Kola Peninsula (kola + peninsula)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Evaluation of the effects of catch-and-release angling on the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) of the Ponoi River, Kola Peninsula, Russian Federation

F. G. Whoriskey
Abstract , We studied the effects of catch-and-release fishing upon the Ponoi River's Atlantic salmon populations. The Ponoi River is located on the Kola Peninsula of the Russian Federation, and has recently been developed for sports fishing. Angler exploitation rates are estimated to range from 10.4% to 19% of the river's salmon, thus the possibility of significant levels of post-release mortality is of concern. We radio-tracked fish caught and released by anglers in 1995 and 1996. Despite our simple equipment and the large size of the river, we were able to relocate most fish. These fish had high rates of survival, and anglers recaptured about 11% of them per year a second time. This is very similar to the recapture rates observed for Floy-tagged fish released in an angler-based mark-recapture assessment. We also held 62 angled fish for 24 hours in a live cage to evaluate rates of delayed mortality. Only one of the 62 fish died, and it was heavily scarred with gillnet marks. Most fish that are fatally stressed by angling die within 24 h (e.g., Booth et al. 1995). In 1996, up to 10% of our Floy-tagged fish were angled and released twice, and about 0.5% were angled and released three times. No significant biases were detected in the post-angling movement patterns of these fish. The multiple captures and lack of movement bias suggest that fish behavior was little altered by the angling experience. Nine fish Floy tagged prior to spawning have been recovered as typical emaciated kelts. Three were killed, and a post mortem exam showed all had spawned. Parr numbers at all monitored sites have been steadily increasing since the advent of catch-and-release fishing. By contrast, parr growth rates are generally unchanged or significantly better., [source]

Fast fuelling but light flight in Broad-billed Sandpipers Limicola falcinellus: stopover ecology at a final take-off site in spring (Sivash, Ukraine)

IBIS, Issue 2 2006
We studied phenology, staging time and refuelling in Broad-billed Sandpipers Limicola falcinellus stopping over during spring migration in the Sivash (Black Sea, Ukraine) in May 1991,94. In the study area, peak staging numbers of 2000,2500 individuals occurred in the third week of May. In May 1993, 460 birds were marked with a yellow dye and 126 of these were colour-ringed. Before 28 May no departure of birds dyed yellow could be detected; by 3 June all birds had departed. Colour-ringed adults in mid May 1993 staged for a minimum of 8.2 days. After the observed departure of large flocks (24 May and later) the staging time of colour-ringed birds decreased significantly with body mass at the time of capture. Of birds mist-netted in 1991,94, 99.3% were in full summer plumage and 89% were adults. In second-year birds, fuel deposition rate (measured between individuals) was 0.44 g/day. In adults caught from early May to 24 May, overall fuel deposition rate was 1.04 g/day (3.4% of lean body mass). Mean adult body mass in early May was 34.8 g, increasing to 45.5 g after 24 May. Estimated body mass at departure was 51 g. Departure body mass and flight range estimates suggest that although birds refuelled quickly, fuel loads are only just sufficient for an unbroken flight to Scandinavia and the Kola Peninsula. We suggest that Broad-billed Sandpipers use the Sivash as a crucial final take-off stopover site, and that they follow a ,jumping' migration strategy, performed under narrow time constraints. [source]

Olivine-spinifex basalt from the Tamba Belt, southwest Japan: Evidence for Fe- and high field strength element-rich ultramafic volcanism in Permian Ocean

ISLAND ARC, Issue 3 2007
Yuji Ichiyama
Abstract Permian basalt showing typical spinifex texture with >10 cm-long olivine pseudomorphs was discovered from the Jurassic Tamba accretionary complex in southwest Japan. The spinifex basalt occurs as a river boulder accompanied by many ferropicritic boulders in a Permian chert-greenstone unit. Groundmass of this rock is holocrystalline, suggesting a thick lava or sill for its provenance. Minor kaersutite in the groundmass indicates a hydrous magma. The spinifex basalt, in common with the associated ferropicritic rocks, is characterized by high high field strength element (HFSE) contents (e.g. Nb = 62 ppm and Zr = 254 ppm) and high-HFSE ratios (Al2O3/TiO2 = 3.9, Nb/Zr = 0.24 and Zr/Y = 6.4) unlike typical komatiites. The spinifex basalt and ferropicrite might represent the upper fractionated melt and the lower olivine-rich cumulate, respectively, of a single ultramafic sill (or lava) as reported from the early Proterozoic Pechenga Series in Kola Peninsula. Their parental magma might have been produced by hydrous melting of a mantle plume that was dosed with Fe- and HFSE-rich garnet pyroxenite. The spinifex basalt is an evidence for the Pechenga-type ferropicritic volcanism taken place in a Permian oceanic plateau, which accreted to the Asian continental margin as greenstone slices in Jurassic time. [source]

Effects of air pollution on natural enemies of the leaf beetle Melasoma lapponica

Elena L. Zvereva
Summary 1. ,Air pollution might have differential effects on herbivores and their natural enemies, thus changing population dynamics. Therefore, from 1993 to 1998 we studied mortality caused by parasitoids and predators to the willow-feeding leaf beetle Melasoma lapponica in the impact zone of the Severonikel nickel,copper smelter (Kola Peninsula, north-western Russia). 2. ,Densities of M. lapponica were very low at clean forest sites (below five beetles per 10-min count) but higher in polluted areas (10,340 beetles per count). There were, however, variations between study years. 3. ,Egg predation, mainly by syrphid larvae and zoophagous bugs, was higher at relatively clean sites (55·3%) than at polluted sites (22·2%). Similarly, predation on larvae by zoophagous bugs and wood ants was higher at clean sites (68·4%) than at polluted sites (32·9%). 4. ,In contrast to predation, mortality caused by the parasitoid flies Megaselia opacicornis (Phoridae) and Cleonice nitidiuscula (Tachinidae) was lower at clean sites (12·3%) than at polluted sites (35·3%). Total parasitism levels increased significantly with pollution load. 5. ,Total mortality caused by natural enemies was higher at clean sites (93·7%) than at polluted sites (79·4%) due to higher predation rates, which may partly explain increased leaf beetle density within the smelter's impact zone. The effects of predators in clean forests were confirmed by the extinction of adults of M. lapponica introduced to one of the forest sites. 6. ,Although some individual sources of mortality appeared to be density dependent (direct or inverse), the joint effect of all natural enemies was not. 7. ,Our data show that a decrease in predation can contribute to increased leaf beetle density at polluted sites. However, the overall effects of natural enemies in this case were not sufficient to account for all density variations between sites. To our knowledge this is the first study to assess how pollution affects the partitioning of mortality in herbivorous insects between predators and parasitoids. [source]

A multiproxy record of Holocene environmental changes in the central Kola Peninsula, northwest Russia

Nadia Solovieva
Abstract A sediment core from Chuna Lake (Kola Peninsula, northwest Russia) was studied for pollen, diatoms and sediment chemistry in order to infer post-glacial environmental changes and to investigate responses of the lake ecosystem to these changes. The past pH and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of the lake were inferred using diatom-based transfer functions. Between 9000 and 4200 cal. yr BP, slow natural acidification and major changes in the diatom flora occurred in Chuna Lake. These correlated with changes in regional pollen, the arrival of trees in the catchment, changes in erosion, sediment organic content and DOC. During the past 4200 yr diatom-based proxies showed no clear response to changes in vegetation and erosion, as autochthonous ecological processes became more important than external climate influences during the late Holocene. The pollen stratigraphy reflects the major climate patterns of the central Kola Peninsula during the Holocene, i.e. a climate optimum between 9000 and 5400/5000 cal. yr BP when climate was warm and dry, and gradual climate cooling and an increase in moisture during the past 5400/5000 yr. This agrees with the occurrence of the north,south humidity gradient in Fennoscandia during the Holocene. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Museum specimens reveal changes in the population structure of northern Fennoscandian domestic reindeer in the past one hundred years

G. Bjørnstad
Summary Traditional reindeer herding of northern Fennoscandia has been based on seasonal movements independent of national borders. At the beginning of the 19th century, these yearly movements of reindeer were excessive, but during that century the borders between the Fennoscandian countries were closed. By analysing a 190-base pair fragment of the mitochondrial DNA control region in 79 museum samples, we show that the reindeer of northern Fennoscandia were one homogenous population shortly after the national borders were closed. However, anthropogenic activity has effectively ended genetic exchange within northern Fennoscandia and has made the reindeer population within this region heterogeneous. Genetic input of eastern origin is also suggested within the extant Russian reindeer of the Kola Peninsula. [source]

The Keiva ice marginal zone on the Kola Peninsula, northwest Russia: a key component for reconstructing the palaeoglaciology of the northeastern Fennoscandian Ice Sheet

BOREAS, Issue 4 2007
Clas H, ttestrand
One of the key elements in reconstructing the palaeoglaciology of the northeastern sector of the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet is the Keiva ice marginal zone (KIZ) along the southern and eastern coast of Kola Peninsula, including the Keiva I and II moraines. From detailed geomorphological mapping of the KIZ, primarily using aerial photographs and satellite images, combined with fieldwork, we observed the following. (1) The moraines display ice contact features on both the Kola side and the White Sea side along its entire length. (2) The Keiva II moraine is sloping along its length from c. 100 m a.s.l. in the west (Varzuga River) to c. 250 m a.s.l. in the east (Ponoy River). (3) The KIZ was partly overrun and fragmented by erosive White Sea-based ice after formation. From these observations we conclude that the KIZ is not a synchronous feature formed along the lateral side of a White Sea-based ice lobe. If it was, the moraines should have a reversed slope. Rather, we interpret it to be time transgressive, formed at a northeastward-migrating junction between a warm-based Fennoscandian Ice Sheet expanding from the west and southwest into the White Sea depression, and a sluggish cold-based ice mass centred over eastern Kola Peninsula. In contrast to earlier reconstructions, we find it unlikely that an ice expansion of this magnitude was a mere re-advance during the deglaciation. Instead, we propose that the KIZ was formed during a major expansion of a Fennoscandian Ice Sheet at a time pre-dating the Last Glacial Maximum. [source]

ESR/OSL ages of long-debated subtill fossil-bearing marine deposits from the southern Kola Peninsula: stratigraphic implications

BOREAS, Issue 2 2004
The occurrence of sandy clay deposited in a warm marine environment just below the till of the last glaciation has created controversy about its age and stratigraphic position in the sedimentary basin of the Kola Peninsula. Data on marine microfauna, diatoms, malacofauna and pollen composition indicate that during the period when the sandy clay was deposited the climate was similar or even warmer than at present. According to 14C dates, sedimentation of the sandy clay occurred around 40 ka BP. Based on these data, some researchers have attributed these marine deposits to the third Late Pleistocene Belomorian (sensu Lavrova 1960) interglacial transgression. At the same time there are geological indications suggesting re-deposition of these subtill sediments. To solve this problem we have reinvestigated the subtill interglacial marine deposits from the Varzuga section (,66.4° N and 36.6° E). Four different marine shell species and enclosing sandy clay sediments taken from the subtill marine unit of the section were dated by the electron spin resonance (ESR) and optically-stimulated luminescence (OSL) methods at about 103 and 104 ka, respectively. The results indicate that the subtill marine deposits belong to the first Late Pleistocene Boreal transgression that, according to our previous studies of the marginal areas of the Eurasian North, has occurred in the time interval from approximately 145 to 70 ka BP. [source]