Knowledge Systems (knowledge + system)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


A new vision for the field: Introduction to the second special issue on the unified theory

JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 1 2005
Gregg R. Henriques
This is the second of two issues of the Journal of Clinical Psychology focused on the validity and usefulness of a new theoretical vision for the field (Henriques, 2003). The first two contributions from Rand and Ilardi and Geary both enrich the argument that psychology needs to be effectively connected with biology and physics and that the unified theory (via Behavioral Investment Theory) is highly successful in this way. The authors of the subsequent three articles,Shaffer, Quackenbush, and Shealy,show that the Tree of Knowledge System (through the Justification Hypothesis) is deeply commensurate with the dominant paradigms in the social sciences. Thus, the group of authors of these five articles demonstrates the viability of the unified theory both from bottom-up and top-down viewpoints. In the sixth article, the author addresses some important problems that potentially arise with the development of a clearly defined discipline. In the concluding article I address the concerns about the proposal raised by the contributors to the two special issues and articulate how the unified theory lays the foundation for the development of a useful mass movement in psychology. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol. [source]


Schooling as a Knowledge System: Lessons from Cramim Experimental School

MIND, BRAIN, AND EDUCATION, Issue 1 2010
David Chen
This article describes an experiment utilizing a research and development strategy to design and implement an innovative school for the future. The development of Cramim Elementary School was a joint effort of researchers from Tel-Aviv University and the staff of the school. The design stage involved constructing a new theoretical framework that defined school as a knowledge system, based on the state of the art, interdisciplinary study of the nature of humans, and the nature of knowledge. A new school design emerged based on this theoretical framework and the school was opened in 1995. Action research followed for 8 years and the results indicated that the school has emerged as a learning organization and successfully integrated knowledge technologies into the learning processes of both students and teachers. Differentiated teaching strategy resulted in a significant increase in achievements (+11% in maths, literacy, and science; +10% in literacy in kindergarten; persistence of higher achievement in junior high schools). The greatest beneficiaries were low-achieving students. As the school is a highly complex system, individual variables contributing to the increased effectiveness could not be isolated. The article's conclusion is that experimental schools are a productive strategy to bring about changes, but unless these schools are part and parcel of the culture of the mainstream education system culture, they are destined to remain isolated cases. [source]


Indigenous Knowledge Systems and Alaska Native Ways of Knowing

ANTHROPOLOGY & EDUCATION QUARTERLY, Issue 1 2005
RAY BARNHARDT
Drawing on experiences across Fourth World contexts, with an emphasis on the Alaska context, this article seeks to extend our understandings of the learning processes within and at the intersection of diverse worldviews and knowledge systems. We outline the rationale for a comprehensive program of educational initiatives closely articulated with the emergence of a new generation of Indigenous scholars who seek to move the role of Indigenous knowledge and learning from the margins to the center of educational research, thereby confronting some of the most intractable and salient educational issues of our times. [source]


Understanding intention of movement from electroencephalograms

EXPERT SYSTEMS, Issue 5 2007
Heba Lakany
Abstract: In this paper, we propose a new framework for understanding intention of movement that can be used in developing non-invasive brain,computer interfaces. The proposed method is based on extracting salient features from brain signals recorded whilst the subject is actually (or imagining) performing a wrist movement in different directions. Our method focuses on analysing the brain signals at the time preceding wrist movement, i.e. while the subject is preparing (or intending) to perform the movement. Feature selection and classification of the direction is done using a wrapper method based on support vector machines (SVMs). The classification results show that we are able to discriminate the directions using features extracted from brain signals prior to movement. We then extract rules from the SVM classifiers to compare the features extracted for real and imaginary movements in an attempt to understand the mechanisms of intention of movement. Our new approach could be potentially useful in building brain,computer interfaces where a paralysed person could communicate with a wheelchair and steer it to the desired direction using a rule-based knowledge system based on understanding of the subject's intention to move through his/her brain signals. [source]


Valuing of firms' prior knowledge: a measure of knowledge distance

KNOWLEDGE AND PROCESS MANAGEMENT: THE JOURNAL OF CORPORATE TRANSFORMATION, Issue 2 2003
Shantha Liyanage
Knowledge, especially scientific and technological knowledge, grows according to knowledge trajectories and guideposts that make up the prior knowledge of an organization. We argue that these knowledge structures and their specific components lead to successful innovation. A firm's prior knowledge facilitates the absorption of new knowledge, thereby renewing a firm's systematic search, transfer and acquisition of knowledge and capabilities. In particular, the exponential growth in biotechnology is characterized by the convergence of disparate scientific and technological knowledge resources. This paper examines the shift from protein-based to DNA-based diagnostic technologies as an example, to quantify the value of a firm's prior knowledge using relative values of knowledge distance. The distance between core prior knowledge and the rate of transition from one knowledge system to another has been identified as a proxy for the value a firm's prior knowledge. The overall ,difficulty of transition' from one technology paradigm to another is discussed. We argue this transition is possible when the knowledge distance is minimal and the transition process has a correspondingly high value of absorptive capacities. Our findings show knowledge distance is a determinant of the feasibility, continuity and capture of scientific and technological knowledge. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Schooling as a Knowledge System: Lessons from Cramim Experimental School

MIND, BRAIN, AND EDUCATION, Issue 1 2010
David Chen
This article describes an experiment utilizing a research and development strategy to design and implement an innovative school for the future. The development of Cramim Elementary School was a joint effort of researchers from Tel-Aviv University and the staff of the school. The design stage involved constructing a new theoretical framework that defined school as a knowledge system, based on the state of the art, interdisciplinary study of the nature of humans, and the nature of knowledge. A new school design emerged based on this theoretical framework and the school was opened in 1995. Action research followed for 8 years and the results indicated that the school has emerged as a learning organization and successfully integrated knowledge technologies into the learning processes of both students and teachers. Differentiated teaching strategy resulted in a significant increase in achievements (+11% in maths, literacy, and science; +10% in literacy in kindergarten; persistence of higher achievement in junior high schools). The greatest beneficiaries were low-achieving students. As the school is a highly complex system, individual variables contributing to the increased effectiveness could not be isolated. The article's conclusion is that experimental schools are a productive strategy to bring about changes, but unless these schools are part and parcel of the culture of the mainstream education system culture, they are destined to remain isolated cases. [source]


Creative Leaders: A Decade of Contributions from Creativity and Innovation Management Journal

CREATIVITY AND INNOVATION MANAGEMENT, Issue 1 2006
Tudor Rickards
The study reveals nine overlapping themes, within each of which leadership plays a part in the production of creative insights or innovative productivity. However, for many authors, leadership remains an implicit factor within their models of change. We suggest that leadership, creativity and innovation are knowledge systems which can be more closely integrated for improved theory and practice within communities of practice. [source]


CLASSIFYING PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHIC FEATURES: THE CASE OF MANINKA FARMERS IN SOUTHWESTERN MALI

GEOGRAFISKA ANNALER SERIES B: HUMAN GEOGRAPHY, Issue 4 2008
Chris S. Duvall
ABSTRACT. This article argues that understanding how people classify physical geographic features is necessary for identifying fundamental, cross-cultural geographic concepts that are required for successful communication of geographic knowledge. Academic geographers have not given sufficient attention to systems of local geographic knowledge, even though promising theoretical frameworks exist, particularly in the field of ethnoecology. However, the research approach that has characterized ethnoecology is insufficient to develop ethnogeography as a field of inquiry, because ethnoecologists have overemphasized limited aspects of local knowledge systems, such as soils, which has often led researchers to incompletely sample local knowledge systems. Using ethnographic methods, this article analyses the content and structure of physical geographic knowledge in the Maninka language as spoken in southwestern Mali, and compares Maninka knowledge to that of other cultural groups. The results suggest that broad physical geographic concepts may be shared pan-environmentally, but that most physical geographic knowledge is contained in culturally specific classifications embedded within a broad cross-cultural framework. Academic geographers should expect only broad correspondence between their categories of physical geographic variation and those of people who classify biophysical features according to local knowledge systems. Finally, this article also shows that ethnoecological research will be advanced if geographic theories of place are given more prominence in ethnoecological studies. [source]


Closing the gap: towards a process model of post-merger knowledge sharing

INFORMATION SYSTEMS JOURNAL, Issue 4 2007
Youngjin Yoo
Abstract., We develop a process model of post-merger knowledge sharing based on distributed cognition, a systems perspective and path dependence. The framework conceptualizes knowledge sharing by layers of management choice and employee appropriation of knowledge resources seen as knowledge as content and knowledge as connection. We use the framework to study a merger of two polymer companies. The study reveals that mergers represent a discontinuity in knowledge sharing. Yet, chosen strategies often mirror the learned knowledge-sharing practices of one of the merged companies and match poorly with the post-merger knowledge-sharing needs. Five factors emerged contribute to this knowledge gap: (a) the nature of the merger; (b) a lack of shared context; (c) the incompatibility of existing knowledge systems; (d) the tacit dimension of knowledge; and (e) time pressures of the merger. Our study shows that, employees enacted knowledge new sharing practices that differed significantly from the official strategy to close to the post-merger knowledge gap. [source]


On the global distribution and dissemination of knowledge

INTERNATIONAL SOCIAL SCIENCE JOURNAL, Issue 195 2009
Nico Stehr
Our article centres on the question in the sense in which it may be possible to speak of global knowledge, in the first instance. Is it the necessary outcome and the intellectual mark of an age of globalising knowledge societies or is the global demand for the dissemination of knowledge systems trying to answer universally perceived problems? What changes occur to knowledge as it travels and for whom does its globalisation yield benefit or harm? Knowledge must be differentiated from mere information and its locally embedded nature poses serious challenges to opportunities and obstacles for its horizontal and vertical dissemination. Further, global worlds of knowledge raise questions over the ownership of knowledge. Intellectual property claims should be discussed with reference to opposing views, such as those concerning the thesis of knowledge's self-protective character. Some political and certain idealistic conceptions regard knowledge as common property par excellence. While trade in services and products as well as the digital communications revolution are identified as major vehicles for the dissemination of knowledge, it is yet an open question as to whether they will result in the unhindered dissemination of knowledge or in concentrating it. The second section of the article overviews and introduces the articles in this volume. [source]


The intersection of scientific and indigenous ecological knowledge in coastal Melanesia: implications for contemporary marine resource management*

INTERNATIONAL SOCIAL SCIENCE JOURNAL, Issue 187 2006
Simon Foale
Fundamental differences in the worldviews of western marine scientists and coastal Melanesian fishers have resulted in very different conclusions being drawn from similar sets of observations. The same inductive logic may lead both scientists and indigenous fishers to conclude that, say, square-tail trout aggregate at a certain phase of the moon in a certain reef passage, but different assumptions derived from disparate worldviews may lead to very different conclusions about why the fish are there. In some cases these differences have significant implications for the way marine resources are (or are not) exploited and managed. Here I analyse examples of what I call empirical gaps in both scientific and indigenous knowledge concerning the biology and ecology of fished organisms that in some cases have led to the poor management of stocks of these species. I argue that scientific education can complement indigenous knowledge systems and thus lead to improved resource management, despite some claims that scientific and indigenous knowledge systems are incommensurable. [source]


A multi-ontology framework to guide agriculture and food towards diet and health

JOURNAL OF THE SCIENCE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE, Issue 8 2007
Matthew C Lange
Abstract Global increases in metabolic diseases that can be influenced by diet have re-emphasized the importance of considering how different foods can improve human health. The entire agricultural enterprise has an unprecedented opportunity to increase its value by producing foods that improve the health of consumers. Research efforts in agriculture/food science/nutrition are endeavoring to do so, although little tangible success has been achieved. At the core of the problem is a failure to define the goal itself: health. Health, as a scientifically measurable concept, is poorly defined relative to disease, and yet consensus-based, curated vocabularies that describe the multiple variations in human health in useful terms are critical to unifying the scientific fields related to agriculture and nutrition. Each of the life-science disciplines relating to health has developed databases, thesauri, and/or ontologies to capture such knowledge. High-throughput and -omic technologies are expanding both the amount and heterogeneity of available information. Unfortunately, the language used to describe substantially similar (even logically equivalent) concepts is often different between information systems. Increasing the future value of agriculture, therefore, will depend on creating a process for generating common ontologies of the concept of health, and guiding the development of a common language. This paper illustrates a framework for integrating heterogeneous ontologies into interdisciplinary, foods-for-health knowledge systems. A common system of language that describes health and is shared by all the life-science disciplines will provide immediate benefits in terms of increased health-claim regulatory efficiencies and predictive functions for individualized diets. Ultimately, these vocabularies will guide agriculture to its next goal of producing health-enhancing foods. Copyright © 2007 Society of Chemical Industry [source]


Building community knowledge systems: an empirical study of IT-support for sharing best practices among managers

KNOWLEDGE AND PROCESS MANAGEMENT: THE JOURNAL OF CORPORATE TRANSFORMATION, Issue 3 2003
Jørgen P. Bansler
The paper reports a field study of knowledge sharing in a large and complex organization. The objective of the study was to gain an in-depth understanding of the implementation and use of a web-based knowledge sharing system designed to facilitate the circulation of best practices among middle managers. We followed the system from its introduction in early 1997 until it was abandoned in the beginning of 2000. We focused on the way the system was introduced in the organization, how it changed, and how the intended group of users received (and eventually rejected) the system. Based on our interviews and observations we identify five reasons for the systems failure. We close the paper by some reflections on the use of the concept of ,shared practice' in the development of IT-supported knowledge sharing systems. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Two Exhibitions Resignify Aboriginality and Photographyin Australia's Visual Lexicon

AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST, Issue 1 2008
Sabra Thorner
ABSTRACT Photography has long been central to the construction of Aboriginal peoples in the Australian national imaginary. In the last 20 years, the social role of photography has shifted: from origins in scopic regimes that racialized and dispossessed Aboriginal peoples to an era of contemporary reappropriation, recontextualizing colonial archives, and producing new Indigenous high art photography. Photographs are no longer stable, visible testimony of Indigenous peoples' presumed imminent decline or innate savagery but are, rather, colonial objectifications now available for resignification as evidence of kinship networks, land claims, and local knowledge systems. In July 2006, two exhibitions were spearheading these important transitions. "Colliding Worlds" opened at Melbourne Museum, and "Michael Riley: Sights Unseen" premiered at the National Gallery of Australia (NGA) in Canberra. Together, these exhibitions destabilize historical legacies of the visual in Australia's national imaginary, resignifying photography as a medium of new knowledge production, aesthetic expression, and social change. [source]


Indigenous Knowledge Systems and Alaska Native Ways of Knowing

ANTHROPOLOGY & EDUCATION QUARTERLY, Issue 1 2005
RAY BARNHARDT
Drawing on experiences across Fourth World contexts, with an emphasis on the Alaska context, this article seeks to extend our understandings of the learning processes within and at the intersection of diverse worldviews and knowledge systems. We outline the rationale for a comprehensive program of educational initiatives closely articulated with the emergence of a new generation of Indigenous scholars who seek to move the role of Indigenous knowledge and learning from the margins to the center of educational research, thereby confronting some of the most intractable and salient educational issues of our times. [source]