Knowledge Creation (knowledge + creation)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Business, Economics, Finance and Accounting


Selected Abstracts


Collaborative Processes and Knowledge Creation in Communities-of-Practice

CREATIVITY AND INNOVATION MANAGEMENT, Issue 3 2002
Karin Breu
This paper challenges the view of employees' reluctance to share what they know, thus, attributing the ,stickiness' of knowledge to motivational factors. The study investigated informal mechanisms for knowledge sharing, taking a community-of-practice (CoP) perspective as a point of departure. A large-sized organisation in the utilities sector provided the context of the research. Existing CoP theory is advanced by surfacing the motivations for participation in CoPs, by eliciting the contributions informal, self-organising communities achieve in a commercial context and by documenting the process by which informal community activities become absorbed into the formal organisation. [source]


Principles and Practices of Knowledge Creation: On the Organization of "Buzz" and "Pipelines" in Life Science Communities

ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY, Issue 4 2008
Jerker Moodysson
abstract This article links up with the debate in economic geography on "local buzz" and "global pipelines" as two distinct forms of interactive knowledge creation among firms and related actors and argues for a rethinking of the way social scientists should approach interactive knowledge creation. It highlights the importance of combining the insights from studies of clusters and innovation systems with an activity-oriented approach in which more attention is paid to the specific characteristics of the innovation processes and the conditions underpinning their organization. To illustrate the applicability and added value of such an alternative approach, the notion of embeddedness is linked with some basic ideas adopted from the literature on knowledge communities. The framework is then applied to a study of innovation activities conducted by firms and academic research groups working with biotechnology-related applications in the Swedish part of the Medicon Valley life science region. The findings reveal that local buzz is largely absent in these types of activities. Most interactive knowledge creation, which appears to be spontaneous and unregulated, is, on closer examination, found safely embedded in globally configured professional knowledge communities and attainable only by those who qualify. [source]


Collaborative Research: Policy and the Management of Knowledge Creation in UK Universities

HIGHER EDUCATION QUARTERLY, Issue 2 2001
David Smith
Collaboration in research activity is now the rule not the exception. It is encouraged by government, funding bodies and research councils. However, the concept of collaboration is difficult to define. It occurs at many different levels, driven by a complex research system-policy dynamic. Three different models of collaboration , inter-personal, team and corporate , are identified, each with their own rationale, structure, benefits and costs. The paper examines the institutional implications of these models. It argues that institutions and individual researchers conceptualise and operationalise research collaboration in different ways. Although vital to institutional mission, collaborative research is rarely mapped by senior managers with any precision. In general, institutional approaches to the management of collaborative research lag behind the policy rhetoric. The paper concludes with an overview of the key dilemmas for institutional strategists and policy makers posed by the shift towards more collaborative approaches to research. [source]


Surmounting City Silences: Knowledge Creation and the Design of Urban Democracy in the Everyday Economy

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF URBAN AND REGIONAL RESEARCH, Issue 1 2009
NANCY ETTLINGER
This essay presents segregation as a fundamental, longstanding and widespread problem that impedes democratic urban life and is intelligible from a critical geographic perspective. Ignorance is spatially produced by segregation at multiple scales so as to legitimize and perpetuate silence about problems among marginalized groups. This spatialized understanding explains inequality, problematizes and difference prompts an agenda that forefronts the creation of new social knowledges. The focus here is on the everyday economy as a crucial but commonly overlooked context for developing such knowledges. I re-present a theory of knowledge creation developed for the pursuit of commercial competitiveness and reconfigure it to mesh socio-political and economic goals. A central challenge is to change prevailing discourses by cultivating new practices that entail meaningful interaction among people otherwise segregated. Efficiency becomes a means to social as well as economic ends, as respect and trust grow from collaborative experience among people who might otherwise not interact. Résumé Ce travail présente la ségrégation comme un problème fondamental, persistant et généralisé qui handicape la vie urbaine démocratique et qui peut être appréhendé d'un point de vue critique géographique. L'ignorance est le résultat, sur le plan spatial, d'une ségrégation à plusieurs échelons aux fins de justifier et de perpétuer le silence sur les problèmes qui existent dans les groupes marginalisés. Cette appréhension spatiale explique l'inégalité, tandis que la problématisation de la différence conduit à mettre en évidence la création de nouveaux savoirs sociaux. L'intérêt porte ici sur l'économie du quotidien, considérée comme un contexte essentiel, quoique très souvent négligé, pour le développement de ces savoirs. L'auteur revisite une théorie de la création du savoir élaborée dans le but d'accroître la compétitivité commerciale, et la reconfigure pour qu'elle concorde avec des objectifs sociopolitiques et économiques. L'un des principaux défis consiste à changer la rhétorique dominante en cultivant de nouvelles pratiques qui supposent une interaction porteuse de sens entre des gens par ailleurs ségrégués. L'efficience devient un moyen à des fins sociales et économiques, le respect et la confiance se nourrissant de la collaboration vécue entre des personnes qui, autrement, n'auraient peut-être pas été en relation. [source]


Conceptualizing Knowledge Creation: A Critique of Nonaka's Theory*

JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES, Issue 7 2006
Stephen Gourlay
abstract Nonaka's proposition that knowledge is created through the interaction of tacit and explicit knowledge involving four modes of knowledge conversion is flawed. Three of the modes appear plausible but none are supported by evidence that cannot be explained more simply. The conceptual framework omits inherently tacit knowledge, and uses a radically subjective definition of knowledge: knowledge is in effect created by managers. A new framework is proposed suggesting that different kinds of knowledge are created by different kinds of behaviour. Following Dewey, non-reflectional behaviour is distinguished from reflective behaviour, the former being associated with tacit knowledge, and the latter with explicit knowledge. Some of the implications for academic and managerial practice are considered. [source]


Knowledge Combination and Knowledge Creation in a Foreign-Market Network

JOURNAL OF SMALL BUSINESS MANAGEMENT, Issue 2 2009
Daniel Tolstoy
This article rests on the idea that knowledge is dispersed among different individuals and entities. For international entrepreneurial firms to create new knowledge, they need to find ways to combine these dispersed bits of knowledge. Because of the notion that resource constraints make international entrepreneurial firms dependent on external knowledge, it is assumed that a portion of knowledge combination takes place in networks. The purpose of this article was to investigate the prospective impact network knowledge and knowledge combinations have on entrepreneurial firms' knowledge creation. Three hypotheses are developed and tested in a structural equation model, using linear structural relations (LISREL, Scientific Software International, Inc.). [source]


Knowledge Creation in a Transitional Economy

MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATION REVIEW, Issue 2 2005
Article first published online: 6 JUL 200
[source]


Chi and Organizational Creativity: A Case Study of Three Taiwanese Computer Firms

CREATIVITY AND INNOVATION MANAGEMENT, Issue 4 2003
Jon-Chao Hong
The mechanisms of knowledge management include knowledge sharing, knowledge transformation and knowledge accumulation. In the corporate context, knowledge creation is of utmost importance for the promotion of competition within an organization. Knowledge creation in business corporations is most frequently done through sharing knowledge between members of a team. Therefore, how to promote the flow of ,Chi' in an organization to ensure the effectiveness of knowledge sharing becomes the key to successful knowledge creation. Moreover, to create and maintain ,Chi', a holonic working environment has to be created so that the result of knowledge sharing can be enhanced. This paper illustrates the effectiveness of the knowledge-sharing practices of three computer-manufacturing companies from the perspective of working environment design and knowledge-sharing mechanism. Through comparison, this paper will identify some good practices for the enhancement of organizational creativity. [source]


Knowledge creation and transfer in a cross-cultural context,empirical evidence from Tyco Flow Control

KNOWLEDGE AND PROCESS MANAGEMENT: THE JOURNAL OF CORPORATE TRANSFORMATION, Issue 3 2007
Florian Kohlbacher
The capability of multinational corporations (MNCs) to create and efficiently combine knowledge from different locations around the world is becoming increasingly important as a determinant of competitive advantage and will be more and more critical to their success and survival. Consequently, cultural differences and cross-cultural contexts play an essential role for and significantly influence global knowledge creation and management. This paper presents a case study resulting from a current empirical research project on knowledge management and the transfer of knowledge within organizations of MNCs. We describe and analyze the efforts of global market leader Tyco Flow Control (TFC)'s Japanese subsidiary KTM to transfer relevant,and often highly tacit,knowledge to a newly acquired production site in Taiwan. Challenges and difficulties encountered in the process of global knowledge management,in this case the transfer of knowledge from Japan to Taiwan,as well as the creation of new knowledge locally and its feedback,are illustrated and carefully examined. Finally, we discuss our findings and highlight practical implications for managers and international corporations in a global business environment. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Knowledge creation and exploitation in collaborative R&D projects: lessons learned on success factors

KNOWLEDGE AND PROCESS MANAGEMENT: THE JOURNAL OF CORPORATE TRANSFORMATION, Issue 4 2006
Mona Weck
This paper examines the management of collaborative R&D projects with customers. Prior research on social network theory and the knowledge-based view has identified some of the key conditions of successful collaboration. However, the actual management of project dynamics has received less attention. This paper addresses this gap in existing research through a case study on the management of inter-firm R&D projects in a large European telecommunications operator. It provides a cross-project comparison on the process of knowledge creation and exploitation in five collaborative R&D projects with customers. The objective of this research is to increase current understanding on the success factors of collaborative R&D projects. As a result of this paper, the creation of a genuine ,win-win' situation, clear roles and responsibilities, the customer-oriented approach and the exchange of complementary specialist knowledge are found to be key critical success factors in the process of inter-firm knowledge creation. Moreover, this paper indicates that the viability of the business opportunity is the primary success factor in knowledge exploitation. In addition to identifying these success factors, the paper provides a more complete list of lessons learned from collaborative R&D projects with customers. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


SEMANTICS-ASSISTED PROBLEM SOLVING ON THE SEMANTIC GRID

COMPUTATIONAL INTELLIGENCE, Issue 2 2005
Liming Chen
In this paper we propose a distributed knowledge management framework for semantics and knowledge creation, population, and reuse on the grid. Its objective is to evolve the Grid toward the Semantic Grid with the ultimate purpose of facilitating problem solving in e-Science. The framework uses ontology as the conceptual backbone and adopts the service-oriented computing paradigm for information- and knowledge-level computation. We further present a semantics-based approach to problem solving, which exploits the rich semantic information of grid resource descriptions for resource discovery, instantiation, and composition. The framework and approach has been applied to a UK e-Science project,Grid Enabled Engineering Design Search and Optimisation in Engineering (GEODISE). An ontology-enabled problem solving environment (PSE) has been developed in GEODISE to leverage the semantic content of GEODISE resources and the Semantic Grid infrastructure for engineering design. Implementation and initial experimental results are reported. [source]


Chi and Organizational Creativity: A Case Study of Three Taiwanese Computer Firms

CREATIVITY AND INNOVATION MANAGEMENT, Issue 4 2003
Jon-Chao Hong
The mechanisms of knowledge management include knowledge sharing, knowledge transformation and knowledge accumulation. In the corporate context, knowledge creation is of utmost importance for the promotion of competition within an organization. Knowledge creation in business corporations is most frequently done through sharing knowledge between members of a team. Therefore, how to promote the flow of ,Chi' in an organization to ensure the effectiveness of knowledge sharing becomes the key to successful knowledge creation. Moreover, to create and maintain ,Chi', a holonic working environment has to be created so that the result of knowledge sharing can be enhanced. This paper illustrates the effectiveness of the knowledge-sharing practices of three computer-manufacturing companies from the perspective of working environment design and knowledge-sharing mechanism. Through comparison, this paper will identify some good practices for the enhancement of organizational creativity. [source]


Principles and Practices of Knowledge Creation: On the Organization of "Buzz" and "Pipelines" in Life Science Communities

ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY, Issue 4 2008
Jerker Moodysson
abstract This article links up with the debate in economic geography on "local buzz" and "global pipelines" as two distinct forms of interactive knowledge creation among firms and related actors and argues for a rethinking of the way social scientists should approach interactive knowledge creation. It highlights the importance of combining the insights from studies of clusters and innovation systems with an activity-oriented approach in which more attention is paid to the specific characteristics of the innovation processes and the conditions underpinning their organization. To illustrate the applicability and added value of such an alternative approach, the notion of embeddedness is linked with some basic ideas adopted from the literature on knowledge communities. The framework is then applied to a study of innovation activities conducted by firms and academic research groups working with biotechnology-related applications in the Swedish part of the Medicon Valley life science region. The findings reveal that local buzz is largely absent in these types of activities. Most interactive knowledge creation, which appears to be spontaneous and unregulated, is, on closer examination, found safely embedded in globally configured professional knowledge communities and attainable only by those who qualify. [source]


Temporary organisations and spatial embeddedness of learning and knowledge creation

GEOGRAFISKA ANNALER SERIES B: HUMAN GEOGRAPHY, Issue 2 2002
Bjørn T. Asheim
It is the overall aim of this article to investigate theoretically how spatial embeddedness of learning and knowledge creation might be challenged by alternative organisational forms (i.e. temporary organisations). The article presents development coalitions as an alternative to projects as a form of temporary organisation. They are potentially able to combine the promotion of radical change with collective and localised learning, thus eliminating some of the characteristic shortcomings of project organizations with regard to collective learning and transfer of knowledge. [source]


The knowledge-based economy: intellectual origins and new economic perspectives

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT REVIEWS, Issue 1 2001
Richard G. Harris
This paper discusses the intellectual origins of the knowledge-based economy or KBE, and recent economic theories used to provide an intellectual foundation for the KBE. The KBE is the dominant post-industrial economic development paradigm that emerged in the 1980s, with an emphasis on the role of knowledge creation and distribution as the primary driver in the process of economic growth, the distribution of income, the growing importance of knowledge-based networks among firms, and the interface between government business and citizens in the advanced economies. Recent empirical evidence on rates of return, geographic spillovers, and the internationalization of knowledge flows are discussed in relation to the theoretical foundations of the KBE. [source]


Surmounting City Silences: Knowledge Creation and the Design of Urban Democracy in the Everyday Economy

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF URBAN AND REGIONAL RESEARCH, Issue 1 2009
NANCY ETTLINGER
This essay presents segregation as a fundamental, longstanding and widespread problem that impedes democratic urban life and is intelligible from a critical geographic perspective. Ignorance is spatially produced by segregation at multiple scales so as to legitimize and perpetuate silence about problems among marginalized groups. This spatialized understanding explains inequality, problematizes and difference prompts an agenda that forefronts the creation of new social knowledges. The focus here is on the everyday economy as a crucial but commonly overlooked context for developing such knowledges. I re-present a theory of knowledge creation developed for the pursuit of commercial competitiveness and reconfigure it to mesh socio-political and economic goals. A central challenge is to change prevailing discourses by cultivating new practices that entail meaningful interaction among people otherwise segregated. Efficiency becomes a means to social as well as economic ends, as respect and trust grow from collaborative experience among people who might otherwise not interact. Résumé Ce travail présente la ségrégation comme un problème fondamental, persistant et généralisé qui handicape la vie urbaine démocratique et qui peut être appréhendé d'un point de vue critique géographique. L'ignorance est le résultat, sur le plan spatial, d'une ségrégation à plusieurs échelons aux fins de justifier et de perpétuer le silence sur les problèmes qui existent dans les groupes marginalisés. Cette appréhension spatiale explique l'inégalité, tandis que la problématisation de la différence conduit à mettre en évidence la création de nouveaux savoirs sociaux. L'intérêt porte ici sur l'économie du quotidien, considérée comme un contexte essentiel, quoique très souvent négligé, pour le développement de ces savoirs. L'auteur revisite une théorie de la création du savoir élaborée dans le but d'accroître la compétitivité commerciale, et la reconfigure pour qu'elle concorde avec des objectifs sociopolitiques et économiques. L'un des principaux défis consiste à changer la rhétorique dominante en cultivant de nouvelles pratiques qui supposent une interaction porteuse de sens entre des gens par ailleurs ségrégués. L'efficience devient un moyen à des fins sociales et économiques, le respect et la confiance se nourrissant de la collaboration vécue entre des personnes qui, autrement, n'auraient peut-être pas été en relation. [source]


Science and technology capacity building and partnership in African agriculture: perspectives on Mali and Egypt

JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT, Issue 5 2005
Seife Ayele
Science and technology (S&T) have long been seen as key for development. This paper considers the issue of capacity building in the light of recent reconceptualization of the role of science and technology in development. Reconceptualization suggests that science and technology are better seen as key elements of innovation systems, which are themselves the means of gaining value from knowledge creation; and, that innovation, knowledge and development are tightly knit elements of a system of organisations and institutions that must function coherently for improved knowledge and innovation systems to emerge. Developing such systems requires linkages of many types. The paper describes and discusses the conceptual basis for capacity building interventions, using partnership-based capacity building initiatives in new agricultural technologies from Mali and Egypt. The empirical analysis from both countries shows evidence of research capacity building in the form of recruitment, training of scientific staff and provision of research infrastructure. Unsurprisingly, given the S&T knowledge base, the Malian case illustrates the difficulty of moving beyond basic forms of research capacity building. In Egypt, with significant S&T capacity, there is evidence of organizational and institutional innovation towards broader knowledge, and innovation system development in agri-biotechnology. The role of partnerships, and government as ,systems-builder', are shown to be important. Lessons are drawn from these (and other) cases about the relationship between partnerships, S&T and innovation capacity building. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Theorizing TQM: An Austrian and Evolutionary Economics Interpretation

JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES, Issue 2 2000
Todd H. Chiles
Born out of management practice, the principles of TQM (total quality management) have had a profound and unparalleled impact on modern business history. However, as a body of practical knowledge, TQM has been largely atheoretical. As a consequence, this important management philosophy has remained amorphous and shrouded in considerable conceptual haziness and ambiguity. Recent theorizing, primarily emphasizing the application of organizational behaviour theories to TQM, has begun to provide greater clarity, but much work remains to be done. This paper attempts to contribute to this nascent theory-building literature by employing theory from market process economics (MPE), namely, Austrian and evolutionary economics, which explains how processes of dynamic change, adaptation, and learning are driven by entrepreneurial creativity. We contend that the patterns in this body of theory match, to a remarkable degree, the patterns of practical knowledge contained in the TQM literature. We demonstrate this ,pattern-matching' by showing that MPE effectively provides the theoretical underpinnings of TQM's three main principles , customer focus, continuous improvement and teamwork , as well as the respective TQM topics of customer perceptions, adaptation in dynamic environments, and knowledge creation. Having established MPE as a credible theoretical lens for interpreting TQM, it can be used to clarify fuzzy areas that have remained in the TQM literature with the potential to take us beyond what we know now. We illustrate this with three examples that show how we can resolve debates in TQM over incentive systems, recognize that TQM embraces methodological pluralism in the collection and analysis of data, and highlight hidden dangers that attend benchmarking. While MPE has no monopoly on theoretical interpretations of TQM, it is unique in its ability to comprehensively cover the incredible breadth of this practical body of knowledge, and in its interpretation of TQM as a dynamic economic endeavour. [source]


Knowledge Combination and Knowledge Creation in a Foreign-Market Network

JOURNAL OF SMALL BUSINESS MANAGEMENT, Issue 2 2009
Daniel Tolstoy
This article rests on the idea that knowledge is dispersed among different individuals and entities. For international entrepreneurial firms to create new knowledge, they need to find ways to combine these dispersed bits of knowledge. Because of the notion that resource constraints make international entrepreneurial firms dependent on external knowledge, it is assumed that a portion of knowledge combination takes place in networks. The purpose of this article was to investigate the prospective impact network knowledge and knowledge combinations have on entrepreneurial firms' knowledge creation. Three hypotheses are developed and tested in a structural equation model, using linear structural relations (LISREL, Scientific Software International, Inc.). [source]


Culture and knowledge co-creation in R&D collaboration between MNCs and Chinese universities

KNOWLEDGE AND PROCESS MANAGEMENT: THE JOURNAL OF CORPORATE TRANSFORMATION, Issue 2 2010
Jianzhong Hong
This paper examines the role of culture in university,industry R&D collaboration and knowledge interaction in the context of multinational corporations in China. Earlier university,industry studies focus primarily on one-way technology and knowledge transfer; however, the present study argues that in the studied context more interactive types of knowledge interaction like knowledge co-creation should be of key concern. The main challenge of the R&D collaboration lies in the understanding of culture in general and Chinese guanxi (interpersonal relationship) in particular in collaborative knowledge creation, in which the dominant type of knowledge involved is most often tacit, future oriented, complex and context-specific. This is particularly important when dealing simultaneously with multi-disciplinary applied research where cultural challenges appear prominent. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Knowledge strategy: Its relationship to environmental dynamism and complexity in product development

KNOWLEDGE AND PROCESS MANAGEMENT: THE JOURNAL OF CORPORATE TRANSFORMATION, Issue 1 2010
Elena Revilla
Focusing on product development, this study extends the understanding of the environment-strategy framework and investigates the relative effect of two environmental variables, dynamism and complexity, on the product development knowledge strategy. Adopting a knowledge-based view, and assuming that the strategy's locus is knowledge creation (exploration) and knowledge application (exploitation), the study suggests that the development of a knowledge strategy is a managerial strategic choice that is related to the environment. The results of a survey on product development managers generally indicate that exploration and exploitation must be combined according to environmental factors by generating the alternative knowledge strategies of ambidexterity or punctuated equilibrium. Particularly, the study finds that in environments characterized by high levels of both dynamism and complexity product development efforts pursue and reinforce both explorative and exploitative activities through a knowledge strategy of ambidexterity. Though not perfectly supported, punctuated equilibrium seems to be a more plausible knowledge strategy in environmental contexts where either dynamism or complexity prevails. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Method and instruments for modeling integrated knowledge

KNOWLEDGE AND PROCESS MANAGEMENT: THE JOURNAL OF CORPORATE TRANSFORMATION, Issue 4 2008
*Article first published online: 19 NOV 200, Olivier Glassey
MIMIK (Method and Instruments for Modeling Integrated Knowledge) is a set of tools used to formalize and represent knowledge within organizations. It furthermore supports knowledge creation and sharing within communities of interest or communities of practice. In this paper we show that MIMIK is based on a model theory approach and builds on other existing methods and techniques. We also explain how to use the method and its instruments in order to model strategic objectives, processes, knowledge, and roles found within an organization, as well as relations existing between these elements. Indeed MIMIK provides eight types of models in order to describe what is commonly called know-how, know-why and know-what; it uses matrices in order to formally and semantically link strategic objectives, knowledge and actors. We close this paper with a presentation of a prototype we built in order to demonstrate a technical architecture allowing for knowledge creation, formalization and sharing. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Knowledge creation and transfer in a cross-cultural context,empirical evidence from Tyco Flow Control

KNOWLEDGE AND PROCESS MANAGEMENT: THE JOURNAL OF CORPORATE TRANSFORMATION, Issue 3 2007
Florian Kohlbacher
The capability of multinational corporations (MNCs) to create and efficiently combine knowledge from different locations around the world is becoming increasingly important as a determinant of competitive advantage and will be more and more critical to their success and survival. Consequently, cultural differences and cross-cultural contexts play an essential role for and significantly influence global knowledge creation and management. This paper presents a case study resulting from a current empirical research project on knowledge management and the transfer of knowledge within organizations of MNCs. We describe and analyze the efforts of global market leader Tyco Flow Control (TFC)'s Japanese subsidiary KTM to transfer relevant,and often highly tacit,knowledge to a newly acquired production site in Taiwan. Challenges and difficulties encountered in the process of global knowledge management,in this case the transfer of knowledge from Japan to Taiwan,as well as the creation of new knowledge locally and its feedback,are illustrated and carefully examined. Finally, we discuss our findings and highlight practical implications for managers and international corporations in a global business environment. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Using structuration theory to analyze knowledge and process management in a consortium: a case study

KNOWLEDGE AND PROCESS MANAGEMENT: THE JOURNAL OF CORPORATE TRANSFORMATION, Issue 2 2007
Ping Gao
Through a case study, this paper attempts to establish an argument that structuration theory is a suitable tool for analyzing the issue of knowledge and process management in a consortium. To do so, we first theoretically demonstrate that structuration theory can be linked with the theory of organizational knowledge creation, assuming that structure is a type of categorization of knowledge, and knowledge creation is a structuration process. We then use structuration theory to dissect a consortium designing mobile commerce services. The case study concludes that the structuration perspective enables researchers to expose the improvisatory mechanism of organizational knowledge creation, in which distributed tacit knowledge is crystallized into collective explicit knowledge. The empirical observation argues that a consortium should have a pre-project phase when a common vocabulary is developed and an integrator is introduced. The experience of our case consortium,that the white book has emerged as a tool of knowledge and process management,can be drawn upon by other cases. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Knowledge creation and exploitation in collaborative R&D projects: lessons learned on success factors

KNOWLEDGE AND PROCESS MANAGEMENT: THE JOURNAL OF CORPORATE TRANSFORMATION, Issue 4 2006
Mona Weck
This paper examines the management of collaborative R&D projects with customers. Prior research on social network theory and the knowledge-based view has identified some of the key conditions of successful collaboration. However, the actual management of project dynamics has received less attention. This paper addresses this gap in existing research through a case study on the management of inter-firm R&D projects in a large European telecommunications operator. It provides a cross-project comparison on the process of knowledge creation and exploitation in five collaborative R&D projects with customers. The objective of this research is to increase current understanding on the success factors of collaborative R&D projects. As a result of this paper, the creation of a genuine ,win-win' situation, clear roles and responsibilities, the customer-oriented approach and the exchange of complementary specialist knowledge are found to be key critical success factors in the process of inter-firm knowledge creation. Moreover, this paper indicates that the viability of the business opportunity is the primary success factor in knowledge exploitation. In addition to identifying these success factors, the paper provides a more complete list of lessons learned from collaborative R&D projects with customers. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Contextual constraints in knowledge management theory: the cultural embeddedness of Nonaka's knowledge-creating company

KNOWLEDGE AND PROCESS MANAGEMENT: THE JOURNAL OF CORPORATE TRANSFORMATION, Issue 1 2003
Martin Glisby
Nonaka and Takeuchi's book The Knowledge Creating Company is one of the most influential in the field of knowledge management. The famous SECI Model, representing the four modes of knowledge creation (socialization, externalization, combination and internalization) seems to have been accepted by the knowledge management community as universally valid in conception and in application. This paper argues that the model must be seen first and foremost as a product of the environment from which it emerged, namely Japan. It is contended that each of the four modes can only be understood with reference to their embeddedness in Japanese social and organizational culture and related value systems. Thus the model should be used with caution. It should be seen as a map rather than a model; or perhaps as a special kind of mirror, which allows us to see ourselves and our knowledge management practices in new ways for directing change. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Knowledge management in international mergers

KNOWLEDGE AND PROCESS MANAGEMENT: THE JOURNAL OF CORPORATE TRANSFORMATION, Issue 2 2002
Frits D. J. Grotenhuis
This paper discusses the need for knowledge management in mergers and acquisitions. In mergers and acquisitions two cultures are combined, and also two systems of knowledge and insights are integrated. In order to develop and sustain competitive advantages for the knowledge-intensive firm, strategic management should enable the development and sharing of new knowledge and other resources. However, a number of factors make knowledge management a highly fragile process. This paper discusses some preliminary findings, indicating directions for future research regarding factors that play a role in knowledge creation, and the roles for knowledge enablers in facilitating this process of knowledge creation. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Knowledge utilization: Implications for evaluation

NEW DIRECTIONS FOR EVALUATION, Issue 124 2009
Sarah C. Blake
Knowledge utilization is a field crossing many sectors, from agriculture, since the 1920s, to health care today. Evaluators have made long-standing contributions to understanding knowledge utilization. Different models or ways to think about knowledge utilization have evolved to reflect different perspectives, contexts, and stages of the process, from knowledge creation to the use of effectiveness results in policymaking. The rich interdisciplinary history of this field challenges evaluators to interrogate what knowledge (really) means within a policy or program,whether knowledge is being used more symbolically, rhetorically, or tactically, for example. Differences in program or policy effectiveness across different program sites might result from different types of knowledge use in those sites. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc., and the American Evaluation Association. [source]


Co-evolution of invention activities among cities in New England,

PAPERS IN REGIONAL SCIENCE, Issue 1 2006
Catherine Y. Co
Patent; invention; city; New England Abstract., This article examines how patent activities in metropolitan areas change using New England as a backdrop. Using U.S. patent data from 1975 to 1999, this article uncovers several patterns. First, some patent-lagging cities catch up with patent-leading cities. Second, one contributory factor for catch up is knowledge diffusion. Third, shakeouts in patent specialisations in leading cities are less dramatic compared to those in lagging cities. Fourth, invention activities among cities co-evolve. The co-evolution of invention activities among cities provides an incentive for city and/or state governments to coordinate policies that may affect knowledge creation in their jurisdictions. [source]


Modeling the knowledge perspective of IT projects

PROJECT MANAGEMENT JOURNAL, Issue S1 2008
Blaize Horner Reich
Abstract Information technology (IT) projects are often viewed as arenas in which action is paramount, and tasks, budgets, people, and schedules need to be managed and controlled to achieve expected results. This perspective is useful because it encourages the project manager to scope work, manage time and budget, and monitor progress. Another perspective views a project as a place where learning and knowledge is paramount. In this view, projects are seen as a conduit for knowledge, which enters through people, methodologies, and prior learning. During the project, knowledge must be transferred, integrated, created, and exploited to create new organizational value. Knowledge is created, and knowledge can be lost. Within an IT project, this focus on knowledge yields new insights, because IT projects are primarily knowledge work. From this perspective, the project manager's primary task is to combine multiple sources of knowledge about technologies and business processes to create organizational value. These and other views of the IT project are complementary. However, this article focuses only on the knowledge perspective, leaving aside other views. This article is designed to bring together the empirical literature, which has investigated the impact of knowledge perspectives on IT project performance, and to suggest a temporal model of this perspective. In the first part of this article, we consider the knowledge-based view of an IT project and suggest definitions and a typology of knowledge. Then the knowledge risks model (Reich, 2007) is used as a framework within which to collect and examine the empirical data that support the knowledge-based view of an IT project. In the third part of this article, the problem of modeling knowledge and learning within IT projects is addressed. The study begins with the Temporal Model of IT Project Performance (Gemino, Reich, & Sauer, 2008) and discusses evidence that its knowledge-based constructs and subconstructs are influential with respect to project performance. The article ends by proposing a temporal model of the knowledge perspective of an IT project. There are five constructs in this model: knowledge resources, knowledge creation, knowledge loss, project performance, and learning. The content of these constructs and their expected interaction is discussed. Although this stream of work is at its early stages, hopefully it will convince researchers that further investigation into knowledge and learning within projects is warranted because it has the potential to impact both the theory and performance of IT projects. [source]