Knowledge Spillovers (knowledge + spillover)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


INTERREGIONAL KNOWLEDGE SPILLOVERS AND OCCUPATIONAL CHOICE IN A MODEL OF FREE TRADE AND ENDOGENOUS GROWTH,

JOURNAL OF REGIONAL SCIENCE, Issue 5 2009
Colin R. Davis
ABSTRACT A two region model of horizontal innovation with free trade and occupational choice is used to examine the spatial patterns of innovation and manufacturing industry in interior and core-periphery long-run equilibria. The inclusion of skill heterogeneity among workers creates a tension between stabilizing productivity effects that coincide with reallocations of workers across industries, and destabilizing productivity effects that arise with localized stocks of knowledge capital. We find that while core-periphery equilibria are always saddlepath stable, interior equilibria are saddlepath stable when knowledge spillovers exceed a threshold level but are unstable otherwise. In addition, incorporating skill heterogeneity into the model allows for interior equilibria with asymmetric shares for innovation and industry. [source]


Knowledge Spillovers and Knowledge Management , Charlie Karlsson, Per Flensburg and Sven-Ake Hörte

CREATIVITY AND INNOVATION MANAGEMENT, Issue 4 2006
Jeroen Kraaijenbrink
No abstract is available for this article. [source]


Knowledge Spillovers and Growth in the Disagglomeration of the Us Advertising-Agency Industry

JOURNAL OF ECONOMICS & MANAGEMENT STRATEGY, Issue 3 2003
Charles King III
We investigate knowledge spillovers and externalities in the disagglomeration and growth of the advertising-agency industry. A simple model of high demand, low wages, and externalities associated with clusters of related industries can explain the dispersion of advertising agency employment across states. Other factors affected the industry growth rate within states. Consistent with Jacobs and Porter but contrary to Marshall, Arrow, and Romer, competition, but not specialization, enhanced growth. In accord with Porter (1990), growth increased with buyer cluster size. Diversity had no effect on growth. Despite improvements in telecommunications and transportation reducing effective distances, location still matters. [source]


Entrepreneurial Access and Absorption of Knowledge Spillovers: Strategic Board and Managerial Composition for Competitive Advantage

JOURNAL OF SMALL BUSINESS MANAGEMENT, Issue 2 2006
David B. Audretsch
The resource theory of the firm implies that knowledge is a key resource bestowing a competitive advantage for entrepreneurial firms. However, it remains rather unclear up to now how new ventures and small businesses can access knowledge resources. The purpose of this study was to suggest two strategies, in particular, that facilitate entrepreneurial access to and absorption of external knowledge spillovers: the attraction of managers and directors with an academic background. Based on data on board composition of 295 high-technology firms, the results clearly demonstrate the strong link between geographical proximity to research-intense universities and board composition. [source]


Perspectives on Regional Change: A Review Essay on Handbook of Regional Growth and Development Theories

GROWTH AND CHANGE, Issue 1 2010
DEAN M. HANINK
Handbook of Regional Growth and Development Theories, edited by Roberta Capello and Peter Nijkamp, Cheltenham, UK and Northampton MA, USA: Edward Elgar, 2009 (xi and 529 pp., £135, $250). ABSTRACT This paper reviews the contributions in The Handbook of Regional Growth and Development Theories, edited by Roberta Capello and Peter Nijkamp. The book's coverage is comprehensive in a conventional way. It emphasizes the significance of recent developments in theoretical and empirical regional analysis that have occurred in both neoclassical (convergence) and new economic geography (concentration) contexts. The role of knowledge spillovers in regional growth receives special attention. Given the recent advances in the field, and renewed interest in regional issues, it is time to expand the focus of analysis from relatively narrow production and distribution concerns, to broader ones that incorporate the effects of structural/sectoral, demographic, and environmental change on the future prospects of regional economies. Such an expansion would not only contribute to the theoretical richness of regional growth and development analysis, it would also do much to expand its utility in guiding public policy. [source]


Differences in Labor versus Value Chain Industry Clusters: An Empirical Investigation

GROWTH AND CHANGE, Issue 3 2007
HENRY RENSKI
ABSTRACT Regional analysts often identify industry clusters according to a single dimension of industrial interdependence, typically by trading patterns as revealed in national or regionalized input,output data. This is despite the fact that the theory underpinning regional industry cluster applications draws heavily on Marshall's theory of external economies, including the important role of labor pooling economies and knowledge spillovers in addition to spatially co-located suppliers. This article investigates whether industry clusters identified based on trading relationships (value chain clusters) are meaningfully different in industrial composition and geography than those derived from an analysis of occupational employment requirements (labor-based clusters). The results suggest that value chain linkages are a weak proxy for shared labor requirements, and vice versa. [source]


Local Diversity, Human Creativity, and Technological Innovation

GROWTH AND CHANGE, Issue 3 2001
Pierre Desrochers
The purpose of this paper is to point out some shortcomings of traditional approaches to the study of "knowledge spillovers" and to suggest an alternative based on how knowledge is actually created and exchanged by individuals. Which regional setting is the best incubator of technological change and economic growth? Is this promoted by regional diversity or specialization of economi activity? This study will include economic analyses of geographically localized "dynamic knowledge externalities, Jacob's externalities, or adding new work to old, industrial classification and technology combination, human creativity, and technology combination through human action and imaginative use of resources. Employees add to, or switch their product line; individuals move from one type of production to another; individuals observe a product/process in another setting and incorporate it; individuals possessing different skills and working for different firms collaborate; and urban diversity and resource collaboration are utilized. It is concluded that problems are solved through the combination of previously unrelated things and that promoting regional specialization at the expense of spontaneously evolved local diversity might be a counter-productive policy. [source]


Knowledge Spillovers and Growth in the Disagglomeration of the Us Advertising-Agency Industry

JOURNAL OF ECONOMICS & MANAGEMENT STRATEGY, Issue 3 2003
Charles King III
We investigate knowledge spillovers and externalities in the disagglomeration and growth of the advertising-agency industry. A simple model of high demand, low wages, and externalities associated with clusters of related industries can explain the dispersion of advertising agency employment across states. Other factors affected the industry growth rate within states. Consistent with Jacobs and Porter but contrary to Marshall, Arrow, and Romer, competition, but not specialization, enhanced growth. In accord with Porter (1990), growth increased with buyer cluster size. Diversity had no effect on growth. Despite improvements in telecommunications and transportation reducing effective distances, location still matters. [source]


Demand- and Supply-Side Agglomerations: Distinguishing between Fundamentally Different Manifestations of Geographic Concentration

JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES, Issue 3 2009
Brian T. McCann
abstract Agglomeration research investigates the benefits that firms receive from locating in close geographic proximity. Despite a substantial surge in interest in this topic over the past 20 years, a lack of distinction among unique manifestations of spatial concentrations of similar firms threatens continuing progress in this stream of research. We argue that agglomerations of related firms that draw benefits from the supply-related externalities of increased access to specialized labour, specialized inputs, and knowledge spillovers are fundamentally different from those that draw benefits from heightened demand realized through reduction in consumer search costs. Extending agglomeration theory, we explicate the differences between these distinct phenomena, discuss how the nature of key theoretical relationships varies across these agglomeration types, and demonstrate significant implications for research. We discuss how the differences affect a host of theoretical relationships and empirical research decisions. [source]


The Welfare of Investment Deductibility Under a Flat Tax

JOURNAL OF PUBLIC ECONOMIC THEORY, Issue 4 2002
Franco Cugno
This paper analyses the welfare effects of investment deductibility in a contest of endogenous growth generated by learning,by,doing and knowledge spillovers. We present a model where a set of revenue neutral fiscal policies, each characterized by different degrees of investment deductibility and different uniform tax rates on income, have been introduced. We show that, given the ratio of public expenditures to national product, partial investment deductibility turns out to be welfare enhancing when the intertemporal elasticity of substitution of consumption is sufficiently small. Our result means that a pure consumption tax,although ensuring more saving and faster growth,is not always preferable to a revenue neutral tax system in which both consumption and investment are taxed. [source]


INTERREGIONAL KNOWLEDGE SPILLOVERS AND OCCUPATIONAL CHOICE IN A MODEL OF FREE TRADE AND ENDOGENOUS GROWTH,

JOURNAL OF REGIONAL SCIENCE, Issue 5 2009
Colin R. Davis
ABSTRACT A two region model of horizontal innovation with free trade and occupational choice is used to examine the spatial patterns of innovation and manufacturing industry in interior and core-periphery long-run equilibria. The inclusion of skill heterogeneity among workers creates a tension between stabilizing productivity effects that coincide with reallocations of workers across industries, and destabilizing productivity effects that arise with localized stocks of knowledge capital. We find that while core-periphery equilibria are always saddlepath stable, interior equilibria are saddlepath stable when knowledge spillovers exceed a threshold level but are unstable otherwise. In addition, incorporating skill heterogeneity into the model allows for interior equilibria with asymmetric shares for innovation and industry. [source]


AGGLOMERATION EXTERNALITIES, PRODUCTIVITY, AND TECHNICAL INEFFICIENCY,

JOURNAL OF REGIONAL SCIENCE, Issue 4 2006
Ragnar Tveteras
ABSTRACT Agglomeration externalities can have positive effects on both the production possibility frontier and technical inefficiency of firms. Increased levels of localized knowledge spillovers and substitution of internal inputs with external inputs may lead to fewer errors in decision-making and execution of production tasks, thus causing firms to become technically more efficient relative to the production frontier. When we estimate a stochastic frontier production model on a large panel of salmon aquaculture farms, we find econometric support for positive agglomeration externalities on both the production frontier and technical inefficiency. [source]


Entrepreneurial Access and Absorption of Knowledge Spillovers: Strategic Board and Managerial Composition for Competitive Advantage

JOURNAL OF SMALL BUSINESS MANAGEMENT, Issue 2 2006
David B. Audretsch
The resource theory of the firm implies that knowledge is a key resource bestowing a competitive advantage for entrepreneurial firms. However, it remains rather unclear up to now how new ventures and small businesses can access knowledge resources. The purpose of this study was to suggest two strategies, in particular, that facilitate entrepreneurial access to and absorption of external knowledge spillovers: the attraction of managers and directors with an academic background. Based on data on board composition of 295 high-technology firms, the results clearly demonstrate the strong link between geographical proximity to research-intense universities and board composition. [source]


Post-War Growth, Productivity Convergence and Reconstruction

OXFORD BULLETIN OF ECONOMICS & STATISTICS, Issue 5 2000
Werner Smolny
In this paper, it is shown that aggregate cross-country analyses of the growth process of the industrial countries should take reconstruction effects into account. The enormous growth rates in many European countries and in Japan in the fifties which often appear as outliers in aggregate analyses of productivity convergence can be understood as a catching-up with respect to the past. Neoclassical capital deepening combined with arguments from growth models relying on the stock of knowledge, knowledge spillovers and technological diffusion as the source of economic growth can explain the fast reconstruction after the war, without referring to country-specific growth factors. [source]


Spatial patterns of inventors' mobility: Evidence on US urban areas

PAPERS IN REGIONAL SCIENCE, Issue 2 2010
Stefano Breschi
Inventor; mobility; knowledge spillovers; geographical proximity Abstract This paper aims at contributing to the research on knowledge spillovers and their spatial extent by presenting new empirical evidence on a key mechanism driving and directing knowledge diffusion processes, namely, the mobility of knowledge and highly-skilled workers. The analysis is based on a rich data set on US inventors and their patents filed at the European Patent Office from 1978 to 2004. Findings indicate that two distinctive spatial patterns can be detected: inventors move both at short and large spatial distances (i.e., three hours and more than 8 hours driving distance, respectively) in similar proportions. Interestingly, in the largest innovative urban areas inventors' inflows and outflows primarily involve distant rather than neighbour areas. Resumen El objetivo de este artículo es contribuir a la investigación sobre spillovers de conocimiento y su amplitud espacial ya que presenta nuevas pruebas empíricas sobre un mecanismo clave para impulsar y dirigir los procesos de difusión de conocimiento, concretamente la movilidad de conocimiento y de mano de obra altamente especializada. El análisis está basado en un conjunto de datos exhaustivo sobre inventores estadounidenses y las patentes inscritas por ellos en la Oficina Europea de Patentes desde 1978 a 2004. Los resultados indican que se pueden detectar dos patrones espaciales distintivos: los inventores se mueven tanto a distancias cortas como largas (concretamente tres horas y más de ocho horas en automóvil, respectivamente) en proporciones similares. Es interesante mencionar que, en las áreas urbanas innovadoras más grandes, los flujos de entrada y salida de inventores están asociados principalmente a áreas lejanas en vez de a áreas vecinas. [source]


Spatial knowledge diffusion through collaborative networks,

PAPERS IN REGIONAL SCIENCE, Issue 3 2007
Corinne Autant-Bernard
The theory of endogenous growth and the geography and growth synthesis both consider that local growth and spatial concentration of economic activities emanate from localised knowledge spillovers (Lucas 1988; Martin and Ottaviano 1999). Since the end of the 1980's, the spatial dimension of knowledge diffusion has been investigated from an empirical point of view, and the existence and role of local spillovers has been generally confirmed (see among others Jaffe 1989; Audretsch and Feldman 1996). The concern that now arises is to unravel the mechanisms underlying and explaining the geographical knowledge spillovers. The aim of this special issue is to present the latest new findings on such questions and to identify some new lines of research for future work. Before presenting the content of this special issue, we very briefly review the main results of the empirical literature on the geography of innovation. We also explain the context of this special issue by pointing out some of the limitations faced by this literature and, by stressing the complex dynamic and network dimensions of the observed processes of production and diffusion of knowledge. [source]


Localised knowledge spillovers vs. innovative milieux: Knowledge "tacitness" reconsidered

PAPERS IN REGIONAL SCIENCE, Issue 3 2001
Stefano Breschi
Innovative milieux; regional systems; nkowledge spillovers; externalities; industrial districts Abstract. This article provides a critical discussion of the recent econometric literature on "localised knowledge spillovers" and the related notion of tacit knowledge. The basic claim of the article is that the increasing, and more or less automatic reliance of industrial geographers upon such econometric evidence and theoretical concepts to support their work on industrial districts, hi-tech agglomerations and, more broadly, local innovation systems is not well placed and risks to generate conceptual confusion and to distort research agendas. Following some recent advances in the economics of knowledge, the article also suggests that more research efforts should instead be devoted to exploring how knowledge is actually transmitted, among whom, at what distance, and on the basis of which codebooks. [source]


Adoption of a Process Innovation with Learning-by-Doing: Evidence from the Semiconductor Industry

THE JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL ECONOMICS, Issue 3 2001
Ricardo Cabral
This article analyzes the adoption of a new process technology in the global semiconductor manufacturing industry. The paper extends research on the relationship between learning-by-doing and technology adoption by examining the stability of learning effects across technological generations. While the results indicate that production experience with the immediately preceding technological generation is associated with a higher likelihood of adoption, we find no evidence that experience with older technologies or regional knowledge spillovers influence adoption. Finally, the results indicate that large firms and memory manufacturers have a higher likelihood of adoption than small firms and non-memory manufacturers, respectively. [source]


Research and Development, Regional Spillovers and the Location of Economic Activities

THE MANCHESTER SCHOOL, Issue 4 2004
Alberto Franco Pozzolo
I present an endogenous growth model that studies the effects of local inter-industry and intra-industry knowledge spillovers in R&D on the allocation of economic activities between two regions. The equilibrium is the result of a tension between a centripetal force, the cost of transporting goods from one region to the other, and a centrifugal force, the cost increase associated with life in a more crowded area. The presence of local knowledge spillovers, which determines the concentration of the R&D activities within one region, also introduces a further centripetal force that makes a symmetric allocation of the economic activities impossible. The concentration of R&D fosters the equilibrium rate of growth of the economy with respect to the case of no-integration, by increasing the positive effect of local knowledge spillovers. Contrary to the findings of the majority of models in the new economic geography literature, within this framework a reduction in transport costs may be associated with a more even geographical distribution of economic activities. [source]


Aid, non-traded goods, and growth

CANADIAN JOURNAL OF ECONOMICS, Issue 2 2010
Takumi Naito
Abstract We examine the effects of foreign aid in a small recipient country with two traded goods, one non-traded good, and two factors. Learning by doing and intersectoral knowledge spillovers contribute to endogenous growth. We obtain two main results. First, a permanent increase in untied aid raises (or lowers) the growth rate if and only if the non-traded good is more capital intensive (or effective labour intensive) than the operating traded good. Second, a permanent increase in untied aid raises welfare if the non-traded good is more capital intensive than the operating traded good; otherwise, it may raise or lower welfare. On examine les effets de l'aide étrangère sur un petit pays récipiendaire où il y a deux biens transigés internationalement (un bien capital et un bien de consommation), un qui ne l'est pas, et deux facteurs de production. L'apprentissage sur le tas et les effets de retombée intersectoriels de la connaissance alimentent la croissance endogène. On obtient deux résultats principaux. D'abord, il appert qu'un accroissement permanent d'aide libre de tous liens accroît (ou réduit) le taux de croissance si et seulement si le bien non-transigé a une plus forte intensité capitalistique (ou une intensité effective du facteur travail) que le bien transigé dans le secteur qui reste en opération. Ensuite, il appert qu'un accroissement permanent d'aide libre de tous liens accroît le bien-être si le bien non-transigé a une plus grande intensité capitalistique que le bien transigé dans le secteur qui reste en opération; autrement, un tel accroissement peut accroître ou réduire le bien-être. [source]


China's Sustained Economic Growth: Do Direct R&D Spillovers Matter?

CHINA AND WORLD ECONOMY, Issue 5 2010
Renai Jiang
F21; F23; O30; O47 Abstract Using data from 1986,2005, the present paper estimates the impact of direct knowledge spilled over from G-7 countries on China's economy. We use telephone line penetration rates and personnel flows to estimate the direct spillover effect. Our results show that direct knowledge spillovers through telecommunication networks and personnel flows are important components of international R&D spillovers in China. These direct channels of spillover effectively accelerate China's economic growth. Therefore, China should invest more in human capital and in its telecommunication network to enhance the absorptive capacity of direct R&D spillovers, and to increase communication with other nations, in particular the USA and Japan. More subsidies to domestic R&D research and purchase of intermediate goods will help to raise China's R&D intensity. [source]