Knowledge Transfer (knowledge + transfer)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Business, Economics, Finance and Accounting


Selected Abstracts


Minding the Children: Knowledge Transfer and the Future of Sustainable Agriculture

CONSERVATION BIOLOGY, Issue 4 2002
Kenneth R. Young
No abstract is available for this article. [source]


Enhancing Knowledge Transfer in Classroom Versus Online Settings: The Interplay Among Instructor, Student, Content, and Context

DECISION SCIENCES JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE EDUCATION, Issue 1 2009
Louise Nemanich
ABSTRACT This article integrates management education and organizational learning theories to identify the factors that drive the differences in student outcomes between the online and classroom settings. We draw upon theory on knowledge transfer barriers in organizations to understand the interlinking relationships among presage conditions, deep learning process, and product in the 3P model of student learning. We test our model in the context of undergraduate education and find that confidence in the instructor's expertise, perceived content relevance, and the social richness of the classroom learning environment enhance student enjoyment of the course. Confidence in instructor's expertise and perceived content relevance also contribute to greater understanding of causal relationships among course concepts. Enjoyment is positively associated with learning performance in the classroom, but not online, and student ability is positively associated with learning performance in the online context, but not in the classroom. Our results have implications for course designs in the traditional classroom context and the more innovative online environment. [source]


Multinational Corporations and Patterns of Local Knowledge Transfer in Costa Rican High-Tech Industries

DEVELOPMENT AND CHANGE, Issue 3 2008
Elisa Giuliani
ABSTRACT Over recent decades, governments in industrializing countries have promoted policies to attract foreign investors, anticipating the benefits of technology transfer to host economies. During the 1990s, Costa Rica adopted an industrialization strategy based on attracting high-tech multinational companies (MNCs). Using an original survey of a sample of high-tech MNC subsidiaries, this article shows that the new wave of efficiency-seeking subsidiaries tend not to transfer knowledge to domestic firms even when they establish backward linkages with them. Instead, most of the knowledge transfer occurs between high-tech foreign subsidiaries. This has clear policy implications for host country governments. [source]


Knowledge Transfer through Human Capital Mobility

GERMAN RESEARCH, Issue 3 2006
Matthias Kleiner Prof. Dr.-Ing.
The existing opportunities for exchanging research findings between university research labs and commercial R&D are in need of a boost [source]


Bon Secours Health System integrates Lean Six Sigma and Knowledge Transfer to drive clinical and operational excellence

GLOBAL BUSINESS AND ORGANIZATIONAL EXCELLENCE, Issue 6 2009
H. Douglas Sears
By harnessing accelerated performance improvement and rapid learning across all of its 29 facilities, Bon Secours pursues consistency, integration, quality, and transparency of patient care, even as it leverages the scale and scope of its operations for higher efficiencies. And now it's pursuing the holy grails of standardized care and a single electronic medical record for each patient. Improvement projects linked to performance gaps in balanced scorecard dashboards are executed with Lean Six Sigma methodologies and rapid-cycle improvement. Communities of Excellence then transfer improvements and replicate proven practices across facilities. This approach is helping fuel two interconnected initiatives: Clinical Transformation, the redesign of workflows,including common order sets and care plans,supported by the new ConnectCare clinical information system, which together aim to standardize 80 percent of patient care across all facilities. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


Knowledge Transfer and Collaboration in Distributed U.S.-Thai Teams

JOURNAL OF COMPUTER-MEDIATED COMMUNICATION, Issue 4 2005
Saonee Sarker
This article reports on a study that investigates factors influencing knowledge transfer in the context of cross-cultural distributed teams engaged in information systems development. The goal was to examine the validity of a four-factor framework of knowledge transfer (the "4 C Framework"), which proposes that capability, credibility, communication, and culture of the source significantly affects knowledge transfer. The framework is examined in the context of US-Thai distributed teams, as well as within the local subgroups. Results support the role of credibility and communication on knowledge transfer in the cross-cultural distributed teams, and within the local subgroups. Capability was not found to be related to knowledge transfer either in the distributed teams or within the local subgroups. Finally, culture of the source did affect knowledge transfer in the distributed teams, although in a direction opposite to that hypothesized. [source]


Towards a Socio-Cognitive Approach to Knowledge Transfer

JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES, Issue 5 2008
Torsten Ringberg
abstract Dominant research streams in the knowledge transfer field, such as the positivist and social constructionist approaches, largely assume that knowledge transfer is accomplished through instructions and/or socially constructed practices. Underlying these views is the belief that texts and practices carry with them the codes necessary for their own decoding and therefore enable an unproblematic knowledge transfer. In contrast, we argue that the decoding of information into meaningful knowledge is always mediated by people's private and cultural models, which are created from the unique combination of their cognitive dispositions (i.e. acumen, memory, creativity, volitions, emotions) and socio-cultural interaction. The degree to which people apply these models reflectively and/or categorically (i.e. automatically) depends on the need for cognition as well as environmental demands and feedback. Therefore, knowledge transfer is always tentative, because it depends on the application of private and cultural models along the continuum that goes from reflective to categorical processing. We present first a critique of the positivist and social constructionist positions; then we introduce a socio-cognitive model that captures and explicates socio-cognitive processes involved in sense making during knowledge transfer. Finally, we explore future research streams and managerial implications. [source]


Inter-Organizational Knowledge Transfer: Current Themes and Future Prospects

JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES, Issue 4 2008
Mark Easterby-Smith
abstract Many papers have been published recently in the fields of strategy and international business research incorporating the role of organizational knowledge as a basis of firm competitive advantage. While such knowledge is normally developed within the firm, it is important that firms possess the ability to learn from others in order to meet the increasing pace of competition. Knowledge transfer, defined here as an event through which one organization learns from the experience of another, has thus become an important research area within the broader domain of organizational learning and knowledge management. This paper presents a theoretical framework, identifies key themes covered by the six articles included in the Special Issue on Inter-Organizational Knowledge Transfer, and then discusses priorities for future research. [source]


A Multi-Theoretical Model of Knowledge Transfer in Organizations: Determinants of Knowledge Contribution and Knowledge Reuse*

JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES, Issue 2 2006
Sharon Watson
abstract Knowledge has become one of the most important sources of competitive advantage for firms in many industries, particularly those in which firms provide knowledge services to their clients. Many knowledge intensive firms have spent enormous amounts of time and money trying to find ways to better manage their knowledge resources. Effective leveraging of knowledge resources through the transfer and reuse of existing knowledge is an important aspect of most knowledge management systems. In this study we argue that the effectiveness of intrafirm knowledge transfer based on the reuse of existing knowledge depends on two key factors: (1) the willingness of individuals to contribute their knowledge to the system; and (2) the rate at which individuals access and reuse knowledge within the system. Here we use social exchange theory to develop a model of the factors that will impact the frequency with which individuals contribute their knowledge to the system. Additionally, we use expectancy theory to develop a model of the factors that lead to knowledge reuse. Results of hypothesis tests using data collected from a multinational services firm support our multi-theoretical model, and suggest ways in which the model might be refined. We discuss the implications of these findings for further theory building and for managers engaged in the development and improvement of knowledge management systems. [source]


The Relative Importance of Interfirm Relationships and Knowledge Transfer for New Product Development Success,

THE JOURNAL OF PRODUCT INNOVATION MANAGEMENT, Issue 2 2007
Mette Praest Knudsen
The relationship and network literature has primarily focused on particular partner types, for example, buyer,supplier relationships or competitor interaction. This article explores the nature and relative importance of different types of interfirm relationships for new product development (NPD) success. The underlying premise of the study is that not only the type of interfirm relationships but also the combination of relationships are important for NPD performance. The interaction with a specific type of partner is expected to influence innovative performance by means of appropriate knowledge transfer. Varying needs for external knowledge, and thus types of relationships, are observed depending on the particular stages in the NPD process, the character of the knowledge base of the firm, and the industrial conditions. The absorption of external knowledge is discussed using the degree of redundancy in knowledge, which is defined as the degree of overlap in the knowledge base of the sender and the recipient of knowledge. Hence, the degree of redundancy has direct implications for the ease and, hence, use of knowledge shared with an external partner. The article is based on data from the Know for Innovation survey on innovative activities among European firms, which was carried out in 2000 in seven European countries covering five industries. The article explores the extent of use of external relationships in collaborative product development and finds that customers are involved more frequently in joint development efforts. Second, the industry association of the most important relationship is studied, and the results show that firms tend to partner with firms from their own industry. The danger in this approach is that firms from their own industry tend to contribute similar knowledge, which ultimately may endanger the creation of new knowledge and therefore more radical product developments. The analyses combine the finding that relationships with customers are used most frequently at both early and late stages of the product development process, with a second and more contradictory finding that at the same time customer relationships have a negative impact on innovative success. Moreover, the combination of customers, with both universities and competitors, has a significant negative effect on innovative performance. The potential causes of this apparent paradox can be narrowed down to two: (1) the average customer may be unable to articulate needs for advanced technology-based products; and (2) the average customer may be unable to conceptualize ideas beyond the realm of his or her own experience. Based on this evidence the article cautions product development managers to think explicitly about what certain customers can contribute with and, more importantly, to match this contribution directly with their own sense of what direction product development should go in the future. Finally, the role of complementary as well as supplementary knowledge is investigated for innovative success finding that sharing of supplementary knowledge with external partners in NPD leads to a positive effect on innovative performance. The article is concluded by a discussion of the implication of this finding for building knowledge within the firm and for selecting external partners for NPD. [source]


Transformative Knowledge Transfer Through Empowering and Paying Community Researchers

BIOTROPICA, Issue 5 2009
Stephen T. Garnett
ABSTRACT Environmental research is often conducted independently of the community in which the environment is situated, with transfer of results into policy and on-ground action occurring independently of the community's interests or aspirations. Increasingly the need for greater community involvement in the research process has been recognized. For community members, however, such engagement usually involves trade-offs. While it is often assumed that community members should participate voluntarily because they will gain from the research, any benefits from knowledge, understanding and a capacity to influence the research have to be offset against time and potential loss of unremunerated intellectual property. We argue, using case studies from tropical Australia and Africa, that a more effective means of engagement and knowledge transfer is training and remuneration of community members as coresearchers. This engagement is much more than payment for labor,it is investment in local intellectual property and requires researcher humility, power-sharing and recognition that access to research funding provides no moral or intellectual authority. Further, we argue that, for effective adoption of research results, community members need to be part of negotiated agreements on the initial nature of the research to ensure it answers questions of genuine local relevance and that local researchers have the capacity to place locally conducted research into a wider context. We argue that immediate rewards for involvement not only secure engagement but, where appropriate, are likely to lead to effective implementation of research results, enhanced local capacity and greater equity in intellectual power-sharing. [source]


The Emergency Physician and Knowledge Transfer: Continuing Medical Education, Continuing Professional Development, and Self-improvement

ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 11 2007
Barbara J. Kilian MD
A workshop session from the 2007 Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference, Knowledge Translation in Emergency Medicine: Establishing a Research Agenda and Guide Map for Evidence Uptake, focused on developing a research agenda for continuing medical education (CME) in knowledge transfer. Based on quasi-Delphi methodology at the conference session, and subsequent electronic discussion and refinement, the following recommendations are made: 1) Adaptable tools should be developed, validated, and psychometrically tested for needs assessment. 2) "Point of care" learning within a clinical context should be evaluated as a tool for practice changes and improved knowledge transfer. 3) The addition of a CME component to technological platforms, such as search engines and databases, simulation technology, and clinical decision-support systems, may help knowledge transfer for clinicians or increase utilization of these tools and should, therefore, be evaluated. 4) Further research should focus on identifying the appropriate outcomes for physician CME. Emergency medicine researchers should transition from previous media-comparison research agendas to a more rigorous qualitative focus that takes into account needs assessment, instructional design, implementation, provider change, and care change. 5) In the setting of continued physician learning, barriers to the subsequent implementation of knowledge transfer and behavioral changes of physicians should be elicited through research. [source]


Knowledge transfer in project reviews: the effect of self-justification bias and moral hazard

ACCOUNTING & FINANCE, Issue 1 2009
Mandy M. Cheng
M40 Abstract In this study, we examine two factors that impact managers' willingness to share private information during the project review stage of capital budgeting. Drawing on the cognitive dissonance theory and the agency theory, we find that both high perceived personal responsibility and the use of project reviews for performance evaluation result in a greater tendency for managers to withhold negative private information. However, we do not find an interaction between these two factors. Our study makes a contribution to both the academic literature investigating factors affecting project reviews and the practitioner literature looking at design and implementation of effective project reviews. [source]


Knowledge transfer in globally distributed teams: the role of transactive memory

INFORMATION SYSTEMS JOURNAL, Issue 6 2008
Ilan Oshri
Abstract This paper explores the role of transactive memory in enabling knowledge transfer between globally distributed teams. While the information systems literature has recently acknowledged the role transactive memory plays in improving knowledge processes and performance in colocated teams, little is known about its contribution to distributed teams. To contribute to filling this gap, knowledge-transfer challenges and processes between onsite and offshore teams were studied at TATA Consultancy Services. In particular, the paper describes the transfer of knowledge between onsite and offshore teams through encoding, storing and retrieving processes. An in-depth case study of globally distributed software development projects was carried out, and a qualitative, interpretive approach was adopted. The analysis of the case suggests that in order to overcome differences derived from the local contexts of the onsite and offshore teams (e.g. different work routines, methodologies and skills), some specific mechanisms supporting the development of codified and personalized ,directories' were introduced. These include the standardization of templates and methodologies across the remote sites as well as frequent teleconferencing sessions and occasional short visits. These mechanisms contributed to the development of the notion of ,who knows what' across onsite and offshore teams despite the challenges associated with globally distributed teams, and supported the transfer of knowledge between onsite and offshore teams. The paper concludes by offering theoretical and practical implications. [source]


Knowledge transfer and the complex story of scurvy

JOURNAL OF EVALUATION IN CLINICAL PRACTICE, Issue 3 2009
Sholom Glouberman PhD
[source]


Inter-Organizational Knowledge Transfer: Current Themes and Future Prospects

JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES, Issue 4 2008
Mark Easterby-Smith
abstract Many papers have been published recently in the fields of strategy and international business research incorporating the role of organizational knowledge as a basis of firm competitive advantage. While such knowledge is normally developed within the firm, it is important that firms possess the ability to learn from others in order to meet the increasing pace of competition. Knowledge transfer, defined here as an event through which one organization learns from the experience of another, has thus become an important research area within the broader domain of organizational learning and knowledge management. This paper presents a theoretical framework, identifies key themes covered by the six articles included in the Special Issue on Inter-Organizational Knowledge Transfer, and then discusses priorities for future research. [source]


Guest Editorial: Knowledge transfer and the path of translational medicine

NURSING & HEALTH SCIENCES, Issue 3 2010
Charmaine Childs rgn, bnurs, mphil, phdArticle first published online: 24 JUN 2010
Abstract Translational medicine is at the forefront of academic health care. Although readers might recognize the term, few will be familiar with the principles of this emerging discipline. For many years, clinicians and scientists were concerned that discovery and innovation in cutting-edge science and biomedicine were not being used to cure or treat patients. This "problem" fostered a new academic paradigm, the aims being to develop a pathway to bridge the preclinical to clinical care interface and, ultimately, to bring treatments and therapies to the real world of patients and of health-care providers. There are three integrated "phases" of the "bench-to-bedside" translational medicine journey. A brief introduction to the discipline of translational medicine is presented. [source]


Knowledge transfer in project-based organizations: An organizational culture perspective

PROJECT MANAGEMENT JOURNAL, Issue 1 2008
Mian M. Ajmal
Abstract This conceptual paper investigates the process of knowledge transfer in project-based organizations from the perspective of organizational culture. The paper identifies obstacles to knowledge transfer in project-based organizations and emphasizes the importance of organizational and project cultures in this process. The study provides some suggestions for improving knowledge transfer in project-based organizations and notes the implications of the paper for project management. [source]


Stakeholder engagement opportunities in systematic reviews: Knowledge transfer for policy and practice

THE JOURNAL OF CONTINUING EDUCATION IN THE HEALTH PROFESSIONS, Issue 2 2008
Kiera Keown MSc
Abstract Knowledge transfer and exchange is the process of increasing the awareness and use of research evidence in policy or practice decision making by nonresearch audiences or stakeholders. One way to accomplish this end is through ongoing interaction between researchers and interested nonresearch audiences, which provides an opportunity for the two groups to learn more about one another. The purpose of this article is to describe and discuss various stakeholder engagement opportunities that we employ throughout the stages of conducting a systematic review, to increase knowledge utilization within these audiences. Systematic reviews of the literature on a particular topic can provide an unbiased overview of the state of the literature. The engagement opportunities we have identified are topic consultation, feedback meetings during the review, member of review team, and involvement in dissemination. The potential benefits of including stakeholders in the process of a systematic review include increased relevance, clarity, and awareness of systematic review findings. A further benefit is the potential for increased dissemination of the findings. Challenges that researchers face are that stakeholder interactions can be time- and resource-intensive, it can be difficult balancing stakeholder desires with scientific rigor, and stakeholders may have difficulties accepting findings with which they do not agree. Despite these challenges we have included stakeholder involvement as a permanent step in the procedure of conducting a systematic review. [source]


Receiving: The Use of Web 2.0 to Create a Dynamic Learning Forum to Enrich Resident Education

ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 2009
Adam Rosh
Receiving (http://www.drhem.com) is a powerful web-based tool that encompasses web 2.0 technologies. "Web 2.0" is a term used to describe a group of loosely related network technologies that share a user-focused approach to design and functionality. It has a strong bias towards user content creation, syndication, and collaboration (McGee 2008). The use of Web 2.0 technology is rapidly being integrated into undergraduate and graduate education, which dramatically influences the ways learners approach and use information (Sandars 2007). Knowledge transfer has become a two-way process. Users no longer simply consume and download information from the web; they create and interact with it. We created this blog to facilitate resident education, communication, and productivity. Using simple, freely available blog software (Wordpress.com), this inter-disciplinary web-based forum integrates faculty-created, case-based learning modules with critical essays and articles related to the practice of emergency medicine (EM). Didactic topics are based on the EM model and include multi-media case presentations. The educational modules include a visual diagnosis section (VizD), United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) board-style cases (quizzER), radiographic interpretation (radER), electrocardiogram interpretation (Tracings), and ultrasound image and video clip interpretation (Morrison's Pouch). After viewing each case, residents can submit their answers to the questions asked in each scenario. At the end of each week, a faculty member posts the answer and facilitates an online discussion of the case. A "Top 10 Leader Board" is updated weekly to reflect resident participation and display a running tally of correct answers submitted by the residents. Feedback by the residents has been very positive. In addition to the weekly interactive cases, Receiving also includes critical essays and articles on an array of topics related to EM. For example, "Law and Medicine" is a monthly essay written by an emergency physician who is also a lawyer. This module explores legal issues related to EM. "The Meeting Room" presents interviews with leading scholars in the field. "Got Public Health?", written by a resident, addresses relevant social, cultural, and political issues commonly encountered in the emergency department. "Mini Me" is dedicated to pediatric pearls and is overseen by a pediatric emergency physician. "Sherwin's Critical Care" focuses on critical care principles relevant to EM and is overseen by a faculty member. As in the didactic portion of the website, residents and faculty members are encouraged to comment on these essays and articles, offering their own expertise and interpretation on the various topics. Receiving is updated weekly. Every post has its own URL and tags allowing for quick and easy searchability and archiving. Users can search for various topics by using a built-in search feature. Receiving is linked to an RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed, allowing users to get the latest information without having to continually check the website for updates. Residents have access to the website anytime and anywhere that the internet is available (e.g., home computer, hospital computer, IphoneŌ, BlackBerryŌ), bringing the classroom to them. This unique blend of topics and the ability to create a virtual interactive community creates a dynamic learning environment and directly enhances resident education. Receiving serves as a core educational tool for our residency, presenting interesting and relevant EM information in a collaborative and instructional environment. [source]


Multinational Corporations and Patterns of Local Knowledge Transfer in Costa Rican High-Tech Industries

DEVELOPMENT AND CHANGE, Issue 3 2008
Elisa Giuliani
ABSTRACT Over recent decades, governments in industrializing countries have promoted policies to attract foreign investors, anticipating the benefits of technology transfer to host economies. During the 1990s, Costa Rica adopted an industrialization strategy based on attracting high-tech multinational companies (MNCs). Using an original survey of a sample of high-tech MNC subsidiaries, this article shows that the new wave of efficiency-seeking subsidiaries tend not to transfer knowledge to domestic firms even when they establish backward linkages with them. Instead, most of the knowledge transfer occurs between high-tech foreign subsidiaries. This has clear policy implications for host country governments. [source]


A continuing education programme for general practitioners

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF DENTAL EDUCATION, Issue 2 2000
Status report after 5 years of function
In 1992, following newly issued university regulations, the board of the School of Dental Medicine of the University of Geneva decided to establish a structured continuing education course programme for practising dentists in an effort to better meet the school's continuing education mandate. The programme started in January 1994 and was structured so that regular courses would be offered in each discipline of dentistry. The course contents were aimed at satisfying the demands of practising dentists, but it was also established that basic science issues and theoretical concepts should be included. Possible course formats were ,conference', ,hands-on', ,clinical' and ,seminar'. The courses were meant as a form of knowledge transfer from the school to the practising community, but also as a means to generate revenue for research and teaching programmes. Operative aspects were supervised by a small staff which was assisted by computer software designed to handle all procedural steps of course administration, participant registration, accounting, communication. The dentists' responses were rewarding in that attendance was very satisfactory. Closer scrutiny of our data, however, indicates that our impact is still low since at best only 20% of the course-hours required by the Swiss dental association are actually taken. Both course and programme evaluations were satisfactory and are discussed using the Harden and Laidlaw CRISIS criteria. [source]


Tools and techniques for transferring know-how from boomers to gamers,

GLOBAL BUSINESS AND ORGANIZATIONAL EXCELLENCE, Issue 5 2007
Karl M. Kapp
How well boomers transfer their knowledge to younger employees (gamers, may well determine which organizations maintain their competitive edge during the next decade. But boomers' and gamers' preferred learning styles are as different as night and day, and conventional approaches may hinder rather than aid knowledge transfer. Fortunately, companies can learn a lot from gamers about sharing knowledge. Instant messaging, blogs, wikis, RSS feeds, and podcasts,technologies gamers already use extensively outside the work environment to obtain information,are efficient, low-cost tools for informal learning that companies can incorporate into an enterprise strategy for capturing and distributing business- and job-critical know-how before it's too late. © 2007 Karl M. Kapp. [source]


Knowledge transfer barriers between research and development and marketing groups within Taiwanese small- and medium-sized enterprise high-technology new product development teams

HUMAN FACTORS AND ERGONOMICS IN MANUFACTURING & SERVICE INDUSTRIES, Issue 6 2008
Chung-Ming Huang
This article reports on efforts to explore barriers to the transfer of knowledge from provider to seeker and the role of knowledge management strategies during the new product development (NPD) period. The study used the cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT) framework from Hasan and Gould (2001) to examine the cross-functional knowledge creation process and details surrounding the concept of stickiness (Szulanski, 1996). Strategies we observed can be categorized as being classical or processual oriented (Whittington, 1993). We describe how NPD teams can reduce barriers by aligning strategies in the four knowledge-creation steps: socialization, externalization, combination, and internalization. This CHAT framework was verified on the basis of samples from 107 Taiwanese NPD teams. Results show that the barriers differed among stages within the NPD period. During the transfer process, the processual strategy reduced barriers to knowledge transfer during the planning, developing, and commercialization stages of the NPD period. In contrast, the classical strategy was shown only to have a positive effect during the marketing stage. Survey results also showed that the highly formalized communication model and periodic meetings advocated by Song and colleagues (Song, Sabrina, & Zhao, 1996; Song, van der Bji, & Weggeman, 2005) and Ingelgard, Roth, Shani, and Styhre (2002) were gradually replaced by bounded transfer and a less formalized approach. These preliminary results suggest that if team leaders can use classical and processual strategies in real time, the barriers to the transfer of knowledge from provider to seeker in the four steps of the NPD period can be effectively reduced. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


Balancing global and local strategic contexts: Expatriate knowledge transfer, applications, and learning within a transnational organization

HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT, Issue 4 2007
J. Barry Hocking
We investigate how expatriates contribute to the transnational firm's strategic objectives of global efficiency, national ("local") responsiveness, and worldwide learning. We focus on expatriate knowledge application and experiential learning achievements, two assignment-based outcomes of potential strategic value to the firm. We assess how the individual's everyday knowledge access and communication activities, measured by frequency and geographic extent, affect these assignment outcomes. Within our case organization, a prototype transnational firm, we find that expatriate knowledge applications result from frequent knowledge access and communication with the corporate headquarters and other global units of the firm. In contrast, their experiential learning derives from frequent access to hostcountry (local) knowledge that subsequently is adapted to the global corporate context. From a practical perspective, we conclude that experiential learning is an invaluable resource for both present and future corporate assignments. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


Knowledge transfer in globally distributed teams: the role of transactive memory

INFORMATION SYSTEMS JOURNAL, Issue 6 2008
Ilan Oshri
Abstract This paper explores the role of transactive memory in enabling knowledge transfer between globally distributed teams. While the information systems literature has recently acknowledged the role transactive memory plays in improving knowledge processes and performance in colocated teams, little is known about its contribution to distributed teams. To contribute to filling this gap, knowledge-transfer challenges and processes between onsite and offshore teams were studied at TATA Consultancy Services. In particular, the paper describes the transfer of knowledge between onsite and offshore teams through encoding, storing and retrieving processes. An in-depth case study of globally distributed software development projects was carried out, and a qualitative, interpretive approach was adopted. The analysis of the case suggests that in order to overcome differences derived from the local contexts of the onsite and offshore teams (e.g. different work routines, methodologies and skills), some specific mechanisms supporting the development of codified and personalized ,directories' were introduced. These include the standardization of templates and methodologies across the remote sites as well as frequent teleconferencing sessions and occasional short visits. These mechanisms contributed to the development of the notion of ,who knows what' across onsite and offshore teams despite the challenges associated with globally distributed teams, and supported the transfer of knowledge between onsite and offshore teams. The paper concludes by offering theoretical and practical implications. [source]


The Swiss Federal Dairy Research Station

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF DAIRY TECHNOLOGY, Issue 1 2003
Max Rüegg
The Federal Dairy Research Station (FAM) was established at the beginning of the last century. It is one of six agricultural research stations of the Swiss Department of Agriculture and the leading national research institute in dairy technology and consulting. It is part of the Swiss Centre of Competence for Animal Production and Foods of Animal Origin. Its mission is to improve the competitive position of the Swiss milk producers and dairy industry. The institute is organized into three functional areas corresponding to its well-established core competencies: (1) production of raw milk cheese and microorganisms for fermentation, (2) knowledge transfer and consultation for the dairy industry and beekeeping, and (3) testing of, and providing expertise on dairy and bee products. Research work is carried out using a multidisciplinary approach in a matrix organization. Two product- and customer-orientated technology units and one unit for consulting, contractual work and other services for the dairy industry are supported in their projects by three scientific and technical units (microbiology; chemistry, physics and sensory analysis; engineering and production) as well as by a unit offering central services. The 4-year research programmes are based on the strategic goals of the agricultural policy as well as on the current needs of the dairy industry. An advisory board oversees the preparation and execution of the projects. FAM is connected to an international network for both scientific work and supervisory tasks. Work is carried out within the background of the political strategy of a sustainable development including economic, ecological and social aspects. A primary research focus is therefore the avoidance of excessive processing of milk and dairy products, and keeping products natural and free of residues by applying only minimal, unavoidable treatments and additives. [source]


University-to-industry knowledge transfer: literature review and unanswered questions

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT REVIEWS, Issue 4 2001
Ajay K. Agrawal
This paper reviews the economic literature concerning university-to-industry knowledge transfer. Papers on this topic are divided into four categories. Research in the ,firm characteristics' category focuses directly on company issues, such as internal organization, resource allocation, and partnerships. In contrast, research in the ,university characteristics' stream pays little attention to the firms that commercialize inventions, but rather focuses on issues relating to the university, such as licensing strategies, incentives for professors to patent, and policies such as taking equity in return for intellectual property. The ,geography in terms of localized spillovers' stream of research considers the spatial relationship between firms and universities relative to performance in terms of knowledge transfer success. Finally, the ,channels of knowledge transfer, literature examines the relative importance of various transfer pathways between universities and firms, such as publications, patents, and consulting. Each of these research streams is discussed and key papers are described highlighting important methodologies and results. Finally, an outline of topics requiring further research in each of the four categories is offered. [source]


Selected debate from the arena of knowledge management: new endorsements for established organizational practices

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT REVIEWS, Issue 2 2001
Neal G. Beamish
Management theorists and practitioners have been allured recently to the contemporary field of knowledge management. This is a burgeoning subject that has enticed the involvement of specialists from established domains that are broad based in themselves: strategy, organizational behaviour, operations and information technology. In arguing the importance of knowledge in the strategic purpose of the organization, authorities essentially endorse practices that have been supported in the past: practices that appreciate the social context of knowledge. This paper reviews the debates in strategic theory that support the contemporary ,knowledge-based' view of the organization, and describes how established practices relating to knowledge transfer and creation have been recently revitalized. [source]


Knowledge Transfer and Collaboration in Distributed U.S.-Thai Teams

JOURNAL OF COMPUTER-MEDIATED COMMUNICATION, Issue 4 2005
Saonee Sarker
This article reports on a study that investigates factors influencing knowledge transfer in the context of cross-cultural distributed teams engaged in information systems development. The goal was to examine the validity of a four-factor framework of knowledge transfer (the "4 C Framework"), which proposes that capability, credibility, communication, and culture of the source significantly affects knowledge transfer. The framework is examined in the context of US-Thai distributed teams, as well as within the local subgroups. Results support the role of credibility and communication on knowledge transfer in the cross-cultural distributed teams, and within the local subgroups. Capability was not found to be related to knowledge transfer either in the distributed teams or within the local subgroups. Finally, culture of the source did affect knowledge transfer in the distributed teams, although in a direction opposite to that hypothesized. [source]