Knowledge Acquisition (knowledge + acquisition)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts


Mathieu D'Aquin
Kasimir is a case-based decision support system in the domain of breast cancer treatment. For this system, a problem is given by the description of a patient and a solution is a set of therapeutic decisions. Given a target problem, Kasimir provides several suggestions of solutions, based on several justified adaptations of source cases. Such adaptation processes are based on adaptation knowledge. The acquisition of this kind of knowledge from experts is presented in this paper. It is shown how the decomposition of adaptation processes by introduction of intermediate problems can highlight simple and generalizable adaptation steps. Moreover, some adaptation knowledge units that are generalized from those acquired for Kasimir are presented. This knowledge can be instantiated in other case-based decision support systems, in particular in medicine. [source]

Knowledge Acquisition and Memory Effects Involving an Expert System Designed as a Learning Tool for Internal Control Assessment*

Mary Jane Lenard
ABSTRACT The assessment of internal control is a consideration in all financial statement audits, as stressed by the Statement on Auditing Standards (SAS) No. 78. According to this statement, "the auditor should obtain an understanding of internal control sufficient to plan the audit" (Accounting Standards Board, 1995, p. 1). Therefore, an accounting student will progress through the auditing course with the responsibility of learning how and why internal controls are assessed. Research in expert systems applied to auditing has shown that there is strong support for the constructive dialogue used in expert systems as a means of encouraging their use in decision making (Eining, Jones, & Loebbecke, 1997). The purpose of this study is to provide the student or novice auditor with a method for developing a more comprehensive understanding of internal controls and the use of internal controls in audit planning. The results of the study reinforce previous findings that novices do better when an expert system applies analogies along with declarative explanations, and clarifies the length of time in which the use of active learning in a training system can provide an improvement to declarative knowledge, but procedural knowledge must be acquired over a longer time frame. [source]

Knowledge Accession and Knowledge Acquisition in Strategic Alliances: The Impact of Supplementary and Complementary Dimensions

Peter J. Buckley
This paper advances the concepts of knowledge accession and knowledge acquisition in strategic alliances by identifying supplementary and complementary dimensions to these knowledge transfer modes. Complementary knowledge transfer reflects the similarity of knowledge that the partners have and is conducted in pursuit of higher efficiency and productivity to enhance partner firms' existing competitiveness. Supplementary knowledge transfer occurs when partners each possess distinctive core competences and the information that is acquired or accessed increases the business scope of partners. As knowledge accession entails knowledge amalgamation that does not involve organizational learning, costs associated with the transfer process are lower and trust is easier to establish than in the case of knowledge acquisition. The paper reviews the implications of these transfer modes on trust building in alliances and their costs implications and presents a number of propositions for further exploration. [source]

GDKAT: A goal-driven knowledge acquisition tool for knowledge base development

EXPERT SYSTEMS, Issue 2 2000
Chien-Hsing Wu
While knowledge-based systems are being used extensively to assist in making decisions, a critical factor that affects their performance and reliability is the quantity and quality of the knowledge bases. Knowledge acquisition requires the design and development of an in-depth comprehension of knowledge modeling and of applicable domain. Many knowledge acquisition tools have been developed to support knowledge base development. However, a weakness that is revealed in these tools is the domain-dependent and complex acquisition process. Domain dependence limits the applicable areas and the complex acquisition process makes the tool difficult to use. In this paper, we present a goal-driven knowledge acquisition tool (GDKAT) that helps elicit and store experts' declarative and procedural knowledge in knowledge bases for a user-defined domain. The designed tool is implemented using the object-oriented design methodology under C++ Windows environment. An example that is used to demonstrate the GDKAT is also delineated. While the application domain for the example presented is reflow soldering in surface mount printed circuit board assembly, the GDKAT can be used to develop knowledge bases for other domains also. [source]

Knowledge acquisition for the development of an upper-body work-related musculoskeletal disorders analysis tool

Isabel Lopes Nunes
ERGO_X is a fuzzy expert system that supports workstation ergonomic analysis and provides advice on corrective measures aimed at improving the overall quality of the ergonomic design. ERGO_X was designed in a modular way to make further developments easier and to allow the selection of different ergonomic analysis contexts. The modularity feature mainly is a result of the knowledge base modular structure. Each module was built as a multilevel tree fuzzy relation. This relation reflects the interaction between attributes that are used to evaluate the level of severity of the relevant risk factors that are present at the analyzed workstation. The aim of this study is to address some aspects related to the knowledge acquisition process involved in the development of the ERGO_X knowledge base. In this regard, the author refers to her knowledge engineering activities in the development of a work-related musculoskeletal disorder module. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Hum Factors Man 17: 149,162, 2007. [source]

The Puzzle of Museum Educational Practice: A Comment on Rounds and Falk

Daniel Spock
The mandate that museums place education at the center of their public service role has had the effect of framing a new set of questions and,inevitably,problems. If museums have primary value to society as educational institutions, what kind of learning actually happens in them? Jay Rounds and John Falk, writing at the leading edge of this inquiry, explore curiosity, motivation and self-identity as paramount considerations for the special type of learning museums promote. Their analyses present interesting challenges for the museum practitioner, who may observe that people find the pursuit of curiosity pleasurable and value it more highly than knowledge acquisition. The practitioner may conclude that museums have a calling: They stand for the value of curiosity for its own sake, and for that reason will never wear out their welcome. [source]

Knowledge Life Cycle, Knowledge Inventory, and Knowledge Acquisition Strategies,

Andrew N. K. Chen
ABSTRACT For a knowledge- and skill-centric organization, the process of knowledge management encompasses three important and closely related elements: (i) task assignments, (ii) knowledge acquisition through training, and (iii) maintaining a proper level of knowledge inventory among the existing workforce. Trade-off on choices between profit maximization in the short run and agility and flexibility in the long term is a vexing problem in knowledge management. In this study, we examine the effects of different training strategies on short-term operational efficiency and long-term workforce flexibility. We address our research objective by developing a computational model for task and training assignment in a dynamic knowledge environment consisting of multiple distinct knowledge dimensions. Overall, we find that organizational slack is an important variable in determining the effectiveness of training strategies. Training strategies focused on the most recent skills are found to be the preferred option in most of the considered scenarios. Interestingly, increased efficiencies in training can actually create preference conflict between employees and the firm. Our findings indicate that firms facing longer knowledge life cycles, higher slack in workforce capacity, and better training efficiencies actually face more difficult challenges in knowledge management. [source]

Knowledge and Varieties of Epistemic Luck

DIALECTICA, Issue 4 2001
Hamid Vahi
It is generally thought that knowledge is incompatible with epistemic luck as the post-Gettier literature makes it abundantly clear. Examples are produced where although a belief is true and justified, it nevertheless falls short of being an instance of knowledge because of the intrusion of luck. Knowledge is regarded as being distinct from lucky guesses. It is, nevertheless, acknowledged by a number of epistemologists that some kind of luck is in fact an inevitable component of the process of knowledge acquisition. In this paper I wish to delineate varieties of epistemic luck in the light of the Gettier literature, and specify the kind that should be tolerated in the process of acquiring knowledge. To do this, it would be best to start by examining some of the recent attempts at analyzing the concept of luck and its bearing on the concept of knowledge. [source]

Involvement in Knowledge-Acquisition Activities by Venture Team Members and Venture Performance

Gaylen N. Chandler
This research uses concepts of organizational learning to analyze knowledge acquisition by management teams in emerging firms. Involvement in ongoing knowledge-acquisition activities is positively and significantly related to venture performance. In addition, task environment dynamism is a positive moderator of the relationship between involvement in knowledge-acquisition activities and venture performance. [source]

Using innovative group-work activities to enhance the problem-based learning experience for dental students

R. Grady
Abstract Problem-based learning (PBL) in medical and dental curricula is now well established, as such courses are seen to equip students with valuable transferable skills (e.g. problem-solving or team-working abilities), in addition to knowledge acquisition. However, it is often assumed that students improve in such skills without actually providing direct opportunity for practice, and without giving students feedback on their performance. ,The Manchester Dental Programme' (TMDP) was developed at The University of Manchester, UK as a 5-year, integrated enquiry-led curriculum. The existing PBL course was redesigned to include a unique, additional PBL session (,Session 4') that incorporated an activity for the group to complete, based on the subject material covered during student self-study. A summative mark was awarded for each activity that reflected the teamwork, organisational and overall capabilities of the groups. This paper describes the different types of activities developed for the Session 4 and presents an analysis of the perceptions of the students and staff involved. The student response to the Session 4 activities, obtained via questionnaires, was extremely positive, with the majority finding them fun, yet challenging, and ,worthwhile'. The activities were perceived to enhance subject understanding; develop students' problem-solving skills; allow the application of knowledge to new situations, and helped to identify gaps in knowledge to direct further study. Staff found the activities innovative and exciting learning tools for the students. The Session 4 activities described here are useful educational resources that could be adapted for other PBL courses in a wide variety of subject areas. [source]

A reasoning method for a ship design expert system

EXPERT SYSTEMS, Issue 2 2005
Sebnem Helvacioglu
Abstract: The ship design process is a highly data-oriented, dynamic, iterative and multi-stage algorithm. It utilizes multiple abstraction levels and concurrent engineering techniques. Specialized techniques for knowledge acquisition, knowledge representation and reasoning must be developed to solve these problems for a ship design expert system. Consequently, very few attempts have been made to model the ship design process using an expert system approach. The current work investigates a knowledge representation,reasoning technique for such a purpose. A knowledge-based conceptual design was developed by utilizing a prototype approach and hierarchical decompositioning. An expert system program called ALDES (accommodation layout design expert system) was developed by using the CLIPS expert system shell and an object-oriented user interface. The reasoning and knowledge representation methods of ALDES are explained in the paper. An application of the method is given for the general arrangement design of a containership. [source]

Experimental Evidence of the Knowledge Gap: Message Arousal, Motivation, and Time Delay

Maria Elizabeth Grabe
This study experimentally tested the knowledge gap from an information processing perspective. Specifically, knowledge acquisition was investigated under conditions of medium and low news message arousal, with time delay. Results show the persistence of a knowledge gap, particularly for low arousing messages. In fact, at low levels of message arousal, the gap is larger than at medium levels of arousal. Some existing research suggests that message salience explains the knowledge gap. Findings from this study show that information processing aptitude may also be a significant factor. Measures of several dimensions of participant motivation to cognitively engage with news messages were added as covariates to statistical analyses. These were found not to affect the knowledge gap outcomes in this data set. Résumé Des preuves expérimentales de l,écart des savoirs : intérêt des messages, motivation et décalage de temps Cette étude a testé expérimentalement l'écart des savoirs à partir d,une perspective du traitement de l'information. En particulier, l,acquisition des connaissances fut étudiée dans des conditions d'intérêt moyen et faible des messages d,information, avec un décalage de temps. Les résultats démontrent la persistance d'un écart des savoirs, particulièrement pour les messages à faible intérêt. En fait, l,écart est plus large à de faibles niveaux d'intérêt qu,à des niveaux moyens. Des recherches préalables suggèrent que la prépondérance des messages explique l'écart des savoirs. Les résultats de cette étude démontrent que les aptitudes de traitement de l,information peuvent aussi être un facteur important. Les mesures de plusieurs dimensions de la motivation des participants à s'impliquer cognitivement avec les messages informatifs furent ajoutées comme covariables aux analyses statistiques. Elles n,ont pas paru avoir d'effets sur les résultats de l,écart des savoirs dans cet ensemble de données. Mots clés : écart des savoirs, modèle de capacité limitée du traitement motivé des messages médiatiques (limited capacity model of mediated motivated message processing), cognition, statut socioéconomique, éducation, intérêt des messages, mémoire, décalage de temps, motivation, prépondérange des messages, informations Abstract Ein experimenteller Nachweis der Wissenskluft: Botschaftserregung, Motivation und Zeitverzögerung Diese Studie testete die Wissensklufthypothese experimentell aus einer Informationsverarbeitungsperspektive. Insbesondere wurde die Wissensaneignung bei Nachrichten unter Bedingungen eines mittleren und niedrigen Botschaftserregungsniveaus mit Zeitverzögerung untersucht. Die Ergebnisse zeigen das Fortdauern einer Wissenskluft insbesondere bei wenig erregenden Botschaften. Tatsächlich ist die Kluft bei einem geringen Niveau der Botschaftserregung größer als bei mittleren Erregungsniveaus. Bestehende Forschung legt nahe, dass die Wissenskluft durch die Botschaftssalienz erklärt werden kann. Die Ergebnisse dieser Studie zeigen, dass die Informationsverarbeitungsfähigkeit ebenfalls ein signifikanter Faktor sein könnte. Messungen verschiedenen Dimensionen der Motivation der Teilnehmer, sich kognitiv mit den Nachrichtenbotschaften zu beschäftigen, wurden als Kovariate in die statistische Analyse einbezogen. Diese zeigten keine Auswirkungen auf die Wissenskluft in dieser Stichprobe. Resumen La Evidencia Experimental de la Brecha de Conocimiento: La Excitación del Mensaje, la Motivación, y la Demora de Tiempo Este estudio puso a prueba experimental la brecha de conocimiento desde la perspectiva del procesamiento de la información. Específicamente, la adquisición de conocimiento fue investigada bajo condiciones de excitación mediana y baja a los mensajes de noticias, con una demora de tiempo. Los resultados muestran la persistencia de la brecha de conocimiento, particularmente en los mensajes de excitación baja. De hecho, en los niveles de excitación de mensaje bajos la brecha fue mayor que en los niveles de excitación medianos. Algunas investigaciones existentes sugieren que la notabilidad del mensaje explica la brecha de conocimiento. Los hallazgos de este estudio muestran que la aptitud de procesamiento de información puede ser un factor significante también. Las medidas de varias dimensiones de la motivación del participante para involucrarse cognitivamente con los mensajes de noticias fueron agregadas como covarianzas a los análisis estadísticos. Se encontró que éstos no afectaron los resultados de la brecha de conocimiento en este grupo de datos. Palabras claves: brecha de conocimiento, modelo de capacidad limitada de procesamiento de mensajes motivadores mediatizados, cognición, estatus socioeconómico, educación, excitación del mensaje, memoria, demora de tiempo, motivación, notabilidad del mensaje, noticias. ZhaiYao Yo yak [source]

Perceived Risk and Efficacy Beliefs as Motivators of Change

Use of the Risk Perception Attitude (RPA) Framework to Understand Health Behaviors
Evidence of a direct correlation between risk perception and self-protective behavior is ambiguous at best. Witte's (1992, 1994) extended parallel process model (EPPM) explains many contradictory findings by pointing out the moderating role played by efficacy beliefs. Working from the EPPM, this article introduces the risk perception attitude (RPA) framework that categorizes individuals into one of four attitudinal groups: responsive (high risk, high efficacy), avoidance (high risk, low efficacy), proactive (low risk, high efficacy), and indifference (low risk, low efficacy). We conducted two studies to test our hypotheses that these groups differ in their self-protective motivation, intention to seek information, behavioral intention, knowledge acquisition, and time spent seeking information. Results, though not entirely consistent, suggest that, when risk and efficacy are made salient (Study 1), people's risk perception guides most of their subsequent actions, but in a natural context (Study 2), risk and efficacy jointly affect subsequent action. [source]

Neccesity for Standardization in Fluorescence Pattern Analysis

Petra Perner Dr.
Fluorescent pattern analysis is used in cellular and molecular biology as well as in medicine, agriculture or other applications. To make it feasible in daily practice, standardization is necessary to obtain authentically and reproducible results. Standardization has many aspects (fig. 1). It has to do with sample preparation, imaging techniques, knowledge acquisition, and image interpretation. It is an iterative process and cannot be solved from scratch. [source]

Effectiveness of simulation on health profession students' knowledge, skills, confidence and satisfaction

Susan Laschinger
Abstract Background, Despite the recent wave of interest being shown in high-fidelity simulators, they do not represent a new concept in healthcare education. Simulators have been a part of clinical education since the 1950s. The growth of patient simulation as a core educational tool has been driven by a number of factors. Declining inpatient populations, concerns for patient safety and advances in learning theory are forcing healthcare educators to look for alternatives to the traditional clinical encounter for skill acquisition for students. Objective, The aim of this review was to identify the best available evidence on the effectiveness of using simulated learning experiences in pre-licensure health profession education. Inclusion criteria,Types of studies: This review considered any experimental or quasi-experimental studies that addressed the effectiveness of using simulated learning experiences in pre-licensure health profession practice. In the absence of randomised controlled trials, other research designs were considered for inclusion, such as, but not limited to: non-randomised controlled trials and before-and-after studies. Types of participants: This review included participants who were pre-licensure practitioners in nursing, medicine, and rehabilitation therapy. Types of intervention(s)/phenomena of interest: Studies that evaluated the use of human physical anatomical models with or without computer support, including whole-body or part-body simulators were included. Types of outcome measures, Student outcomes included knowledge acquisition, skill performance, learner satisfaction, critical thinking, self-confidence and role identity. Search strategy, Using a defined search and retrieval method, the following databases were accessed for the period 1995,2006: Medline, CINAHL, Embase, PsycINFO, HealthSTAR, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and ERIC. Methodological quality, Each paper was assessed by two independent reviewers for methodological quality prior to inclusion in the review using the standardised critical appraisal instruments for evidence of effectiveness, developed by the Joanna Briggs Institute. Disagreements were dealt with by consultations with a third reviewer. Data collection, Information was extracted from each paper independently by two reviewers using the standardised data extraction tool from the Joanna Briggs Institute. Disagreements were dealt with by consultation with a third reviewer. Data synthesis, Due to the type of designs and quality of available studies, it was not possible to pool quantitative research study results in statistical meta-analysis. As statistical pooling was not possible, the findings are presented in descriptive narrative form. Results, Twenty-three studies were selected for inclusion in this review including partial task trainers and high-fidelity human patient simulators. The results indicate that there is high learner satisfaction with using simulators to learn clinical skills. The studies demonstrated that human patient simulators which are used for teaching higher level skills, such as airway management, and physiological concepts are useful. While there are short-term gains in knowledge and skill performance, it is evident that performance of skills over time after initial training decline. Conclusion, At best, simulation can be used as an adjunct for clinical practice, not a replacement for everyday practice. Students enjoyed the sessions and using the models purportedly makes learning easier. However, it remains unclear whether the skills learned through a simulation experience transfer into real-world settings. More research is needed to evaluate whether the skills acquired with this teaching methodology transfer to the practice setting such as the impact of simulation training on team function. [source]

From dynamic influence nets to dynamic Bayesian networks: A transformation algorithm

Sajjad Haider
This paper presents an algorithm to transform a dynamic influence net (DIN) into a dynamic Bayesian network (DBN). The transformation aims to bring the best of both probabilistic reasoning paradigms. The advantages of DINs lie in their ability to represent causal and time-varying information in a compact and easy-to-understand manner. They facilitate a system modeler in connecting a set of desired effects and a set of actionable events through a series of dynamically changing cause and effect relationships. The resultant probabilistic model is then used to analyze different courses of action in terms of their effectiveness to achieve the desired effect(s). The major drawback of DINs is their inability to incorporate evidence that arrive during the execution of a course of action (COA). Several belief-updating algorithms, on the other hand, have been developed for DBNs that enable a system modeler to insert evidence in dynamic probabilistic models. Dynamic Bayesian networks, however, suffer from the intractability of knowledge acquisition. The presented transformation algorithm combines the advantages of both DINs and DBNs. It enables a system analyst to capture a complex situation using a DIN and pick the best (or close-to-best) COA that maximizes the likelihood of achieving the desired effect. During the execution, if evidence becomes available, the DIN is converted into an equivalent DBN and beliefs of other nodes in the network are updated. If required, the selected COA can be revised on the basis of the recently received evidence. The presented methodology is applicable in domains requiring strategic level decision making in highly complex situations, such as war games, real-time strategy video games, and business simulation games. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

The role of cross-cultural absorptive capacity in the effectiveness of in-country cross-cultural training

Ibraiz Tarique
Based on the theory of absorptive capacity, this study examines the following question. In the context of cross-cultural training, can the amount of previously accumulated cultural knowledge affect the ability of a trainee to absorb further learning about a new culture, thus enhancing total knowledge and presumably cross-cultural adjustment? In-country cross-cultural training was hypothesized to be more effective when the training components are divided and the sessions are distributed over time , resulting in increased cultural knowledge and greater cross-cultural adjustment. Results from an experimental design suggested that in-country cross-cultural training can increase cultural knowledge, when distributed over time. The results also suggested that the training group had greater differences between pre-training and post-training scores on cross-cultural adjustment, but the differences were not statistically different. The results, methodology and conclusions can be generalized to a variety of populations (e.g. international managers and expatriates) and organizations (e.g. multinationals). For international managers and expatriates, the results showed that in-country cross-cultural training, like predeparture cross-cultural training, is also a viable intervention for knowledge acquisition. [source]

Individual influences on knowledge acquisition in a call center training context in Germany

Jens Rowold
From both a practical and a theoretical point of view, it is important to identify factors that foster knowledge acquisition in organizational training programs. Recent models of training effectiveness have proposed relationships between trainees' characteristics and subsequent learning. The present study tested the impact of trainees' pretraining expectations, post-training reaction to training, expectation fulfillment and commitment on declarative knowledge acquisition, while controlling for education and motivation to learn. Participants were call center agents (N = 84), working in 10 call centers in Germany. Results showed that, in addition to education and motivation to learn, only expectation fulfillment significantly predicted learning. Implications for practice and future research were discussed. [source]

The effects of graphical overviews on knowledge acquisition in hypertext

T. De Jong
Abstract A central aspect of designing hypertext for learning concerns the structure of the information in the hypertext and the view the learner is offered of this structure. In this study, a hypertext environment was enhanced with a graphical overview that represented the basic, inherent, structure of the domain and the layout was designed in such a way that learners were unobtrusively encouraged to follow a sequence of exploration that followed the domain structure. This so-called ,visual' lay-out was compared with two lay-outs that presented randomly positioned nodes. One of these two lay-outs contained hints (using ,highlighting') to stimulate learners to follow a domain related exploration similar to the one incorporated in the visual lay-out. The other (,control') lay-out did not provide such hints. Results showed that participants from both the ,visual' and the ,hints' conditions demonstrated a more domain-related exploration pattern than participants from the ,control' condition. Participants in the ,visual' lay-out did not show a better recall of the content of the nodes as such, but showed a significantly better acquisition of knowledge of structure than participants from the other two conditions. These data indicate that a visual display conveys knowledge in its own right and that knowledge gained does not depend on the exploration route followed in the hypertext material. [source]

Socio-cultural perceptions of sudden infant death syndrome among migrant Indian mothers

Henna Aslam
Aim: To explore socio-cultural influences on migrant mother decisions and beliefs regarding co-sleeping as a risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Methods: Semi-structured interviews with five Indian-born women in a socio-economically disadvantaged suburb in the south-west of Sydney were conducted between September and December 2007. Transcripts were analysed using principles of discourse analysis. Results: Discourse analysis revealed that SIDS-related decisions and beliefs about co-sleeping as a risk factor for SIDS are constructed amid competing discourses of motherhood and child health. Mothers are either actively or unconsciously deciding how they negotiate or resist dominant Western discourses of motherhood and child health to make ,the best' health-related decisions for their children. Participants resisted acknowledging child sleep practices recommended by health practitioners, particularly recommendations to put to sleep the baby in its own cot. This resistance was expressed by constructing messages as ,inapplicable' and ,inappropriate'. Co-sleeping was constructed as a highly valued practice for its physical and social benefits to the child, mother and family by facilitating child security, breastfeeding, bonding and family connectedness. Conclusion: This study illustrates how decisions and behaviour are shaped by socio-cultural influences embedded in discourses and context. It also shows that in-depth investigation through a social constructivist lens is particularly useful for investigating influences on knowledge acquisition, interpretation and implementation among migrant groups. A greater appreciation of the social meanings and ideologies attached to behaviours can help to ensure that the correct messages reach the correct populations, and that child health outcomes can be achieved and maintained both for overseas and Australian-born populations. [source]

Platonic Dialogue, Maieutic Method and Critical Thinking

In this paper I offer a reading of one of Plato's later works, the Sophist, that reveals it to be informed by principles comparable on the face of it with those that have emerged recently in the field of critical thinking. As a development of the famous Socratic method of his teacher, I argue, Plato deployed his own pedagogical method, a ,mid-wifely' or ,maieutic' method, in the Sophist. In contrast to the Socratic method, the sole aim of this method is not to disabuse the reader or learner of her false opinions. Rather, its purpose is to supply her with the skills and dispositions as well as the claims and counter-claims she needs to critically evaluate a view, and so facilitate knowledge acquisition, for herself. But the text does not merely teach critical thinking in this indirect manner. One of the strategies its author employed was to encourage the reader/learner to consider under what conditions a claim or idea would be false. To the extent that it achieves this, the Sophist provides both a model and an application of that particular kind of critical thinking in the learning environment that Jonathan Baron has described as ,active open-mindedness'. [source]

Patients' experience of learning and gaining personal knowledge during a stay at a mental hospital

L. BORGE ba rpn rnt
The focus is on voluntarily hospitalized patients' subjective experiences of learning and gaining personal knowledge during a stay at a mental hospital. The aim was to explore and describe patients' learning as personal knowledge acquisition related to the therapeutic process during hospitalization. The study was exploratory and descriptive, with a hermeneutic , phenomenological approach in data collection and analysis. Qualitative interviews were carried out with 15 patients during and after their stay. A re-analysis was conducted. The results underline the importance of the environmental effects on patients' motivation for learning and self-esteem in an acknowledging milieu. Moving towards relearning presupposes that the patient's motivation is aroused. Patients must participate in the treatment and the validity of the knowledge must be tested in the individual patient's life. The patients confirmed and helped each other to increase insight through recognizing each other's problems and reactions. Time in itself seemed to increase self-reflection. Receiving impulses and getting concrete tools through therapy stimulated meaning and hope for future living. The professionals must use a holistic approach including a learning climate in pleasant surroundings and a conjoint contribution from fellow patients and staff. Further research should focus on how to combine therapy with learning , preferably by means of a co-operative inquiry design. [source]

Early reading in Kannada: the pace of acquisition of orthographic knowledge and phonemic awareness

Sonali Nag
Acquisition of orthographic knowledge and phonemic sensitivity are processes that are central to early reading development in several languages. The language-specific characteristics of the alphasyllabaries (Bright, 1996), however, challenge the constructs of orthographic knowledge and phonemic sensitivity as discussed in the context of alphabetic scripts. This paper reports a study of 5,10-year-olds in Kannada, an alphasyllabary that represents print in units called akshara. It was hypothesised that in Kannada, when compared with the developmental pace reported in English early reading, (a) akshara knowledge acquisition would take longer and (b) phoneme awareness would be slower to emerge. The study found these hypotheses to hold true across grades and in both low-achieving and effective schools. The paper discusses the nature of the cognitive demands in akshara reading and the akshara -specific characteristics that set a pace of acquisition of orthographic knowledge and phonemic sensitivity that is quite at variance from what has been documented in the alphabetic scripts. [source]

Competence in the musculoskeletal system: assessing the progression of knowledge through an undergraduate medical course

Subhashis Basu
Background, Professional bodies have expressed concerns that medical students lack appropriate knowledge in musculoskeletal medicine despite its high prevalence of use within the community. Changes in curriculum and teaching strategies may be contributing factors to this. There is little evidence to evaluate the degree to which these concerns are justified. Objectives, To design and evaluate an assessment procedure that tests the progress of medical students in achieving a core level of knowledge in musculoskeletal medicine during the course. Participants and Setting, A stratified sample of 136 volunteer students from all 5 years of the medical course at Sheffield University. Methods, The progress test concept was adapted to provide a cross-sectional view of student knowledge gain during each year of the course. A test was devised which aimed to provide an assessment of competence set at the standard required of the newly qualified doctor in understanding basic and clinical sciences relevant to musculoskeletal medicine. The test was blueprinted against internal and external guidelines. It comprised 40 multiple-choice and extended matching questions administered by computer. Six musculoskeletal practitioners set the standard using a modified Angoff procedure. Results, Test reliability was 0.6 (Cronbach's ,). Mean scores of students increased from 41% in Year 1 to 84% by the final year. Data suggest that, from a baseline score in Year 1, there is a disparate experience of learning in Year 2 that evens out in Year 3, with knowledge progression becoming more consistent thereafter. All final year participants scored above the standard predicted by the Angoff procedure. Conclusions, This short computer-based test was a feasible method of estimating student knowledge acquisition in musculoskeletal medicine across the undergraduate curriculum. Tested students appear to have acquired a satisfactory knowledge base by the end of the course. Knowledge gain seemed relatively independent of specialty-specific clinical training. Proposals from specialty bodies to include long periods of disciplinary teaching may be unnecessary. [source]

A randomized, controlled, single-blind trial of teaching provided by a computer-based multimedia package versus lecture

Christopher Williams
Background Computer-based teaching may allow effective teaching of important psychiatric knowledge and skills. Aims To investigate the effectiveness and acceptability of computer-based teaching. Method A single-blind, randomized, controlled study of 166 undergraduate medical students at the University of Leeds, involving an educational intervention of either a structured lecture or a computer-based teaching package (both of equal duration). Results There was no difference in knowledge between the groups at baseline or immediately after teaching. Both groups made significant gains in knowledge after teaching. Students who attended the lecture rated their subjective knowledge and skills at a statistically significantly higher level than students who had used the computers. Students who had used the computer package scored higher on an objective measure of assessment skills. Students did not perceive the computer package to be as useful as the traditional lecture format, despite finding it easy to use and recommending its use to other students. Conclusions Medical students rate themselves subjectively as learning less from computer-based as compared with lecture-based teaching. Objective measures suggest equivalence in knowledge acquisition and significantly greater skills acquisition for computer-based teaching. [source]

Problem-based learning: why curricula are likely to show little effect on knowledge and clinical skills

Mark Albanese
Objectives A recent review of problem-based learning's effect on knowledge and clinical skills updated findings reported in 1993. The author argues that effect sizes (ES) seen with PBL have not lived up to expectations (0.8,1.0) and the theoretical basis for PBL, contextual learning theory, is weak. The purposes of this study were to analyse what constitutes reasonable ES in terms of the impacts on individuals and published reports, and to elaborate upon various theories pertaining to PBL. Design Normal theory is used to demonstrate what various ESs would mean for individual change and a large meta-analysis of over 10 000 studies is referred to in identifying typical ESs. Additional theories bearing upon PBL are presented. Results Effect sizes of 0.8,1.0 would require some students to move from the bottom quartile to the top half of the class or more. The average ES reported in the literature was 0.50 and many commonly used and accepted medical procedures and therapies are based upon studies with ESs below 0.50. Conclusions Effect sizes of 0.8,1.0 are an unreasonable expectation from PBL because, firstly, the degree of changes that would be required of individuals would be excessive, secondly, leading up to medical school, students are groomed and selected for success in a traditional curriculum, expecting them to do better in a PBL curriculum than a traditional curriculum is an unreasonable expectation, and, thirdly, the average study reported in the literature and many commonly used and accepted medical procedures and therapies are based upon studies having lesser ESs. Information-processing theory, Cooperative learning, Self-determination theory and Control theory are suggested as providing better theoretical support for PBL than Contextual learning theory. Even if knowledge acquisition and clinical skills are not improved by PBL, the enhanced work environment for students and faculty that has been consistently found with PBL is a worthwhile goal. [source]

Epistemic Presuppositions and their Consequences

METAPHILOSOPHY, Issue 1-2 2003
Juli Eflin
Traditional epistemology has, in the main, presupposed that the primary task is to give a complete account of the concept knowledge and to state under what conditions it is possible to have it. In so doing, most accounts have been hierarchical, and all assume an idealized knower. The assumption of an idealized knower is essential for the traditional goal of generating an unassailable account of knowledge acquisition. Yet we, as individuals, fail to reach the ideal. Perhaps more important, we have epistemic goals not addressed in the traditional approach , among them, the ability to reach understanding in areas we deem important for our lives. Understanding is an epistemic concept. But how we obtain it has not traditionally been a focus. Developing an epistemic account that starts from a set of assumptions that differ from the traditional starting points will allow a different sort of epistemic theory, one on which generating understanding is a central goal and the idealized knower is replaced with an inquirer who is not merely fallible but working from a particular context with particular goals. Insight into how an epistemic account can include the particular concerns of an embedded inquirer can be found by examining the parallels between ethics and epistemology and, in particular, by examining the structure and starting points of virtue accounts. Here I develop several interrelated issues that contrast the goals and evaluative concepts that form the structure of both standard, traditional epistemological and ethical theories and virtue,centered theories. In the end, I sketch a virtue,centered epistemology that accords with who we are and how we gain understanding. [source]

The effects of specific educational preparation on emergency nurses' clinical decisions regarding supplemental oxygen administration

Julie Considine rn, certacutecarensg(emerg), frcna, graddipnsg(acute care)
Abstract, The use of supplemental oxygen by emergency nurses has important implications for patient outcomes, yet there is significant variability in oxygen administration practises. Specific education related to oxygen administration increases factual knowledge in this domain; however, the impact of knowledge acquisition on nurses' clinical decisions is poorly understood. This study aimed to examine the effect of educational preparation on 20 emergency nurses' decisions regarding the assessment of oxygenation and the use of supplemental oxygen. A pre-test/post-test, quasi-experimental design was used. The intervention was a written, self-directed learning package. The major effects of the completion of the learning package included no change in the number or types of parameters used by nurses to assess oxygenation, a significant decrease in the selection of simple masks, a significant increase in the selection of air entrainment masks, fewer hypothetical outcomes of unresolved respiratory distress and more hypothetical outcomes of decreased respiratory distress. As many nursing education programs are aimed at increasing factual knowledge, while experience remains relatively constant, a greater understanding of the relationship between factual knowledge and clinical decisions is needed if educational interventions are to improve patient outcomes. [source]

An investigation of knowledge-building activities in an online community of practice at Subaru of America

Susan M. Land
Current approaches to workplace learning emphasize designing communities of practice that are intended to support both formal and informal knowledge acquisition. This article presents the design and research of a knowledge-based community of practice for Subaru, based on principles outlined by Scardamalia (2002) and Zhang, Scardamalia, Lamon, Messina, and Reeve (2007). The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which participants' interactions in the online community showed evidence of individual and collective knowledge building. We found evidence of knowledge building within online discussions in these areas: interactions around improvement of ideas, connection to workplace knowledge and practices, and building on or adopting the ideas of others. We also found significant gains in scores on an assessment of workplace customer service after participation in the online community of practice. [source]

Civic Knowledge of High School Students in Israel: Personal and Contextual Determinants

Professor Orit Ichilov
Past research on civic education suggests that students' performance is largely influenced by individual socioeconomic background and motivational factors. There has been little attention to the effects of school and classroom ideological and social attributes, such as the socioeconomic make-up of the school or classroom, or how interested in politics are a student's classmates. The results of the present study support the contention that contextual effects play a vital role in determining students' civic knowledge scores. Analysis of Israeli 11th graders' performance on the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) civic knowledge test shows that while individual backgrounds and motivations play a significant role, school and classroom contexts greatly contribute to civic knowledge acquisition. [source]