]


Tectonic and stratigraphic significance of the Middle Ordovician carbonate breccias in the Ogcheon Belt, South Korea

ISLAND ARC, Issue 3 2002
In-Chang Ryu
Abstract Carbonate breccias occur sporadically in the Lower,Middle Ordovician Maggol Limestone exposed in the Taebacksan Basin in the northeastern part of the northeast,southwest-trending Ogcheon Belt, South Korea. These carbonate breccias have been previously interpreted as intraformational or fault-related breccias. Thus, little attention has been focused on tectonic and stratigraphic significance of these carbonate breccias. The present study, however, indicates that the majority of these carbonate breccias are solution,collapse breccias, which are causally linked to paleokarstification. Carbonate facies analysis in conjunction with conodont biostratigraphy suggests that an overall regression toward the top of the Maggol Limestone probably culminated in subaerial exposure of platform carbonates during the early Middle Ordovician (earliest Darriwilian). Extensive subaerial exposure of platform carbonates resulted in paleokarst-related solution,collapse breccias in the upper Maggol Limestone. This subaerial exposure event is manifested as a major paleokarst unconformity at the Sauk,Tippecanoe sequence boundary elsewhere beneath the Middle Ordovician succession and its equivalents, most notably North America and North China. Due to its global extent, this paleokarst unconformity has been viewed as a product of second- or third-order eustatic sealevel drop during the early Middle Ordovician. Although a paleokarst breccia zone is recognized beneath the Middle Ordovician succession in South Korea, the Sauk,Tippecanoe sequence boundary appears to be a conformable transgressive surface on the top of the paleokarst breccia zone in the upper Maggol Limestone. The paleokarst breccia zone beneath the conformable transgressive surface is represented by a thinning-upward stack of exposure-capped tidal flat-dominated cycles that are closely associated with multiple occurrences of paleokarst-related solution,collapse breccias. This paleokarst breccia zone was a likely consequence of repeated fourth- and fifth-order sealevel fluctuations. It suggests that second- and third-order eustatic sealevel drop may have been significantly tempered by substantial tectonic subsidence near the end of the Maggol deposition. The tectonic subsidence in the basin is also evidenced by the occurrence of coeval off-platform lowstand siliciclastic quartzite lenses as well as debris flow carbonate breccias (i.e. the Yemi Breccia). With the continued tectonic subsidence, subsequent rise in the eustatic cycle caused drowning and deep flooding of carbonate platform, forming a transgressive surface on the top of the paleokarst breccia zone. This tectonic implication contrasts notably with the slowly subsiding carbonate platform model for the basin as has been previously interpreted. Thus, it is proposed that the Taebacksan Basin in the northeastern part of the Ogcheon Belt evolved from a slowly subsiding carbonate platform to a rapidly subsiding intracontinental rift basin during the early Middle Ordovician. The proposed tectonic model in the basin gives much better insight to unravel the stratigraphic response to tectonic evolution of the Ogcheon Belt, which remains an enigmatic feature in formulating a tectonic framework of the Korean peninsula. The present study also provides a good example that the falling part of the eustatic sealevel cycle may not produce a significant event in a rapidly subsiding basin where the rate of eustatic fall always remained lower than the rate of subsidence. [source]


The influence of synoptic-mesoscale winds and sea surface temperature distribution on fog formation near the Korean western peninsula

METEOROLOGICAL APPLICATIONS, Issue 4 2006
Hyo Choi
Abstract When high pressure is located near the Korean peninsula, a diffluent wind regime generally occurs over the Yellow Sea. At night or early morning, diffluent westerly winds occur on the western side of the Korean peninsula near Inchon city and encounter a combined land breeze and katabatic easterly offshore wind, resulting in conditions ranging from calm to a moderate westerly wind near the coast. Nocturnal radiational cooling of the land surface and the moisture laden westerly winds can cause air near the coast to become saturated, resulting in coastal advection fog. During the day, on the other hand, the synoptic-scale westerly wind is reinforced by a westerly sea breeze and is further reinforced by a westerly valley wind directed upslope towards the mountain top. Even if the resulting intensified onshore wind could transport a large amount of moisture from the sea over the land, it would be very difficult for fog to form because the daytime heat flux from the ground would develop the convective boundary layer inland from Inchon city sufficiently to reduce significantly the moisture content of the air. Therefore, fog does not generally form in situ over the inland coastal basin. When an area of cold sea water (10°C average) exists approximately 25,50 km offshore and the sea surface temperature increases towards the coast, air parcels over the cool sea surface are cooled sufficiently to saturation, resulting in the formation of advection sea fog. However, at the coast, nocturnal cooling of the ground further cools the advected moist air driven by the westerly wind and causes coastal advection fog to form. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Phylogeography of a northeast Asian spruce, Picea jezoensis, inferred from genetic variation observed in organelle DNA markers

MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 16 2007
M. AIZAWA
Abstract Range-wide genetic variation of the widespread cold-temperate spruce Picea jezoensis was studied throughout northeast Asia using maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA and paternally inherited chloroplast DNA markers. This study assessed 33 natural populations including three varieties of the species in Japan, Russia, China, and South Korea. We depicted sharp suture zones in straits around Japan in the geographical distribution pattern of mitochondrial haplotypes (GST = 0.901; NST = 0.934). In contrast, we detected possible extensive pollen flow without seed flow across the straits around Japan during the past population history in the distribution pattern of chloroplast haplotypes (GST = 0.233; NST = 0.333). The analysis of isolation by distance of the species implied that by acting as a barrier for the movement of seeds and pollen, the sharp suture zones contributed considerably to the level of genetic differentiation between populations. Constructed networks of mitochondrial haplotypes allowed inference of the phylogeographical history of the species. We deduced that the disjunction with Kamchatka populations reflects range expansion and contraction to the north of the current distribution. Within Japan, we detected phylogeographically different types of P. jezoensis between Hokkaido and Honshu islands; P. jezoensis in Honshu Island may have colonized this region from the Asian continent via the Korean peninsula and the species in Hokkaido Island is likely to have spread from the Asian continent via Sakhalin through land bridges. Japanese endemism of mitochondrial haplotypes in Hokkaido and Honshu islands might have been promoted by separation of these islands from each other and from the Asian continent by the straits during the late Quaternary. [source]


The Six-Party Talks and North Korea's Denuclearization: Evaluation and Prospects

PACIFIC FOCUS, Issue 2 2010
Tae-Hwan Kwak
The six-party process for North Korea's denuclearization has long been stalled since the Six-Party Talks (SPT) failed to agree on a verification protocol in early December 2008. The DPRK officially stated on 10 February 2005 that it already possessed nuclear weapons. It now wants to be recognized as a nuclear power. The North Korean nuclear issue, a key obstacle to the Korean peace process, needs to be resolved peacefully through the six-party process. The author has argued over the years that while the six-party process is the best means to resolve the North's nuclear issue, bilateral US,DPRK talks are equally important to a peaceful and diplomatic resolution of the DPRK's issue. The peaceful resolution of the North's nuclear issue is prerequisite to building a peace regime on the Korean peninsula and regional peace in Northeast Asia. The author has two specific goals: (i) to evaluate the stalled SPT for denuclearizing the Korean peninsula since December 2008; and (ii) to make policy recommendations for continued denuclearization of the Korean peninsula in the framework of the SPT. The first part of this article examines DPRK's denuclearization process up to the point when the SPT failed to adopt a written verification protocol in December 2008. Since then, the six-party process has been stalled. The second part discusses the impact of the DPRK's rocket launch in April 2009 and its second nuclear test in May on the SPT. The third part evaluates the DPRK's new proposal for peace treaty talks and its new conditions for returning to the SPT. Finally, this article proposes key issues on agenda to be negotiated at the next SPT and some policy recommendations for achieving denuclearization of the Korean peninsula. [source]


What Factors Shape Korea's Future?

PACIFIC FOCUS, Issue 2 2009
Forces, Fortuna versus Ideas, Free Will
To assess the prospects for peace on the Korean peninsula we must understand the factors that have contributed to tension and to détente in recent decades. Whatever policy goals we pursue, it would be helpful to know how these factors have operated in the past. The most relevant factors can be analyzed under three headings: material hard power; fortuna, and the intangibles of ideas and free will. This essay reviews examples of how these factors have contributed to conflict and , less often , reduced tensions on the Korean peninsula. No single factor explains the ups and downs in North,South relations and the Six-Party Talks in recent years. No single explanation accounts for developments in the past, but the record shows that ideas and determined individuals have sometimes overcome the thrust of material forces and neutered the vagaries of time and chance. In short, free will has often outweighed both forces and fortuna. Where there is a will (on all sides), paths to mutual gain can sometimes be developed. [source]


Transforming the US,ROK Alliance: Changes in Strategy, Military and Bases,

PACIFIC FOCUS, Issue 1 2009
Jae-Jung Suh
Since the waning days of the Cold War, the US,ROK alliance has gone through a number of changes. Its transformation has accelerated for the past several years in no small part due to the Bush administration's new strategy, military transformation, and global base realignment as well as the Roh government's desire for self-reliant defense. This article outlines the ways in which the three changes have affected the alliance, and assesses the impacts they are likely to have on the security of the Korean peninsula and Northeast Asia. It concludes with a consideration of the modifications that the new governments in Seoul and Washington are likely to make to the transformation of the alliance in the near future. [source]


The U.S. Financial Sanctions against North Korea

PACIFIC FOCUS, Issue 1 2007
Tae-Hwan Kwak
In September 2005, the U.S. imposed financial restrictions on North Korea after blaming the North for illicit financial activities, including counterfeiting and money-laundering. The U.S. financial sanctions against the North had direct and immediate impact on the ongoing six-party negotiations on North Korea's nuclear issue. North Korea insisted on the lifting of U.S. financial sanctions as the precondition for returning to the negotiating table and consequently the six-party talks on North Korea's nuclear issue stalled. The third session of the fifth round of six-party talks in February 2007 produced an important accord on North Korea's nuclear question. This agreement was made possible after the U.S. and the DPRK reached a compromise on the financial sanctions issue. This article discusses the U.S. financial sanctions against North Korea and their implications for North Korea's nuclear question. It begins with an overview of the U.S. financial restrictions. This study then examines the nexus between the financial sanctions and the impasse at the six-party talks on North Korea's nuclear issue. This is followed by a discussion of the breakthrough on the financial restrictions issue and the landmark agreement on North Korea's nuclear issue in February 2007. In this study, the authors argue that a mutually satisfactory resolution of the BDA dispute holds the key to a peaceful settlement of the second North Korean nuclear crisis. With the BDA dispute behind, the six-party talks should gain momentum and prepare a road map for implementing the denuclearization of the Korean peninsula. Both the U.S. and North Korea should not miss this golden opportunity and make earnest efforts to build a firm foundation for peace and stability on the Korean peninsula and in Northeast Asia. [source]


G.W. Bush and North Korea: A Levels of Analysis View

PACIFIC FOCUS, Issue 1 2007
Curtis H. Martin
This study describes and evaluates, from the perspective of pertinent system, state, and individual level theory, the unfolding of the Bush administration's strategy for addressing the North Korea nuclear issue up to the February 2007 Beijing agreement on first steps toward denuclearization of the Korean peninsula. It will explore whether that policy has been "effective harmony of different goals," as the administration has claimed, or something far less coherent and effective. At its inception, the administration's policy was grounded in a strong, though by no means universally held,preference for "asphyxiation" rather than "oxygen," for pressure and isolation rather than for rewards. However, this default policy was constrained at almost every turn by system and state level realities that drove the United States to eschew forceful unilateral action and to pursue its objectives through multilateral regional diplomacy. And yet throughout the years of six-party talks, the strong preference of core decision makers for isolation continued,pending what they hoped would be a more propitious environment to pursue a forward leaning policy,to rein in U.S. negotiators. As a result, U.S. policy often appeared to exhibit characteristics of "temporary appeasement,""hawk engagement" and "malign neglect" in which negotiations assume a primarily tactical role rather than a wholehearted effort to engage the DPRK. The apparent success of financial sanctions, coupled with the international shock wave that followed North Korea's missile and nuclear tests, might have been expected to give administration hawks the long-awaited opportunity to pursue their default policy. Despite the successes enjoyed by new financial sanctions, however, U.S. policy remained as constrained as ever by the grave deterioration of the United States' position in the Middle East and the unanticipated shift of power in congress. These constraints may in part explain the dramatic about-face in the administration's position that led ultimately to the February 13, 2007 agreement to offer the DPRK an "early harvest" in exchange for initial steps toward denuclearization. [source]


Time to Keep Going: The Role and Structure of U.S. Forces in a Unified Korea

PACIFIC FOCUS, Issue 1 2003
Il-Young Kim
This year Korea and the U.S. celebrate 50 years of their alliance, which has seen many ups and downs since it came into existence. Today a very intense debate is going on in the USA and Korea about the future role of the U.S. in both the re-unification process and a post-unified Korea. Anti-Americanism is on the rise in South Korea, and demand for withdrawal of American forces is gaining ground in Korean society. An American withdrawal from Korea, however, would be very destabilizing for Korea and the whole of the East Asian region. Since the Korean war, the factors that have made it possible for South Korea, and other countries in the region, to economically prosper are the combination of sound economic polices and hard work by the peoples of these countries, and of the U.S. policies of reopening international markets to the countries of the region. While the presence of the U.S. forces in a post-unified Korea would be a positive factor, the actual structure of these forces would depend on the ground realities and threat perceptions at that time. It would be determined by complex issues of peace and stability inside Korea, its economic situation, and the external situation outside Korea's borders, including Korea's threat perceptions from China. Despite great improvements in technology in the Naval and Air forces, almost all military contingencies still require the use of ground forces to fight or to deter wars. Thus even if U.S. air and naval forces remained stationed in Korea, the absence of the U.S. ground forces would seriously undermine the deterrent and fighting power of the United States in the country and the region as whole. Given the terrain of the Korean peninsula, any possible future military conflict involving Korea would almost certainly be won or lost on land. Accordingly, infantrymen and tanks must remain an essential component of the American forces in Korea. What is more, dependence on air and naval forces for the protection of Korea would weaken traditional alliances and deterrence as well as American support for the very values and political principles that make other countries respect and trust the United States. [source]


The U.S. Policy and Strategy toward DPRK: Comparison and Evalution of the Clinton and Bush Administrations

PACIFIC FOCUS, Issue 2 2002
Hun Kyung Lee
This article focuses on studying and evaluating the Clinton and Bush administrations' policies and strategies toward North Korea. The Clinton administration's policy toward North Korea was a continuation of the abandonment of containment and confrontation strategies of the Cold War era. That policy was based on a strategic transfer of power for the purpose of preventing a war, through a combination of aid and deterrence in the Korean peninsula by its engagement policy. The Administration believed that additional food aid and easing of economic sanctions would make a contribution to North Korean survival, and hence, a reduction in its bellicose disposition. Providing that this policy continued, it would be possible not merely to lead North Korea's change, but also to help it enter into international society by breaking down its self-imposed isolation. To the contrary, the Bush administration points out that the Clinton administration's engagement policy did not lead to North Korea's change, and even left the wrong precedent in nuclear and missile negotiations. Focusing on nonproliferation of weapons of mass destruction with an emphasis of transparency, monitoring, and verification, the Bush administration has claimed a broad agenda. This includes an improved implementation of the Agreed Framework relating to North Korea's nuclear activities, verifiable control over North Korea's missile programs and a ban on its missile exports, and a less threatening conventional military posture. With the different views of these two administrations as a background, this article explores the U.S. efforts for achieving such policy goals as freezing North Korea's nuclear weapons program and halting its missile development and sales, together with looking at North Korea's response. American efforts for supporting the necessities for life, easing of some economic sanctions toward DPRK are also described. At the same time, the U.S. policy toward DPRK is evaluated on the whole in considering U.S. policy limits for nonproliferation of weapons of mass destruction, the lack of effort by North Korea for peacemaking and survival, and inconsistency on U.S. assistance. Lastly, this article suggests a way for an alternative solution by thinking about some dilemmas for the U.S. and the DPRK. [source]


China on the Korea Peace and Unification Process

PACIFIC FOCUS, Issue 2 2002
Quansheng Zhao
This study examines China's relations with the Korean peninsula by focusing on the issues of Korea peace and unification process. After a brief review of historical legacy, it looks closely at Beijing's attitudes towards Korean unification and peace process, the changing priorities in Chinese foreign policy, balance of power and community-building in the region, and decline of ideology and personal ties in Beijing's foreign policy considerations. It also analyzes Korean minorities in China and Beijing's diplomatic dilemma created by the issue of North Korean refugees. The conclusion section summarizes Beijing's major concerns towards the Korean Peninsula and future directions ofSino-Korean relations. [source]