Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Kong

  • hong kong

  • Terms modified by Kong

  • kong chinese
  • kong government
  • kong market
  • kong sar
  • kong special administrative region

  • Selected Abstracts


    Joyce H. S. You PharmD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Kenneth S. Chan
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    In this diary study conducted in Hong Kong, we examined a theoretical model in which negative emotions serve as an explanatory mechanism through which daily stressors impact daily counterproductive work behavior (CWB). We further theorized that personality variables (negative affectivity, Conscientiousness, and Agreeableness) would exert cross-level effects on the within-person relationships. Hierarchical linear modeling results based on a sample of 231 individuals and 5,583 observations across 25 days provide partial support for the mediating role of negative emotions in the within-person stressor,CWB relationships. Specifically, we found that negative emotions (a) partially mediated the within-person relation of perceived ambiguity with CWB directed at the organization, (b) fully mediated the relation of supervisor interpersonal injustice with CWB directed at individuals, and (c) fully mediated the relation of customer interpersonal injustice with CWB directed at the organization. High levels of trait negative affectivity were found to strengthen the within-person relation between daily supervisor interpersonal injustice and daily negative emotions. As expected, high levels of trait Conscientiousness and Agreeableness were found to weaken the within-person relations of daily negative emotions with daily CWB directed at the organization and individuals. [source]

    A comparative study of student performance in traditional mode and online mode of learning

    Qiping Shen
    Abstract There has been interest for many decades in comparing the effectiveness of technology-delivered instruction with traditional face-to-face teaching and measurable student outcomes have been an important indicator. Having pointed to salient aspects of the current academic environment and to some of the key literature in this area, this article analyses the performance of two groups of students studying in the traditional mode and the online mode in a masters program delivered by a Department of Computing at a university in Hong Kong. Over 2,000 students have participated in the study between 2000 and 2004. This article includes a comparison of the results between different delivery modes of study each year as well as between different classes over the 4-year period. Although traditional mode students have achieved a slightly better performance in examinations in comparison with online mode students, the article concludes that there are no significant differences in overall performance between the students. With the impact of technologies on higher education and the demands of a complex and rapidly changing society in the 21st century, this Hong Kong study contributes to the literature that finds mode of study is not a key determinant of success. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Comput Appl Eng Educ 15: 30,40, 2007; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com); DOI 10.1002/cae.20092 [source]

    Conflict resolution education in the Asian Pacific

    Bruce E. Barnes
    Conflict Resolution Education (CRE) is taking hold in the Oceania-Island Pacific-East Asia and Southeast Asia region. This article highlights several promising programs from New Zealand-Aotearoa, Singapore, Hong Kong, Fiji, and Australia. Peer mediation programs range from the Cool Schools programs present in more than half of all the schools in New Zealand to newer programs in Singapore. Restorative justice programs are operating in New Zealand, Australia, and Hong Kong. International efforts in both CR and CRE by universities in the region are discussed, highlighting regional centers in South Australia (uniSA) and Queensland (ACPACS). Information is also given about the Asia Pacific Mediation Forum, which will be presenting its third regional conference in June 2008 in Malaysia. [source]

    CSR and the environment: business supply chain partnerships in Hong Kong and PRDR, China

    Dennis K. K. Cheung
    Abstract Cross-border relocation of the production lines of Hong Kong companies to the Pearl River Delta Region (PRDR) of China relocates the pollution source geographically. In contextualizing corporate social responsibility (CSR), more and better collaborations on environmental management between Hong-Kong-based companies and their supply chains within Hong Kong and the PRDR are needed. Using a qualitative approach, this research identifies and examines nine concerned business supply chain partnership cases. Stakeholders perceived that partnership is a good tool for improving corporate environmental management. However, although it has become more active since 2002, partnership is not yet popular. More time and support are needed to develop it. Businesses should take further steps to benefit themselves and the environment. Based on the first-hand experiences and opinions of interviewees, this paper analyzes and presents recent partnership activities; their drivers and barriers; factors in their successes; and the possible roles of government and business associations in fostering partnership development. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]

    "THEY COME IN PEASANTS AND LEAVE CITIZENS": Urban Villages and the Making of Shenzhen, China

    ABSTRACT This essay examines the ongoing process of postsocialist transformation at the intersection of cultural and economic forces in an urban environment through the example of the so-called "urban villages"(chengzhongcun) in Shenzhen, China, a booming southern Chinese city and former Special Economic Zone next to Hong Kong. This essay ethnographically examines the role of former rural collectives encircled by a city that has exploded from farmland to an export-driven city of over 14 million people in little over one generation. These villages form an internal other that is both the antithesis and the condition of possibility for Shenzhen city. By co-opting the market economy in ways that weave them into the fabric of the contemporary global city, the villages become as much an experiment as the Special Economic Zone itself. This essay analyzes the urban,rural divide as complicit in each other's continued production and effacement and explores how village and city exploit the ambiguities of their juxtaposition in the making of Shenzhen. [source]

    Generalized anxiety disorder with and without excessive worry in Hong Kong

    Sing Lee M.B.B.S.
    Abstract Background: Two previous U.S. studies found that although generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) without self-perceived excessive worry was milder than GAD with excessive worry, its persistence, impairment, and risk for subsequent onset of other mental disorders were still substantial. This study examined the implications of relaxing the "excessiveness" criterion on the prevalence and socio-demographic profile of GAD in a Chinese population sample by considering both self and others' perception of excessive worry. Method: 2,005 respondents aged 15,65 years participated in a structured telephone interview that covered socio-demographic profile, 12-month DSM-IV diagnosis of GAD, core depressive symptoms, longest duration of worry episode, number of domains of worry, impairment measured by the Sheehan Disability Scale, and treatment-seeking. Excessive worry was assessed from the perception of both respondents and others as reported by respondents. Result: The 12-month prevalence of GAD increased from 3.4 to 4% when the excessiveness requirement was relaxed. Excessive GAD and nonexcessive GAD had similar socio-demographic, symptom, chronicity, impairment, depressive symptom, and treatment-seeking profiles. Conclusion: GAD without excessive worry was less common than GAD with excessive worry but was likely to be a valid nosological entity. Future iterations of the DSM-IV should clarify whether excessive worry should be retained and, if so, how individuals who only reported excessive worries perceived by others should be optimally assessed. Depression and Anxiety, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Multiple pathways for invasion of anurans on a Pacific island

    Michelle T. Christy
    ABSTRACT Since 1937, thirteen species of non-indigenous anurans have made their way to Guam. Of these, at least six have established breeding populations. Various pathways led to the introduction of these species to the island. The only anuran intentionally introduced was Chaunus marinus (formerly Bufo marinus), which was brought to Guam as a biocontrol agent. Kaloula picta, K. pulchra, Polypedates leucomystax, and probably Litoria fallax arrived as stowaways via maritime or air-transport vessels. Eleutherodactylus coqui and Euhyas (formerly Eleutherodactylus) planirostris appear to have entered Guam through the horticultural trade. Specimens of Pseudacris regilla were found among agricultural products and Christmas trees. Five species have been transported to Guam via the aquacultural trade. The importation of tilapia, milkfish, and white shrimp from China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and the Philippines was associated with the introduction to Guam of Fejervarya cancrivora, F. limnocharis sensu lato, Microhyla pulchra, Polypedates megacephalus, and Sylvirana guentheri (formerly Rana guentheri). Presently, no quarantine or containment guidelines have been established for Guam's aquacultural industry. [source]

    Prevalence of illicit drug use in Asia and the Pacific

    Abstract This paper reports on the prevalence of drug use in Asia and the Pacific. It is based on the report "Situational analysis of illicit drug issues and responses in Asia and the Pacific", commissioned by the Australian National Council on Drugs Asia Pacific Drug Issues Committee. Review of existing estimates of the prevalence of people who use illicit drugs from published and unpublished literature and information from key informants and regional institutions was undertaken for the period 1998-2004. Estimates of the prevalence of people who use illicit drugs were conducted for 12 Asian and six Pacific Island countries. The estimated prevalence of those using illicit drugs ranges from less than 0.01% to 4.6%. Countries with estimated prevalence rates higher than 2% are Cambodia, Hong Kong, Philippines, Thailand, Indonesia, Laos and Malaysia. China, Myanmar and Vietnam have estimated prevalence rates ranging between less than 0.01% and 2%. Data to estimate prevalence rates was not available for Pacific Island countries and Brunei. Estimates of the prevalence of drug use are critical to policy development, planning responses and measuring the coverage of programs. However, reliable estimates of the numbers of people using illicit drugs are rare in Asia, particularly the Pacific. [source]

    An integrated hydrological model for rain-induced landslide prediction

    P. L. Wilkinson
    Abstract This paper describes an extension to the Combined Hydrology And Stability Model (CHASM) to fully include the effects of vegetation and slope plan topography on slope stability. The resultant physically based numerical model is designed to be applied to site-specific slopes in which a detailed assessment of unsaturated and saturated hydrology is required in relation to vegetation, topography and slope stability. Applications are made to the Hawke's Bay region in New Zealand where shallow-seated instability is strongly associated with spatial and temporal trends in vegetation cover types, and the Mid-Levels region in Hong Kong, an area subject to a variety of landslide mechanisms, some of which may be subject to strong topographic control. An improved understanding of process mechanism, afforded by the model, is critical for reliable and appropriate design of slope stabilization and remedial measures. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    In-situ gamma-ray spectrometric study of weathered volcanic rocks in Hong Kong

    Margie Q. F. Chen
    Abstract In-situ gamma-ray spectrometry (GRS) measurements were conducted at 35 sites in Hong Kong where volcanic rocks with varying extent of weathering were exposed. Elemental analyses using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma,mass spectrometry were carried out on samples collected from these 35 plus 22 other locations to assess the feasibility of using the GRS method to quantify the extent of weathering. The Parker weathering index, varying within a range of 0·0,0·8 for the samples studied, was used as a geochemically based reference scheme for correlating the gamma-ray spectrometric results with the extent of weathering. For the former 35 sites, the concentrations of the three major radioelements, K, U and Th, determined by in-situ GRS were compared to laboratory-determined values from the samples. The study reveals that no significant change occurs to the contents of the three radioelements during the initial state of weathering. But once the rocks become highly weathered, further progression of weathering is accompanied by a systematic removal of K and an increased dispersion of U and Th. The results show that K content, which is indicative of the extent of weathering, can be retrieved reliably with the gamma-ray spectrometry technique. The study has given support to the potential use of the downhole spectral gamma method for evaluation of weathering grade and the detection of subsurface clay-rich levels. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Soil,pile,structure interaction under SH wave excitation

    K. K. Koo
    Abstract A continuum model for the interaction analysis of a fully coupled soil,pile,structure system under seismic excitation is presented in this paper. Only horizontal shaking induced by harmonic SH waves is considered so that the soil,pile,structure system is under anti-plane deformation. The soil mass, pile and superstructure were all considered as elastic with hysteretic damping, while geometrically both pile and structures were simplified as a beam model. Buildings of various heights in Hong Kong designed to resist wind load were analysed using the present model. It was discovered that the acceleration of the piled-structures at ground level can, in general, be larger than that of a free-field shaking of the soil site, depending on the excitation frequency. For typical piled-structures in Hong Kong, the amplification factor of shaking at the ground level does not show simple trends with the number of storeys of the superstructure, the thickness and the stiffness of soil, and the stiffness of the superstructure if number of storeys is fixed. The effect of pile stiffness on the amplification factor of shaking is, however, insignificant. Thus, simply increasing the pile size or the superstructure stiffness does not necessarily improve the seismic resistance of the soil,pile,structure system; on the contrary, it may lead to excessive amplification of shaking for the whole system. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    ECONOMIC AFFAIRS, Issue 2 2009
    John GreenwoodArticle first published online: 1 JUN 200
    In a speech given in 2004, at a meeting held at the Institute of Economic Affairs in honour of Sir Alan Walters who died in 2009, John Greenwood explains Sir Alan's critical role in the creation of a currency board in Hong Kong in 1983. [source]

    Divergent Hybrid Capitalisms in China: Hong Kong and Taiwanese Electronics Clusters in Dongguan

    ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY, Issue 4 2007
    Chun Yang
    Abstract: This article explores and compares the changing dynamics and organization of cross-border production by Hong Kong and Taiwanese electronics firms in China, on the basis of more than 40 semistructured interviews with firms from April 2005 to January 2007 in various towns of Dongguan, an emergent "global factory" in south China. Despite initial resemblances, Hong Kong and Taiwanese electronics clusters have adopted different approaches to organize their cross-border production since the late 1990s. Little systemic comparative analysis has been conducted on the causes. The divergent practices can be interpreted as differences in corporate strategies of parent and branch firms, industrial policies in Hong Kong and Taiwan, linkages with global leaders, and home-host interactions in response to the challenges of globalization. To tap into the domestic market of mainland China, Hong Kong companies have tended to become "domestic firms," while Taiwanese companies have become wholly foreign owned and pursued a "pseudo-location" of suppliers of raw materials and components. The article concludes that more comparative studies are needed on divergent hybrid capitalisms that are driven by different sources of foreign direct investment in various host regions, so as to develop empirical insights into appropriate conceptual frameworks. [source]

    Financialization and the Role of Real Estate in Hong Kong's Regime of Accumulation

    ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY, Issue 2 2003
    Alan Smart
    Abstract: The greater dominance of finance in the global economic system is widely considered to have increased instability and created difficulties in constructing modes of regulation that could stabilize post-Fordist regimes of accumulation. Heightened competition and the discipline of global finance restrict the use of Fordist strategies that expand social wages to balance production and consumption. Robert Boyer suggested a model for a possible stable finance-led growth regime. His hypothesis is that once there are sufficient stocks of property in a nation, expenditures that are based on capital gains, dividends, interest, and pensions can compensate for diminished wage-based demand. We contend that the neglect of real estate is a serious limitation, since housing wealth is more significant than other forms of equity for most citizens, and thus that it fails to capture the impact of the perceptions and choices of ordinary citizens. We then argue that features of a finance-led regime of accumulation and a property-based mode of regulation appeared in Hong Kong relatively early. A case study of Hong Kong is used to extend Boyer's discussion, as well as to diagnose Hong Kong's experience for its lessons on the impact of such developments. [source]

    Developmental and Quiescent Subsidiaries in the Asia Pacific: Evidence from Hong Kong, Singapore, Shanghai, and Sydney

    ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY, Issue 2 2003
    Jessie P. H. Poon
    Abstract: Examining "embedded" economic and social relations has become a popular theme among economic geographers who are interested in explaining the durability of place in supporting economic activities. This article explores the relationship between embeddedness and technology-oriented functions among three types of subsidiaries (regional headquarters, regional offices, and local offices) and for four cities: Hong Kong, Shanghai, Singapore, and Sydney. Using survey data from firms, we show that quiescent or branch plant-like subsidiaries, rather than developmental firms, dominate the region. But among developmental subsidiaries, returns on embeddedness are not always obvious. Embeddedness and developmental subsidiaries are most significantly correlated with manufacturing regional headquarters. However, a small group of subsidiaries (local and regional offices) also perform developmental functions, despite their relative newness and lack of embed-dedness in the region. [source]

    Trust, public participation and environmental governance in Hong Kong

    Stephen Tsang
    Abstract This paper explores the role of trust in environmental governance and its role in facilitating collective action through public participation in making decisions on environmental policies in Hong Kong. Opinions from key stakeholders with regard to the environmental performance of the Hong Kong government and public participation in Hong Kong were collected. Their opinions help to explain the hypothesized ,trust deficit' in Hong Kong. A trust-based framework was used to identify the appropriate stakeholder participation strategy for environmental governance in Hong Kong. Given that the level of trust in experts, trust between stakeholders and trust in government decision-makers are all low, a deliberation strategy using professional facilitation is recommended in implementing public participation in Hong Kong to rebuild trust. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]

    Survey of Public Awareness, Attitudes, and Understanding toward Epilepsy in Hong Kong

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 2 2003
    Virginia Wong
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Psychosocial Adjustment of People with Epilepsy in Hong Kong

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 9 2001
    Vanessa W. Y. Lau
    Summary: ,Purpose: In light of the issues associated with the psychosocial adjustment of people with epilepsy that have been widely reported, this study examined these issues within a Chinese cultural context. Methods: Fifty patients with epilepsy completed The Washington Psychosocial Inventory, the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, and a questionnaire that assessed their psychosocial difficulties and coping styles. Multiple regression procedure was used to examine the strength of various medical and social factors in predicting the psychosocial adjustment problems of these participants. Results: Social factors, such as self-perception and coping strategies, were more powerful predictors of psychosocial adjustment in people with epilepsy than the medical factors associated with epilepsy. Conclusions: These findings showed that psychosocial maladjustment is a significant issue for people with epilepsy in Hong Kong. The emerging importance of social factors as predictors of psychosocial adjustment in epilepsy, as compared with medical factors, highlights the need for developing tailored counseling therapy and social support groups for people with epilepsy. [source]

    Perceived peer smoking prevalence and its association with smoking behaviours and intentions in Hong Kong Chinese adolescents

    ADDICTION, Issue 9 2004
    Man Kin Lai
    ABSTRACT Background Among the many personal, social and environmental risk factors of adolescence smoking, normative beliefs stand out for their potential to be modified with factual information on smoking prevalence. Aims To study the perceived peer smoking prevalence and its association with smoking behaviours in Hong Kong Chinese adolescents. Design and setting Cross-sectional territorial-wide school-based survey conducted in 64 randomly selected secondary schools in Hong Kong. Participants A total of 13 280 forms 1,3 students (equivalent to grades 7,9 in the United States) aged 12,16 years. Measurements Perceived peer smoking prevalence, smoking status, intention to smoke in future, other smoking-related factors and demographic information. Findings Overestimation of peer smoking prevalence was observed regardless of gender and smoking status, and was more common in girls (69.4%) than boys (61.0%), and in experimental (74.3%) and current smokers (85.4%) than in never smokers (60.7%). Boys who overestimated and grossly overestimated (over two times) peer smoking were more likely to be current smokers, with adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of 1.95 (1.24,3.07) and 3.52 (2.37,5.24) (P for trend <0.001). Similarly, boys who grossly overestimated peer smoking were 76% (95% CI: 41,120%) more likely to have ever smoked. Conclusion Overestimation of peer smoking prevalence was common in Hong Kong Chinese boys and girls, and was associated with current and ever smoking in boys. These findings have important implications on normative education in adolescence smoking prevention programmes. [source]

    Human immunodeficiency virus-associated progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy: epidemiology and predictive factors for prolonged survival

    A. K. Drake
    We performed a retrospective review of cases of human immunodeficiency virus-associated progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy in four hospitals (three in Australia and one in Hong Kong) between 1987 and 2003 in order to describe the local experience with this disease and to evaluate parameters impacting upon survival. Eighty-seven cases were identified and demographic details, baseline parameters and treatment methods and response were described. Survival was substantially increased in the post-highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era with a median survival increase from 14 to 64 weeks. On multivariate analysis, variables associated with prolonged survival included a CD4 count of >100 cells/,l at diagnosis and the use of HAART post-diagnosis, with no significant additional advantage from the use of neuroactive antiretrovirals. [source]

    Loving styles: relationships with personality and attachment styles

    Patrick C. L. Heaven
    We investigated the ability of the major personality dimensions, some of their underlying facet scales, and attachment styles to predict primary and secondary loving styles, as conceptualized by Lee. Personality was assessed using the International Personality Item Pool, and attachment styles through an inventory devised by Collins and Read. Respondents were 302 undergraduate students (212 females; 90 males) who participated in the study in exchange for course credit. Results of regression path analysis showed that N was the only personality dimension without direct predictive links to loving styles. Instead, the influence of N was through an anxious attachment style. There were no personality predictors of Agape, and similarities were also observed between these results and those obtained in Hong Kong. The results are discussed with reference to previous studies and some suggestions for further research are also noted. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Shrinking baseline: the growth in juvenile fisheries, with the Hong Kong grouper fishery as a case study

    FISH AND FISHERIES, Issue 4 2009
    Allen W L To
    Abstract Historic and current information on the grouper fishery from Hong Kong and adjacent waters reveals significant changes in species composition and fish sizes over the past 50 years in this important Asian centre for seafood consumption. Once dominant, large groupers are now rare and small species and sizes prevail in the present-day fishery. Juveniles comprise over 80% of marketed fish by number among the most commonly retailed groupers, and reproductive-sized fish are absent among larger species. Current fishery practices and the lack of management in Hong Kong and adjacent waters pose a significant threat to large species with limited geographic distribution such as Epinephelus akaara and Epinephelus bruneus, both now listed as threatened by the IUCN. The heavy reliance on juveniles, not only for groupers, but for an increasing diversity of desired fishes within Asia, potentially reduces stock spawning potential. The ,shrinking baseline' in terms of a progressive reduction in fish sizes being marketed in the region can seriously undermine fishery sustainability and recoverability of depleted fish stocks. Fishing pressure on groupers and other valuable food fishes within the Asia-Pacific is intensifying, the declining long-term trend of grouper landings in Hong Kong and the increasing focus on juveniles for immediate sale or for mariculture ,grow-out' signal a worrying direction for regional fisheries. Moreover, the common appearance of small groupers for sale will influence public perception regarding what are ,normal-sized' fish. Management attention is needed if these fisheries are to remain viable. [source]

    Understanding pressures on fishery resources through trade statistics: a pilot study of four products in the Chinese dried seafood market

    FISH AND FISHERIES, Issue 1 2004
    Shelley Clarke
    Abstract This study investigates the dried seafood trade, centred in Chinese markets, in order to better understand the pressures its demand exerts on global marine resource stocks. Using Hong Kong, the region's largest entrepôt, as a focal point, the trade in shark fins, abalone, bêche-de-mer and dried fish is characterized in terms of product history, volume, source fisheries and species composition. Trends identified in the Hong Kong market are interpreted in the context of the larger Chinese market. Shark fin imports grew 6% per year between 1991 and 2000, most likely because of market expansion in Mainland China, posing increasingly greater pressures on global shark resources. In contrast, the quantities of dried abalone traded through Hong Kong remained steady, but inferences based on this trend are discouraged by suggestions of increasing preferences for fresh product forms and growing domestic production in Mainland China. Hong Kong's imports of dried bêche-de-mer (sea cucumber) have decreased, while the percentage of imports re-exported has remained steady, suggesting that Hong Kong continues as an entrepôt for Mainland China despite declining domestic consumption. Few conclusions can be drawn regarding dried fish products, including whole fish and fish maws, because of a lack of product differentiation in customs data, but a market survey was conducted to provide information on species composition. Comparison of Hong Kong dried seafood trade statistics to those of other key trading partners indicates that, in general, Hong Kong's duty-free status appears to encourage more accurate reporting of traded quantities. Under-reporting biases ranged from 24 to 49% for shark fin and bêche-de-mer, respectively. Comparison to United Nations (UN) Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) databases indicates additional under-reporting for shark fin such that an alternative minimum estimate of world trade is at least twice the FAO estimates in 1998,2000. The results of a survey of Hong Kong traders provide insight into their attitudes toward harvest, economic and regulatory factors, and suggest that conservation efforts are unlikely to emerge from, or be actively supported by, dried seafood trade organizations. The market's apparent sensitivity to economic sentiment, however, reveals an opportunity for consumer education to play a role in shaping future market growth and resource conservation. Recommendations are provided for improving trade statistics and for developing better analytical techniques to complement traditional methods for monitoring the exploitation and management of fisheries resources. [source]

    Records of Bursaphelenchus spp. intercepted in imported packaging wood at Ningbo, China

    FOREST PATHOLOGY, Issue 5 2006
    J. Gu
    Summary From January 2003 to June 2005, samples from 3416 batches of wooden packaging material were inspected for the presence of nematodes in the Ningbo Entry,Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau, China. Bursaphelenchus spp. were detected in 202 batches from 25 different countries. The following species were identified on the basis of their morphology and their intergenic transcribed spacer-restriction fragment length polymorphism (ITS-RFLP) patterns: B. xylophilus, B. fungivorus, B. rainulfi, B. hylobianum, B. thailandae, B. mucronatus, B. aberrans, B. lini, B. singaporensis, B. doui, B. conicaudatus, B. vallesianus, B. pinasteri, B. hofmanni and B. arthuri. The most frequently found species were B. mucronatus (57 batches), B. xylophilus (40 batches), B. fungivorus (21 batches), B. rainulfi (19 batches) and B. thailandae (nine batches). The pine wood nematode B. xylophilus was not only found in packaging wood imported from areas where it is known to occur (i.e. The United States of America, Japan, Korea, Hong Kong and Taiwan), but also from countries considered to be free of this dangerous pest (i.e. Brazil, Thailand, Belgium, The Netherlands, Italy and Spain). The occurrence of B. xylophilus in packaging wood from countries regarded as being free of the nematode can most likely be explained by the global circulation of wooden packaging material among infested and non-infested countries. Our findings emphasize the need to fully implement international standards on phytosanitary treatment of packaging wood, in order to prevent further spread of the pine wood nematode, and the need for careful re-examination of the current heat treatment measures. Résumé De Janvier 2003 à Juin 2005, des échantillons de 3416 lots de matériel d'emballage en bois ont été inspectés pour rechercher la présence de nématodes au bureau de quarantaine de Ningbo, en Chine. Des Bursaphelenchus spp. ont été détectés dans 202 lots en provenance de 25 pays différents. Les espèces suivantes ont été identifiées sur la base de leur morphologie et des profils de restriction de l'ITS: B. xylophilus, B. fungivorus, B. rainulfi, B. hylobianum, B. thailandae, B. mucronatus, B. aberrans, B. lini, B. singaporensis, B. doui, B. conicaudatus, B. vallesianus, B. pinasteri, B. hofmanni, et B. arthuri. Les espèces les plus fréquemment trouvées sont B. mucronatus (57 lots), B. xylophilus (40 lots), B. fungivorus (21 lots), B. rainulfi (19 lots) et B. thailandae (9 lots). Le nématode du pin, B. xylophilus, a été trouvé dans du bois d'emballage en provenance non seulement de zones où sa présence est connue (Etats-Unis, Japon, République de Corée, Hongkong et Taïwan) mais aussi de pays considérés comme indemnes de ce redoutable pathogène (Brésil, Thaïlande, Belgique, Pays-Bas, Italie et Espagne). La présence de B. xylophilus dans du bois d'emballage de pays considérés comme indemnes s'explique probablement par la circulation généralisée de matériel d'emballage en bois entre pays infestés ou non. Nos résultats soulignent la nécessité d'appliquer pleinement les normes de traitement phytosanitaire du bois d'emballage, afin d'éviter une plus grande dissémination du nématode du pin, et de réexaminer de façon approfondie les mesures actuelles de traitement thermique. Zusammenfassung Von Januar 2003 bis Juni 2005 wurde im Quarantäne-Inspektionsbüro in Ningbo, China, das Verpackungsholz von 3416 Sendungen nematologisch untersucht. Bursaphelenchus spp. wurden in 202 Sendungen aus 25 verschiedenen Ländern festgestellt. Folgende Arten wurden morphologisch und mit Hilfe der ITS-RFLP-Methode identifiziert: B. xylophilus, B. fungivorus, B. rainulfi, B. hylobianum, B. thailandae, B. mucronatus, B. aberrans, B. lini, B. singaporensis, B. doui, B. conicaudatus, B. vallesianus, B. pinasteri, B. hofmanni, und B. arthuri. Die am häufigsten gefundenen Arten waren B. mucronatus (57 mal), B. xylophilus (40), B. fungivorus (21), B. rainulfi (19) and B. thailandae (9). Der Quarantäneschädling B. xylophilus wurde nicht nur in Verpackungsholz aus Gebieten mit bekannter Verbreitung des Nematoden (USA, Japan, Republik Korea, Hongkong, Taiwan) gefunden, sondern auch aus Ländern, die als frei vom Kiefernholznematoden gelten (Brasilien, Belgien, Niederlande, Italien, Spanien). Die Feststellung von B. xylophilus in Verpackungsholz aus Nichtbefallsländern kann nur durch Zirkulation des Verpackungsholzes zwischen Befalls- und Nichtbefallsländern erklärt werden. Der mittlere prozentuale Anteil der jegliche Nematoden enthaltenden Packholzproben lag im Zeitraum von Januar 2000 bis August 2005 bei 21,3 %; eine klare Tendenz zur Zu- oder Abnahme war während dieser Jahre nicht erkennbar. Die Befunde unterstreichen die Notwendigkeit der strikten Anwendung international erarbeiteter Standards der phytosanitären Behandlung von Verpackungsholz zur Verhinderung der Verschleppung des Kiefernholznematoden und der Überprüfung der Wirksamkeit der zur Zeit angewandten Maßnahmen. [source]

    Seasonal and inter-stream variations in the population dynamics, growth and secondary production of an algivorous fish (Pseudogastromyzon myersi: Balitoridae) in monsoonal Hong Kong

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 9 2009
    Summary 1.,Balitorid loaches are widespread and highly diverse in Asian streams, yet their life history and ecology have received little attention. We investigated seasonal (wet versus dry season) and spatial variation in populations of algivorous Pseudogastromyzon myersi in Hong Kong, and estimated the magnitude of secondary production by this fish in pools in four streams (two shaded and two unshaded) over a 15-month period. 2.,Mean population densities of P. myersi ranged from 6.0 to 23.2 individuals m,2, constituting more than half (and typically >70%) of benthic fishes censused. Abundance was c. 25% greater in the wet season, when recruitment occurred. Significant density differences among streams were not related to shading conditions and were evident despite small-scale variations in P. myersi abundance among pools. Mean biomass varied among streams from 0.85 to 3.87 g ash-free dry weight (AFDW) m,2. Spatial and seasonal patterns in biomass and density were similar, apart from some minor disparities attributable to differences in mean body size among populations. 3.,All four P. myersi populations bred once a year in June and July, and life spans varied from 24 to 26 months. Populations consisted of three cohorts immediately after recruitment but, for most of the study period, only two cohorts were evident. Cohort-specific growth rates did not differ significantly among streams but, in all streams, younger cohorts had higher cohort-specific growth rates. 4.,Secondary production of P. myersi estimated by the size-frequency (SF) method was 2.7,11.5 g AFDW m,2 year,1 and almost twice that calculated by the increment-summation (IS) method (1.2,6.6 g AFDW m,2 year,1). Annual P/B ratios were 1.17,2.16 year,1 (IS) and 2.73,3.22 year,1 (SF). Highest production was recorded in an unshaded stream and the lowest in a shaded stream, but site rankings by production did not otherwise match shading conditions. Wet-season production was six times greater than dry-season production, and daily production fell to almost zero during January and February. Cool temperatures (<17 °C) may have limited fish activity and influenced detectability during some dry-season censuses. Estimates of abundance and annual production by P. myersi are therefore conservative. 5.,Comparisons with the literature indicate that the abundance and production of P. myersi in Hong Kong was high relative to other benthic fishes in tropical Asia, or their temperate counterparts in small streams. Manipulative experiments are needed to determine the influence of P. myersi, and algivorous balitorids in general, on periphyton dynamics and energy flow in Asian streams. [source]

    EDEM accelerates ERAD by preventing aberrant dimer formation of misfolded ,1-antitrypsin

    GENES TO CELLS, Issue 5 2006
    Nobuko Hosokawa
    Misfolded glycoproteins are degraded by a mechanism known as ERAD (ER-associated degradation) after retrotranslocation out of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This mechanism plays an important role in ER quality control. We previously reported that an ER membrane protein, EDEM, accelerates ERAD of a misfolded ,1-antitrypsin variant, null (Hong Kong) (NHK), suggesting that EDEM may function as an acceptor of terminally misfolded glycoproteins. In this study, we constructed several genetically manipulated cell lines to test this hypothesis. EDEM expression did not alter the secretion rate of properly folded molecules and the forced retention of wild-type ,1-antitrypsin in the ER did not cause its association with EDEM, suggesting that EDEM may function as a molecular chaperone. To examine this possibility, we analyzed the effect of EDEM over-expression on the structure of NHK, and found that the accumulation of covalent NHK dimers was selectively prevented by the over-expression of EDEM. Co-expression of NHK with two other ER membrane proteins, calnexin and H+/K+ -ATPase (, subunit), did not inhibit NHK dimer formation or accelerate NHK ERAD. These results indicate that EDEM may maintain the retrotranslocation competence of NHK by inhibiting aggregation so that unstable misfolded proteins can be accommodated by the dislocon for ERAD. [source]

    Gene-dropping vs. empirical variance estimation for allele-sharing linkage statistics

    Jeesun Jung
    Abstract In this study, we compare the statistical properties of a number of methods for estimating P -values for allele-sharing statistics in non-parametric linkage analysis. Some of the methods are based on the normality assumption, using different variance estimation methods, and others use simulation (gene-dropping) to find empirical distributions of the test statistics. For variance estimation methods, we consider the perfect variance approximation and two empirical variance estimates. The simulation-based methods are gene-dropping with and without conditioning on the observed founder alleles. We also consider the Kong and Cox linear and exponential models and a Monte Carlo method modified from a method for finding genome-wide significance levels. We discuss the analytical properties of these various P -value estimation methods and then present simulation results comparing them. Assuming that the sample sizes are large enough to justify a normality assumption for the linkage statistic, the best P -value estimation method depends to some extent on the (unknown) genetic model and on the types of pedigrees in the sample. If the sample sizes are not large enough to justify a normality assumption, then gene-dropping is the best choice. We discuss the differences between conditional and unconditional gene-dropping. Genet. Epidemiol. 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Governing Elites, External Events and Pro-democratic Opposition in Hong Kong (1986,2002)

    Ming Sing
    While China has been the most important constraint on Hong Kong's democratization, another neglected constraint has been the limited mobilization power of the pro-democracy opposition in both civil and political society for most of the period from 1984 to 2002. The mobilization power of the pro-democracy opposition, mediated by their degree of internal unity and ability to capitalize on external political opportunities, affected its overall bargaining power vis-à-vis the Chinese and British government over democratization in different phases. The self-censorship among Hong Kong's media, plus economic recession since the Handover, further sapped the mobilization and bargaining power of pro-democratic forces. [source]