Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Impact of National Aquarium in Baltimore on Visitors' Conservation Attitudes, Behavior, and Knowledge

ABSTRACT This study at the National Aquarium in Baltimore (NAIB) was conducted to assess four key aspects of the visitor experience: (1) incoming conservation knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of NAIB visitors; (2) patterns of use and interaction with exhibition components throughout the NAIB; (3) exiting conservation knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of visitors; and (4) over time, how the NAIB experience altered or affected individuals' conservation knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. Three hundred six visitors participated in the study, which was conducted from March through July, 1999. The study utilized four data-collection techniques: (1) face-to-face interviews, (2) Personal Meaning Mapping (PMM), (3) tracking, and (4) follow-up telephone interviews. Participants were a self-selected population and were generally more knowledgeable about, more concerned about, and more involved in conservation-related issues than the general public. However, they were far from conservationists. Visitors in this study clearly absorbed the fundamental conservation message at the NAIB. In fact, the NAIB visit appeared to focus visitors' conservation-related thoughts, while also broadening their understanding of conservation. Changes in visitors' conservation knowledge, understanding, and interests by and large persisted over six to eight weeks after visiting NAIB. The NAIB experience also connected to visitors' lives in a variety of ways following their visit. However, these personal experiences rarely resulted in new conservation actions. In fact, their enthusiasm and emotional commitment to conservation (inspired during the NAIB visit) generally fell back to original levels, presumably in the absence of reinforcing experiences. The findings of this study are guiding subsequent investigations at the NAIB. More generally, the results suggest strategies to enhance current understanding of the impact free-choice learning institutions have on their visiting public. [source]

A Perspective on Achieving Equality in Mathematics for Fourth Grade Girls: A Special Case

Christine G. Renne
How can and do teachers create equal access within everyday classroom lessons and establish opportunities for girls to participate fully? What contexts contribute to equity? In contrast to classrooms where boys receive more attention, encouragement, and content-area instruction, Ms. Jeffreys conducts whole class lessons in her fourth grade classroom where girls participate equally and successfully with boys during mathematics. To ascertain what contributes to the equal participation, I use interactional analysis to closely examine two mathematics lessons. Part of Ms. Jeffreys' success lies in altering normative classroom discourse and in the assertive context created and sustained by the math, science, and technology magnet school setting. However, another layer of complexity is introduced: to teach her students at their instructional level, Ms. Jeffreys groups her students by their ability to pass timed multiplication tests. By instituting a form of tracking, Ms. Jeffreys also legitimates girls as knowledgeable, both socially and academically, by their membership in the top math group. While policy guidelines exhort teachers to provide equal access to curriculum, actually accomplishing a first step of access to participation in the routine day-to-day classroom talk remains extremely difficult. [source]

Parent and caretaker knowledge about avulsion of permanent teeth

Marconi Eduardo Sousa Maciel Santos
Tooth avulsion, the most severe dentoalveolar lesion, is a dental emergency. The prognosis of avulsed teeth significantly depends on prompt and efficient action at the site of the accident, thus requiring that parents or caretakers be knowledgeable about the correct management of this situation. The objective of the present study was to assess the level of knowledge of parents or caretakers concerning the management of tooth avulsion and to investigate the association between level of knowledge and schooling, monthly family income and age. We interviewed 107 parents or caretakers using a 12-item questionnaire comprising objective questions whose answers received a score from 0 to 3. The results show that 99% of those interviewed would immediately seek professional help; however, 71% did not know what avulsion was. Only 3% would use milk as storage medium and 16% would attempt replantation of the avulsed tooth. The distribution of final means for the overall level of parent or caretaker knowledge was 44.63% for score 3, 15.88% for score 2, 17.99% for score 1 and 21.47% for score 0, showing a low level of knowledge concerning tooth avulsion. Schooling, monthly family income and age were not associated with the knowledge scores for any of the 12 questions. The level of parent and caretaker knowledge concerning the management of tooth avulsion is low, without association with age, schooling and monthly family income. [source]

Entrepreneurship Research in Europe: Taking Stock and Looking Forward

Friederike Welter
With this article, as introduction to a special issue on entrepreneurship research in Europe, we hope to initiate a discussion about the importance of grounding entrepreneurship research in its national context. Different European researchers, all knowledgeable about the entrepreneurship research scene in their respective country, present the state of the research field for France, Germany, the United Kingdom (Blackburn & Smallbone, 2008); and Scandinavia. Two articles from U.S. authors complement this issue, reviewing differences in how entrepreneurship scholars measure the phenomenon and assessing the European approach(es). This special issue sets out to demonstrate the value of variety in the field,variety that very much depends on the different national, methodological, and thematic contexts entrepreneurship research takes place in. [source]

Who is Looking for Nutritional Food Labels?: Wer sucht nach Nährwertangaben auf Lebensmitteln?: Mais qui donc s'occupe du contenu nutritionnel sur les étiquettes?

EUROCHOICES, Issue 1 2005
Andreas C. Drichoutis
Summary Who is Looking for Nutritional Food Labels? Obesity amongst the population in Europe is increasing at an alarming rate. Consequently, nutritional and lifestyle factors are implicated in the huge increase in several chronic diseases in Europe. The Southern Europeans tend to be amongst the worst, mth Greece being first in adult obesity mainly due to the replacement of the Mediterranean diet with ready-made and fast foods. People want to see change towards an environment that makes it easier to make healthy choices. The EU, in order to assist consumers make healthy food choices, tried to make nutritional information available to consumers through a food labelling law framework, which currently works on a voluntary basis with the perspective to change towards a mandatory system. We conducted a study in Greece in order to assess consumer use of nutritional food labels and determine which consumers use certain types of nutrient content information. We found that almost a third of consumers often use food labels and these are the more educated, who are more nutritionally knowledgeable. Many others do not, and to increase their chances of reading the labels one should improve their knowledge of nutrition havlng in mind that they are not big users of the media but get their information from informd sources. Mais qui donc s'occupe du contenu nutritionnel sur les etiquettes? La prevalence de I'obesitk augmente a un t a u toujours plus preoccupant en Europe. Les facteurs nutritionnels et les styles de vie sont par consequent impliquks dans l'Cnorme accroissement constati: de diverses pathologies chroniques. La situation est specialement mauvaise en Europe du sud, ou la Grece detient le record du taux d'obesite dans la population adulte, en particulier du fait du remplacement du fameux ,regime mediterraneen' par les plats prepares et la restauration rapide. Les gens souhaitent un environnement susceptible de leur faciliter le choix d'une alimentation saine. C'est pour cela que l'Union europkenne a tente de mettre des informations nutritionnelles a la disposition des consommateurs, en instituant un cadre legal pour l'etiquetage alimentaire Il fonctionne actuellement sur la base du volontariat, mais il a pour vocation d'evoluer vers un systeme obligatoire. Il est rendu compte ici d'une enquOte effectuee en Grkce pour determiner quels types de consommateurs utilisent quels genres dindications de contenu nutritionnel portees sur les etiquettes alimentaires, et dans quelle mesure. Environ un tiers des consommateurs utilisent souvent les contenus nutritionnels. Ce sont les plus eduques et les mieux informks. La plupart des autres negligent les etiquettes. Pour accroitre les chances que ces dernieres soient lues, il faudrait donc arneliorer les connaissances nutritionnelles, en gardant a l'esprit que les personnes concernkes utilisent peu les mkdias et tirent leurs informations de sources informelles. Wer sucht nach Nährwertangaben auf Die Fettleibigkeit in der europaischen Bevolkerung nimmt alarmierend schnell zu. Folglich spiegeln sich Ernahrung und Lebensstil in dem hohen Anstieg zahlreicher chronischer Erkrankungen in Europa wider. Fur die Sudeuropaer ergeben sich einige der schlechtesten Werte, wobei in Griechenland die Erwachsenenfettleibigkeit am ausgepriigtesten ist. Dies liegt hauptsachlich daran, dass die mediterrane Erniihrung von Fertiggerichten und Fast-Food abgelost wurde. Die Bevolkerung wiinscht sich eine Veriinderung hin zu einer Umgebung, die sie darin unterstutzt, der Gesundheit zutr;dgliche Entscheidungen zu treffen. Die EU wollte den Verbrauchern gesundheitlich relevante Informationen durch eine Kennzeichnung der Inhaltsstoffe der Lebensmittel verschaffen. Dieses System sieht gegenwartig lediglich eine freiwillige Kennzeichnung vor, ist aber als obligatorisch geplant. Wir fiihrten in Griechenland eine Studie durch, um zu beurteilen, inwiefern Nahrwertangaben auf Lebensmitteln den Verbrauchern nutzen, und um festzustellen, welche Verbraucher auf bestimmte Nahrwertangaben achten. Wir fanden heraus, dass beinahe ein Drittel aller Verbraucher auf die Lebensmittelkennzeich nung achten. Diese Verbraucher verfiigen uber eine hohere Bildung und kennen sich in Erniihrungsfragen relativ gut aus. Ein großer Anted der Verbraucher verfiigt uber keinerlei gesundheitliche Grundkenntnisse; um diesen Verbrauchern das Lesen der Etiketten zu ermoglichen, sollte man ihre Kenntnisse in Sachen Ernahrung verbessern und sich dabei vor Augen fiihren, dass diese Verbraucher die Medien nicht allzu intensiv nutzen, sondern ihre Informationen aus informellen Quellen beziehen. [source]

Reflections and findings on the critical citizen: Civic education , What for?

This article focuses on the question of whether satisfied and supportive citizens or critical citizens have attitudes that promote democracy. The discussion of this question is based on empirical results from a survey of German citizens (N = 2,000), applying bivariate and multivariate methods. Political criticism is measured by indicators of dissatisfaction, attentiveness and system preference; five types of citizens are constructed: satisfied-attentive, satisfied-inattentive, dissatisfied-attentive, dissatisfied-inattentive citizens with a preference for a democratic system, and one type preferring nondemocratic systems. The article examines which of these types are more consistent with the ,ideal citizen', defined as a citizen who participates, is well-informed, identifies with democracy and politics, has good internal efficacy and is willing to defend democracy. The data show that attentive citizens are more likely to promote democracy than inattentive ones. Attentive citizens are politically more knowledgeable, identify more strongly with the democratic system, feel more politically competent and are more willing to defend democracy. Political satisfaction or dissatisfaction has less of an influence on these dispositions. [source]

Breast Cancer Knowledge and Preventive Behaviors An Urban Emergency Department-based Survey

Kevin M. Takakuwa MA
Abstract. Objective: To assess general knowledge and preventive behaviors regarding breast cancer among women who present to an urban emergency department. Methods: During a six-month study period, a convenience sampling of women aged 21 years and older who were in treatment and waiting areas was surveyed. The anonymous written survey asked about demographic variables, knowledge, and preventive behaviors regarding breast cancer. Knowledge was assessed with questions about the recommended frequency of breast self-examination and the recommended age for first mammography. Performance was assessed by questions about breast self-exam and mammography. Subgroup analysis was done by age (above and below 40 years old), race, income (above and below the median), insurance type, history of breast lump, and family history (FH) of breast cancer. Results: Four hundred women completed surveys. Two hundred twelve (53%) correctly knew the answers to the two knowledge questions. Knowledge was greater in women with private insurance. Knowledge of the frequency of breast self-exam was significantly greater among whites and Native Americans than among African Americans, Asians, or Hispanics. Stated performance of preventive behaviors was 72% (288) for breast self-exam and for mammography. Preventive behaviors were significantly more likely to be performed by higher-income and privately-insured women. Breast self-exam was more likely to be done in older women, those with a history of a breast lump, and those with a FH of breast cancer. Conclusions: Women with lower income and without private insurance were less likely to be knowledgeable and practice preventive measures for detecting breast disease. [source]

Vulvar Pain: A Phenomenological Study of Couples in Search of Effective Diagnosis and Treatment

FAMILY PROCESS, Issue 2 2008
Vulvar vestibulitis syndrome (VVS), a vulvar pain disorder, continues to puzzle medical and mental health professionals due to its unknown etiology and lack of effective treatment. This study used transcendental phenomenology methodology to explore the experiences of couples in which the woman has a diagnosis of VVS. Sixteen in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 heterosexual couples and 3 women. Four essences emerged: (1) In search of, the medical journey required extensive searching for knowledgeable and respectful practitioners to provide treatment. (2) The process of developing a personal understanding of this disorder led many couples to question their role in causing and maintaining VVS. (3) Developing strategies for coping with painful intercourse led to three strategies: becoming non-sexual, using alternatives to vaginal sex, and altering or enduring painful intercourse. (4) Feelings of isolation were experienced as adapting to this chronic pain syndrome was often a lonely process. Clinical suggestions included: treating the couple, not just the woman with VVS; encouraging couples to broaden definitions about the importance and primacy of vaginal intercourse and suggest alternative sexual activities less likely to cause vulvar pain; developing shared meaning as a couple, and assisting couples in locating physicians and resources. Suggestions are relevant for couples with VVS and those with chronic health problems affecting sexual relationships. RESUMEN Dolor vulvar: estudio fenomenológico de parejas que buscan un diagnóstico y tratamiento efectivos El síndrome de vestibulitis vulvar (svv), un trastono de dolor vulvar, continúa dejando perplejos a los profesionales de la salud física y mental debido a su etiología desconocida y a la inexistencia de un tratamiento efectivo. Este estudio utilizó metodología fenomenológica experimental para explorar las experiencias de parejas en que a la mujer se le ha diagnosticado el svv. Se llevaron a cabo dieciséis entrevistas (en profundidad y semiestructuradas) con 13 parejas heterosexuales y 3 mujeres, de las que se obtuvieron cuatro conclusiones esenciales: (1) En busca de , la investigación médica requería una búsqueda más exhaustiva de médicos eruditos y respetuosos que aportasen un tratamiento. (2) El proceso de desarrollar una comprensión personal del trastorno condujo a varias parejas a plantearse su papel en la causa y la prolongación del svv. (3) Desarrollar estrategias para afrontar un coito doloroso condujo a tres estrategias: prescindir del sexo, optar por alternativas al sexo vaginal y modificar o soportar el coito doloroso. (4) Se experimentaron sensaciones de aislamiento, pues el proceso de adaptación a este síndrome de dolor crónico resultó, a menudo, un proceso solitario. Entre los consejos clínicos se incluyen tratar a la pareja, y no sólo a la mujer con svv; animar a las parejas a ampliar las definiciones de la importancia y preferencia por el coito vaginal, así como sugerir actividades sexuales con menor riesgo de causar dolor vulvar; desarrollar un significado común como pareja; y ayudar a las parejas a encontrar médicos y recursos. Palabras clave: síndrome de vestibulitis vulvar; dolor vulvar; terapia de pareja. [source]

Clinical decision-making in the context of chronic illness

Susan Watt DSW CSW
This paper develops a framework to compare clinical decision making in relation to chronic and acute medical conditions. Much of the literature on patient-physician decision making has focused on acute and often life-threatening medical situations in which the patient is highly dependent upon the expertise of the physician in providing the therapeutic options. Decision making is often constrained and driven by the overwhelming impact of the acute medical problem on all aspects of the individual's life. With chronic conditions, patients are increasingly knowledgeable, not only about their medical conditions, but also about traditional, complementary, and alternative therapeutic options. They must make multiple and repetitive decisions, with variable outcomes, about how they will live with their chronic condition. Consequently, they often know more than attending treatment personnel about their own situations, including symptoms, responses to previous treatment, and lifestyle preferences. This paper compares the nature of the illness, the characteristics of the decisions themselves, the role of the patient, the decision-making relationship, and the decision-making environment in acute and chronic illnesses. The author argues for a different understanding of the decision-making relationships and processes characteristic in chronic conditions that take into account the role of trade-offs between medical regimens and lifestyle choices in shaping both the process and outcomes of clinical decision-making. The paper addresses the concerns of a range of professional providers and consumers. [source]

Consumers' attitudes, knowledge, self-reported and actual hand washing behaviour: a challenge for designers of intervention materials

D.A. Clayton
Cross contamination by microbial pathogens in the kitchen environment may play an important role in many cases of food borne illnesses. Hand washing has been shown to be one of the most important factors in controlling the spread of microorganisms and in preventing the spread of disease. However, educational campaigns such as distribution of information leaflets, workshops, performance feedback and lectures have been, at best, associated with a transient improvement in compliance rates. In addition, the majority of research investigating UK consumers' food safety behaviour has examined self-reported as opposed to actual hand washing behaviour. This research utilises psychological theory in an attempt to understand how one might design a more effective hand washing campaign. Social cognition models were utilised to explore the relationship between consumers' knowledge, attitudes, self-reported and actual hand washing behaviour. The research was conducted in two stages. Firstly, salient beliefs of 100 consumers towards food safety were obtained using open-ended questions. Secondly, the food handling practices of 40 consumers were observed and their food safety attitudes and knowledge determined using structured questionnaires. All the participants were knowledgeable about hand washing techniques, intended to wash their hands and generally had positive attitudes towards the importance of washing their hands. However, none of the participants adequately washed their hands on all appropriate occasions. The attitude statement results suggest measures of perceived behavioural control, perceived barriers and perceived risk may provide developers of food safety intervention materials with more useful information compared with measures of consumers' knowledge or intention. Issues of habit and optimistic bias also need to be given consideration when designing intervention materials to change hand washing behaviour of consumers. [source]

Young people's perceptions of complaints procedures in local government

Carol Brennan
Abstract This study examined 46 young people aged 16,24 years and evaluated their knowledge and awareness of the formal complaints procedures used by local government. Two areas in Scotland, one city (Edinburgh) and one town (Stirling), were chosen to participate in the study. Six focus groups, three in each area, were carried out to identify the level of awareness among the respondents and to permit a cross-section of educational backgrounds to be obtained. A questionnaire was used to assemble a profile on each participant. After analysis of the focus groups, a focused interview with the Corporate Complaints Officers from two councils was undertaken. Each interview incorporated an in-depth discussion regarding the formal complaints procedure while focusing on the young people within their constituency. The research revealed that young people's knowledge and awareness of local government complaints procedures is low, regardless of educational background and area of residence. For a minority, social factors such as confidence and competence do play a role although it is mainly organizational barriers, such as lack of information and access, which are the main causes of the problem. A number of young people indicated that they would complain if they knew how to execute a complaint successfully. The service providers were knowledgeable that awareness is low among this age group. [source]

Prevention and treatment of systemic glucocorticoid side effects

Siamak Moghadam-Kia MD
Background, Systemic glucocorticoids are used in dermatologic practice for various diseases including connective tissue disorders, bullous diseases, and many other dermatologic conditions. Patients with these diseases are at times treated with long-term courses of glucocorticoids, which place them at increased risk for glucocorticoid-induced side effects. Therefore, dermatologists must be knowledgeable of risks related to glucocorticoid use and be familiar with guidelines to manage them. Objective, To provide an update of recent advances in the prevention and treatment of major glucocorticoid-induced side effects. Methods, Review of the literature Results Data regarding the prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced side effects are presented. Conclusion, This review should help dermatologists optimally manage and prevent glucocorticoid-induced side effects. [source]

The use of herbal remedies by adolescents with eating disorders

Leo Trigazis
Abstract Objective To determine the frequency and type of herbal remedies and the reasons for herbal remedy use by adolescents with eating disorders. Methods Forty-six female adolescent females (age range, 10,17 years; mean age, 15 ± 1.3 years) in a tertiary-care pediatric eating disorder treatment center from May 1998 to July 2000 volunteered for this cross-sectional study. They met the criteria for anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or eating disorder not otherwise specified. Participants completed a 92-item self-administered questionnaire. We summarized information on demographics, use of herbal remedies, knowledge of safety issues of herbal remedies, and trust in the health care system. Results Of these 46 subjects, 17 (37%) used herbal remedies. Of these 17 subjects, 35% (6 of 17) used herbal remedies to decrease their appetites and to induce vomiting, 41% (7 of 17) knew nothing about herbal remedies, despite their use of these products, and 24% (4 of 17) reported that their physicians asked whether they used herbal remedies. The participants did not use herbal remedies because of their dissatisfaction with allopathic medicine. Discussion Adolescents with eating disorders frequently used herbal remedies for both weight control and non,weight control purposes. They did not regularly inform their physicians about their use of herbal remedies and physicians did not regularly inform their patients about this use. The generally high prevalence of herbal remedy use in this population suggests that health care providers need to be knowledgeable and should enquire about patients' use of these products. The perceived benefits, adverse effects, and herb-drug interactions of self-prescribed herbal remedies consumed by adolescents with eating disorders are unknown and further research is needed. © 2004 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 35: 223,228, 2004. [source]

What do we know about dementia?: a survey on knowledge about dementia in the general public of Japan

Yumiko Arai
Abstract Objective The importance of early detection of dementia has been highlighted in recent years by the medical and scientific community; however, delays often occur between the recognition of signs or symptoms and a decision by the patient or family to seek professional help. Such delays may be caused by a lack of knowledge about dementia among patients and family members. The aim of this study was to determine the understanding of dementia among the general public. Methods We conducted a survey in Japan that asked 11 questions regarding knowledge of ,general' information, ,symptoms', and ,biomedical' issues related to dementia. A quota sampling method was used to select 2,500 participants, 2,115 of who were eligible for the analyses. Results The average number of correct responses among females was significantly greater than that among the males. A multiple comparisons test demonstrated that middle-aged women were more knowledgeable than younger and older respondents. It was revealed that there was a lack of knowledge on biomedical aspects of dementia, i.e. cause, treatment, and prognosis along with a misunderstanding of dementia as senescence forgetfulness among the general public. Conclusions There appeared to be gaps in knowledge on dementia among the general public, which may prevent caregivers from planning upcoming social and financial challenges. Correct information needs to be given by health professionals and care staff. Educational initiatives planned for the general public could be useful, and should target those groups, men and non-middle aged women who have lower knowledge. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

The praxis of clinical knowledge: Learning to care for paediatric patients with a congenital heart anomaly

Suzi Robertson-Malt RN PhD BN(Hons)
In Saudi Arabia, the major tertiary care unit for the treatment of cardiovascular disease is the King Faisal Heart Institute (KFHI). Its state of the art technology and patient profile facilitates nurses to become highly knowledgeable in the diversity of treatment modalities and nursing care of a range of paediatric pathology. Like many global nursing organizations, the KFHI is experiencing nursing shortages and nurses coming to work in this highly specialized area are lacking some of the basic understanding and skills development necessary to work efficiently and effectively in the area. This paper describes the work of the cardiovascular education team in developing a praxis-based curriculum that equips nurses to not only function at a high level in the cardiovascular area but also facilitate success in their future careers when they leave Saudi Arabia. [source]

A study into dentists' knowledge of the treatment of traumatic injuries to young permanent incisors

Summary. Objective., The aims of this study were to evaluate dentists' knowledge of the emergency treatment of traumatic injuries to young permanent incisors, and to investigate barriers to treatment. Design., A closed-ended questionnaire was sent to 1023 general dental practitioners (GDPs) and community dental officers (CDOs) in West/North Yorkshire and Humberside, UK. Methods., The questionnaire comprised 17 questions. Six questions asked for general information about the participants (i.e. profession, age, gender, year of graduation, training or education on dental trauma, and willingness to provide emergency care), 10 were relevant to the emergency treatment of crown fractures, root fractures, luxation and avulsion injuries, and the last question queried any perceived barriers to treatment. Results., Seven hundred and twenty-four questionnaires were returned, a response rate of 71%, and these indicated that dentists' knowledge of the emergency treatment of dentoalveolar trauma in children was inadequate. The CDOs were significantly more knowledgeable than the GDPs, as were younger and more recently graduated dentists compared with older ones. The GDPs regarded the difficulty of treating children and the inadequate fees of the UK National Health Service as important barriers to treatment. Dentists who attended continuing dental education courses on dental traumatology had a more thorough knowledge than those who did not. Conclusion., Overall, the dentists' knowledge of the emergency treatment of dentoalveolar trauma in children was inadequate. Greater emphasis on undergraduate and postgraduate education in this area is indicated. [source]

Symptom management for HIV-positive persons in Norway

E. H. Bunch rn
Abstract Purpose:, To record symptoms experienced by people with HIV/AIDS, and describe useful self-care strategies and how symptoms impact on daily life. Method:, A questionnaire was used with self-reported answers and descriptions of how symptoms impact on daily activities and suggestions for useful self-care strategies. Four hundred and twenty-two (n = 422) HIV-positive persons from seven sites in the USA and one site in Norway (n = 20) answered the questionnaire. Results:, In this article subjective symptom descriptions from the Norwegian sample are presented along with self-care strategies and their effectiveness. Findings revealed the Norwegian sample to be a little older, maybe less anxious and depressed, than participants in the larger study. This difference might be explained by the structure of the national social and health care system in Norway, where treatments, medications and social services are available to all citizens without cost. Respondents described a number of related symptoms as well as their subjective explanations of what triggered the symptoms. Most of the self-care strategies were learnt by trial and error. Recommendations:, Community health providers, nurses and physicians should become more knowledgeable about the symptoms that infected persons struggle with, as well as the impact these symptoms have on routine daily self-care activities and a person's quality of life. There is need for more research about helpful self-care strategies to assist HIV-positive persons to manage their symptoms and to disseminate these to community health providers and support groups for HIV infected persons. [source]

Encoding of Facial Expressions of Emotion and Knowledge of American Sign Language

The relationship between knowledge of American Sign Language (ASL) and the ability to encode facial expressions of emotion was explored. Participants were 55 college students, half of whom were intermediate-level students of ASL and half of whom had no experience with a signed language. In front of a video camera, participants posed the affective facial expressions of happiness, sadness, fear, surprise, anger, and disgust. These facial expressions were randomized onto stimulus tapes that were then shown to 60 untrained judges who tried to identify the expressed emotions. Results indicated that hearing subjects knowledgeable in ASL were generally more adept than were hearing nonsigners at conveying emotions through facial expression. Results have implications for better understanding the nature of nonverbal communication in hearing and deaf individuals. [source]

Intuitive evaluation of likelihood judgment producers: evidence for a confidence heuristic

Paul C. Price
Abstract This research tests the hypothesis of Yates et al. (1996) that people prefer judgment producers who make extreme confidence judgments. In each of three experiments, college students evaluated two fictional financial advisors who judged the likelihood that each of several stocks would increase in value. One of the advisors (the moderate advisor) was reasonably well calibrated and the other (the extreme advisor) was overconfident. In all three experiments, participants tended to prefer the extreme advisor. Experiments 2 and 3 showed that the advisors' confidence influenced participants' perception of their knowledge, and Experiment 3 showed that it influenced their perception of the number of categorically correct judgments they made. Both of these variables were, in turn, related to participants' preferences. Experiment 3 also suggested that need for cognition and right-wing authoritarianism are positively related to preference for the extreme advisor. A quantitative model is presented, which captures the basic pattern of results. This model includes the assumption that people use a confidence heuristic; they assume that a more confident advisor makes more categorically correct judgments and is more knowledgeable. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Correlation of the Experience of Peer Relational Aggression Victimization and Depression among African American Adolescent Females,

Melissa M. Gomes PhD
PROBLEM:, This study aimed to examine if the experience of peer relational aggression victimization (PRAV) can be linked to feelings of depression in the African American adolescent female population. METHODS:, The sample included 241 college-age African American adolescent females assessed for PRAV and depression. Statistical analysis was carried out to determine the relationship between the variables. FINDINGS:, PRAV in this study population does exist as a detrimental phenomenon, whereby PRAV significantly correlates with depression, r (214) = 0.29, p < .01. CONCLUSION:, Nurses can assist the adolescent clients experiencing relational aggression by becoming knowledgeable on the presentation and manifestations of this experience. [source]

What is the evidence for the use of probiotics in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease?

Virginia A Cary
Aims and objectives., The purpose of this article is to investigate the use of probiotics in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Background., Probiotics have been successfully used to treat various acute illnesses such as Clostridium difficile infection, rotovirus diarrhoea and traveller's diarrhoea. Recently, some studies have reported success with probiotics in the treatment of chronic intestinal diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease. Design., Literature review. Methods., A literature search was performed to include studies on Bifidobacteria -fermented milk, Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus, Saccharomyces boulardii, VSL #3 and probiotic use. Results of the literature are analysed, and a discussion is made regarding evaluation of the literature and implications for care. Results., The majority of probiotics studied have proven to have beneficial effects in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, especially when taken as a dietary adjunctive to standard treatment. All probiotics studied, with the exception of Lactobacillus GG and LA1, demonstrated positive results. Conclusions., The increasing use of probiotics combined with the insufficient knowledge regarding the use of probiotics in treating inflammatory bowel disease requires that future multilevel, multicentre large randomised control trials be conducted to understand better the specific measures and effectiveness of such treatment. Relevance to clinical practice., Given that few clinical trials exist to study the potential role of probiotics in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, it is imperative that healthcare providers become knowledgeable about the use of probiotics and their effects on inflammatory bowel disease. [source]

Identifying the core components of cultural competence: findings from a Delphi study

Maria Jirwe
Aim., To identify the core components of cultural competence from a Swedish perspective. Background., The cultural diversity of Swedish society raises challenges for nursing practice. Nurses need to be culturally competent, i.e. demonstrate the effective application of knowledge, skills and attitudes to practice safely and effectively in a multicultural society. Existing frameworks of cultural competence reflect the socio-cultural, historical and political context they were developed in. To date, there has been no research examining cultural competence within a Swedish context. Design., A Delphi survey. Methods., A purposeful sample of 24 experts (eight nurses, eight researchers and eight lecturers) knowledgeable in multicultural issues was recruited. Interviews were undertaken to identify the knowledge, skills and attitudes that formed the components of cultural competence. Content analysis yielded statements which were developed into a questionnaire. Respondents scored questionnaire items in terms of perceived importance. Statements which reached consensus were removed from questionnaires used in subsequent rounds. Three rounds of questionnaires were distributed during 2006. Results., A total of 118 out of 137 components reached a consensus level of 75%. The components were categorised into five areas, cultural sensitivity, cultural understanding, cultural encounters, understanding of health, ill-health and healthcare and social and cultural contexts with 17 associated subcategories. Conclusions., There are some similarities between the issues raised in the current study and existing frameworks of cultural competence from the USA and the UK. However, Swedish experts placed less emphasis on ethnohistory and on developing skills to challenge discrimination and racism. Relevance to clinical practice., This study identified the core components of cultural competence important to nurses practising within a multicultural society such as Sweden. Acquisition of the knowledge, skills and attitudes identified should enable nurses to meet the needs of patients from different cultural backgrounds. The components of cultural competence can form the basis of nursing curricula. [source]

HIV prevention for people with serious mental illness: a survey of mental health workers' attitudes, knowledge and practice

Elizabeth Hughes
Aim., The aim of this survey was to investigate the attitudes, knowledge and reported practice (capabilities) of mental health workers concerning humanimmunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted diseases in people with serious mental illness. Background., People with serious mental illness are at increased risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Mental health workers have a key role to play in promoting sexual health in this population, but it is unclear how they perceive their role in this work and whether they have the capabilities to deliver sexual health promotion. Design., Cross sectional survey. Methods., A questionnaire was devised and distributed to 650 mental health workers working in a London (UK) NHS mental health service. Results., A response rate of 44% was achieved. Overall, workers reported positive attitudes to sexual health promotion and were knowledgeable about risk behaviours and risk factors for HIV infection. Adherence to glove wearing was good. However, participants' knowledge about HIV/AIDS in people with schizophrenia was poor and most reported they were not engaged in sexual health promotion activities with people with serious mental illness. Glove wearing was predicted by those who had drug and alcohol training and clinical experience and knowledge of risk factors was predicted by previous health promotion training. No other demographic factors predicted any of the other subscales. Conclusion., Mental health workers require training to provide skills for health promotion regarding sexual health and HIV in people with serious mental health problems. In addition, there needs to be more research on risk behaviours. Relevance to clinical practice., The development of effective interventions to reduce this behaviour. [source]

Assessment of trauma nurse knowledge related to forensic practice

Kelli Eldredge RN
Abstract Assessment of forensic practice specific to the trauma setting was the purpose of this pilot study. Thirty-eight trauma nurses from a level II trauma center completed a questionnaire related to their knowledge of forensic practice. Although 58% of nurses had some education related to forensics, emergency department nurses were significantly more knowledgeable about existence of protocols than were intensive care unit nurses. Most respondents indicated a willingness to incorporate forensic principles into practice. Forensic education and standardization of protocols would enhance clinical practice in the trauma setting. [source]

Strategies to prepare for electronic discovery in healthcare

CPHRM, Joseph L. Smetana Jr. MSHL
While many healthcare risk managers have not yet received interrogatories requesting electronic information during discovery, all should nevertheless be prepared to face such requests. It is increasingly important to become knowledgeable of the legal exposure, due in part to recent amendments to the rules of civil procedure and case law that support the rules. This article provides healthcare risk managers with the basic knowledge necessary to prepare for electronic discovery. [source]

Learning Styles of Interior Design Students as Assessed by the Gregorc Style Delineator

Stephanie A. Watson Ed.D.
The purpose of this study was to determine the preferred learning style of undergraduate students majoring in interior design. The Gregorc Style Delineator, a self-report instrument to determine learning style, was administered to 147 undergraduate interior design students enrolled in Foundation for Interior Design Education Research (FIDER) accredited programs located within the Southwest Region of the United States. To determine the dominant learning style of undergraduate interior design students, frequency distributions were compiled. Overall, the most important finding in this study was the diversity of learning styles among interior design students. Not only were all learning styles represented in the sample, but 49% of students exhibited dominance in more than one style,unlike the results of previous studies with non interior design students. The most common learning styles found among interior design students are a logical and hands-on learning style, known as Concrete Sequential, and a combination of experimental, imaginative, and people-oriented learning styles, known as Concrete Random/Abstract Random. Diversity in student learning styles supports the argument for the need for instructors to have a repertoire of teaching methods. Instructors should be knowledgeable in learning style theory, should know their own learning style, and should be able to teach using a variety of styles. [source]

Improving Participant Comprehension in the Informed Consent Process

Elizabeth Cohn
Purpose: To critically analyze studies published within the past decade about participants' comprehension of informed consent in clinical research and to identify promising intervention strategies. Design:Integrative review of literature. Methods: The Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PubMed, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched. Inclusion criteria included studies (a) published between January 1, 1996 and January 1, 2007, (b) designed as descriptive or interventional studies of comprehension of informed consent for clinical research, (c) conducted in nonpsychiatric adult populations who were either patients or volunteer participants, (d) written in English, and (e) published in peer-reviewed journals. Findings: Of the 980 studies identified, 319 abstracts were screened, 154 studies were reviewed, and 23 met the inclusion criteria. Thirteen studies (57%) were descriptive, and 10 (43%) were interventional. Interventions tested included simplified written consent documents, multimedia approaches, and the use of a trained professional (consent educator) to assist in the consent process. Collectively, no single intervention strategy was consistently associated with improved comprehension. Studies also varied in regard to the definition of comprehension and the tools used to measure it. Conclusions: Despite increasing regulatory scrutiny, deficiencies still exist in participant comprehension of the research in which they participate, as well as differences in how comprehension is measured and assessed. No single intervention was identified as consistently successful for improving participant comprehension, and results indicated that any successful consent process should at a minimum include various communication modes and is likely to require one-to-one interaction with someone knowledgeable about the study. [source]

Effects of Obesity on Pregnancy

Shelia A. Smith
ABSTRACT Objectives:, To examine physiologic and psychological outcomes associated with maternal obesity in pregnancy and patterns of pregnancy weight gain. To identify effective interventions for maternal obesity. Data sources and study selection:, Search of obesity and pregnancy research conducted over the past 10 years using CIHAHL, Medline ERIC, and PyscInfo databases. Studies including the following keywords were included in the review: obesity, weight gain, body image, pregnancy weight gain, pregnancy obesity complications, preeclampsia and gestational diabetes. Articles were included based on scientific merit and research outcomes. Data synthesis and conclusions:, Maternal obesity is a serious condition that significantly impacts not only mothers' health but also the health and future of their children. It is paramount that all levels of health care providers be aware of consequences of obesity and be knowledgeable of effective interventions. No effective long-term interventions have been demonstrated to prevent or control obesity during pregnancy. The paucity of published results of pregnancy and postpartum interventions to address weight gain in pregnancy suggests the need for more community and individualized based intervention studies, especially focusing on long-term effects. [source]

Newborn Screening and Genetic Testing

FAAP, Michele A. Lloyd-Puryear MD
Mandated newborn screening programs for genetic and other congenital conditions for the some 4 million infants born in the United States each year have seen dramatic changes over the past decade. With the mapping of the human genome and other advances in science and technology, there will be continued challenges to and changes in these programs. Nurses who care for infants and their families should be knowledgeable about those changes to correctly transmit information to families and to participate in determining policy for newborn screening practices. [source]

Parents' descriptions of development and problems associated with infants with Turner syndrome: A retrospective study

M Starke
Objective: To describe parents' experiences of having an infant diagnosed with Turner syndrome and to determine whether receiving the diagnosis influenced the parents' perceptions of their child's development and/or problems during infancy. In addition, we set out to determine whether the late development of the infant and the perceived problems were related to genotype. Methods: In this retrospective study, 54 parents (39 mothers and 15 fathers) from different families, each containing a girl with Turner syndrome, were interviewed in order to describe the development, feeding and overall well-being of their daughter during infancy (defined as being before the age of 2 years). Results: Late development was reported to occur in the areas of motor activity (39%), fine motor control (59%), speech (37%) and language (37%). Feeding problems were frequent (74%) and screaming periods occurred in 41%. No differences were found between the responses of the parents whose children were diagnosed before 2 years of age and the responses of those whose children were diagnosed after 2 years of age. No differences were found concerning development and/or problems between the genotypes. Conclusions: Parents reported delayed development and problems to do with feeding and crying during infancy. These problems had an effect on their everyday life and that of their families, especially the problems relating to feeding. Parents reported that support and advice would have been of significant benefit in coping with the feeding difficulties. Parents were particularly concerned that the personnel at well-baby clinics should be more knowledgeable about the difficulties that can occur in families with an infant with Turner syndrome. [source]