Knowledge Model (knowledge + model)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Toward a consilient science of psychology

Kevin L. Rand
From its inception, psychology has been characterized by conceptual fragmentation and slow scientific progress (Henriques, 2004; Meehl, 1978). In contrast, the natural sciences have achieved in recent decades a remarkable degree of consilience,the linking of fact, theory, and method across disciplines (and subdisciplines) and across nested levels of informational complexity (Wilson, 1998). Although such consilience serves as a potent catalyst of scientific discovery, there exists several barriers to the emergence of a consilient science of psychology (e.g., the persistent influence of dualism, longstanding internecine discord, resistance to perceived reductionism, etc.). We discuss the manner in which the development of metatheoretical frameworks (including Henriques' Tree of Knowledge model) may play an important role in addressing such barriers. Likewise, we describe the hybrid interdisciplinary domain of cognitive neuroscience, which provides an empirically testable metatheory and a promising consilient bridge between psychology and the natural sciences. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol. [source]

The role of the translator/interpreter in knowledge transfer environments

Jocelyn Cranefield
This paper reports on the results of a larger research project that investigated the factors impacting on inter-organisational transfer in the New Zealand State Sector. Seven gatekeepers (boundary-spanning individuals) from different organisations were interviewed about their experiences in facilitating knowledge transfer between a cross-sector working group and their organisation. The context for the research was the Pathfinder Project, a project based around the development and transfer of an emergent knowledge model for strategic management, Managing for Outcomes (MfO). A range of factors that facilitated knowledge transfer were identified. Among these, translation and interpretation activities were found to be critical to successful knowledge transfer. Gatekeepers reported acting as translator/interpreter, an essential role which demanded specialised skills. The nature of this role is outlined, with reference to a staged model for knowledge transfer that emerged from the research project. The translator/interpreter role required gatekeepers to engage in active and continuous conversion of knowledge to meet the differing needs of a range of recipients. This helped to increase the overall absorptive capacity of participating organisations. Implications of these findings for research and practice are outlined. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Guilt appeals: Persuasion knowledge and charitable giving

Sally Hibbert
This paper applies the persuasion knowledge model to explain consumers' responses to charity guilt appeals. With data obtained through a stimuli-driven survey, the research examines the relationships between knowledge of persuasion tactics and charities, and the level of felt guilt experienced in response to an advertisement and subsequent donation intentions. The findings show that guilt arousal is positively related to donation intention, and that persuasion and agent knowledge impact the extent of guilt aroused. The research confirms that consumers are active rather than passive processors of marketing communications by revealing the role of persuasion and agent knowledge as methods of coping with and informing responses to guilt appeals. Specifically, the research finds that manipulative intent and the respondents' skepticism toward advertising tactics in general are negatively related to guilt arousal but that their affective evaluation and beliefs about a charity are positively related to feelings of guilt. However, it also shows that there is a positive direct relationship between perceived manipulative intent and the intention to donate. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Spectral kinetic modeling and long-term behavior assessment of Arthrospira platensis growth in photobioreactor under red (620 nm) light illumination

Bérangère Farges
Abstract The ability to cultivate the cyanobacterium Arhtrospira platensis in artificially lightened photobioreactors using high energetic efficiency (quasi-monochromatic) red LED was investigated. To reach the same maximal productivities as with the polychromatic lightening control conditions (red + blue, P/2e, = 1.275), the need to work with an optimal range of wavelength around 620 nm was first established on batch and continuous cultures. The long-term physiological and kinetic behavior was then verified in a continuous photobioreactor illuminated only with red (620 nm) LED, showing that the maximum productivities can be maintained over 30 residence times with only minor changes in the pigment content of the cells corresponding to a well-known adaptation mechanism of the photosystems, but without any effect on growth and stoichiometry. For both poly and monochromatic incident light inputs, a predictive spectral knowledge model was proposed and validated for the first time, allowing the calculation of the kinetics and stoichiometry observed in any photobioreactor cultivating A. platensis, or other cyanobacteria if the parameters were updated. It is shown that the photon flux (with a specified wavelength) must be used instead of light energy flux as a relevant control variable for the growth. The experimental and theoretical results obtained in this study demonstrate that it is possible to save the energy consumed by the lightening device of photobioreactors using red LED, the spectral range of which is defined according to the action spectrum of photosynthesis. This appears to be crucial information for applications in which the energy must be rationalized, as it is the case for life support systems in closed environments like a permanent spatial base or a submarine. © 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2009 [source]

Modeling Stability of Photoheterotrophic Continuous Cultures in Photobioreactors

Jean-François Cornet
Continuous cultures of the purple non-sulfur bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum were grown in a cylindrical photobioreactor in photoheterotrophic conditions, using acetate as carbon source. A new kinetic and stoichiometric knowledge model was developed, and its ability to simulate experimental results obtained under varying incident light fluxes and residence times is discussed. The model accurately predicts the stable, unstable, or oscillating behavior observed for the reactor productivity. In particular, the values of residence time corresponding to a subcritical bifurcation with a typical hysteresis effect are calculated and analyzed. The robustness of the proposed model allows the engineering operating domain of the photobioreactor function to be set and offers a promising tool for the design and control of such photoheterotrophic processes. [source]