Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Know

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  • Selected Abstracts


    ADDICTION, Issue 6 2009
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Roger G Evans
    SUMMARY 1.,It is well established that pressure natriuresis plays a key role in long-term blood pressure regulation, but our understanding of the mechanisms underlying this process is incomplete. 2.,Pressure natriuresis is chiefly mediated by inhibition of tubular sodium reabsorption, because both total renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate are efficiently autoregulated. Inhibition of active sodium transport within both the proximal and distal tubules likely makes a contribution. Increased renal interstitial hydrostatic pressure (RIHP) likely inhibits sodium reabsorption by altering passive diffusion through paracellular pathways in ,leaky' tubular elements. 3.,Nitric oxide and products of cytochrome P450-dependent arachidonic acid metabolism are key signalling mechanisms in pressure natriuresis, although their precise roles remain to be determined. 4.,The key unresolved question is, how is increased renal artery pressure ,sensed' by the kidney? One proposal rests on the notion that blood flow in the renal medulla is poorly autoregulated, so that increased renal artery pressure leads to increased renal medullary blood flow (MBF), which, in turn, leads to increased RIHP. An alternative proposal is that the process of autoregulation of renal blood flow leads to increased shear stress in the preglomerular vasculature and, so, release of nitric oxide and perhaps products of cytochrome P450-dependent arachidonic acid metabolism, which, in turn, drive the cascade of events that inhibit sodium reabsorption. 5.,Central to the arguments underlying these opposing hypotheses is the extent to which MBF is autoregulated. This remains highly controversial, largely because of the limitations of presently available methods for measurement of MBF. [source]

    Tony Crosland as I Knew Him

    Anthony Crosland is the outstanding revisionist in the history of the British Labour party and is often said to have been its most influential thinker since the Second World War. His unusual personality is evaluated in relation not only to his political ideas but also to his personal career. [source]

    NCME 2009 Presidential Address: "What I Think I Know"

    Mark D Reckase
    First page of article [source]

    Circuit Breakers with Uncertainty about the Presence of Informed Agents: I Know What You Know , I Think

    by Lucy F. Ackert
    This study conducts experimental asset markets to examine the effects of circuit breaker rules on market behavior when agents are uncertain about the presence of private information. Our results unequivocally indicate that circuit breakers fail to temper unwarranted price movements in periods without private information. Agents appear to mistakenly infer that others possess private information, causing price to move away from fundamental value. Allocative efficiencies in our markets are high across all regimes. Circuit breakers perform no useful function in our experimental asset markets. [source]

    The Effects of Weather and Climate on the Seasonality of Influenza: What We Know and What We Need to Know

    Christopher Fuhrmann
    Influenza is one of the most deadly of all airborne and upper-respiratory infections. On average, 22,000 deaths and over 3 million hospitalizations in USA are attributed to influenza each year. The distinct seasonality of influenza suggests a climate connection, but the wide range of methodologies used to explore this connection makes it difficult to elucidate a definitive relationship. Much of what is known about the effects of weather and climate on the seasonality of influenza stems from research conducted by members of the public health and medical communities, with few contributions from other physical and social science fields. Most of these studies are either based on experiments conducted under controlled laboratory conditions or on the broad-scale patterns of morbidity and mortality and their relationship to large-scale climate signals. What remains largely unknown is the suitability of these results for the development of early warning systems and for determining the dynamics of viral transmission on multiple space and time scales. [source]

    "Therefore, Get Wisdom": What Should the President Know, and How Can He Know It?

    GOVERNANCE, Issue 2 2009
    ANDREW RUDALEVIGEArticle first published online: 26 MAR 200
    The literature on the U.S. presidency offers analysis of how the presidential advice and information support function has been performed. Some studies go further to suggest certain principles for designing the advice- and information-giving process involved in presidential decision making, along with organizational features to implement such principles. A well-established principle, based on comparative case studies, is that presidents should institutionalize distrust. Implementation of this principle usually involves channeling competing options, along with supporting information, to the Oval Office before a president becomes committed to a course of action or policy choice. In designing how the presidential support function is to operate, the advantages and disadvantages of the institutionalized distrust principle should be carefully examined, taking into account circumstantial conditions. This article examines this practical issue from the perspective of a historically oriented presidency scholar, writing during the transition to the Barack Obama administration. [source]

    What Do Employees Know About Their Pension Plan?

    Andrew A. Luchak
    Original survey data based on 529 respondents in a large organization are used to analyze how much employees know about various features of their occupational pension plan. While the level of understanding was quite low among all employees, it was quite high among those for whom the knowledge matters most in terms of their behavioral decision making. Our results show that rather than being optimal labor contracts that workers enter into with full knowledge at the time of employment, pension contracts are more like contingent claims contracts evolving under conditions of uncertainty and incomplete information. [source]

    Personality and Performance at the Beginning of the New Millennium: What Do We Know and Where Do We Go Next?

    Murray R. Barrick
    As we begin the new millennium, it is an appropriate time to examine what we have learned about personality-performance relationships over the past century and to embark on new directions for research. In this study we quantitatively summarize the results of 15 prior meta-analytic studies that have investigated the relationship between the Five Factor Model (FFM) personality traits and job performance. Results support the previous findings that conscientiousness is a valid predictor across performance measures in all occupations studied. Emotional stability was also found to be a generalizable predictor when overall work performance was the criterion, but its relationship to specific performance criteria and occupations was less consistent than was conscientiousness. Though the other three Big Five traits (extraversion, openness and agreeableness) did not predict overall work performance, they did predict success in specific occupations or relate to specific criteria. The studies upon which these results are based comprise most of the research that has been conducted on this topic in the past century. Consequently, we call for a moratorium on meta-analytic studies of the type reviewed in our study and recommend that researchers embark on a new research agenda designed to further our understanding of personality-performance linkages. [source]

    Because People Matter: Studying Global Political Economy

    Ronnie D. Lipschutz
    The 1990s were hard on our traditional theories of International Relations and International Political Economy, and the Millennium has brought the End of Meta-Narrative as We Know It. In this article, I discuss and dissect three of the past decade's meta-narratives, and show how they were no more than failed efforts to shore up the decomposing corpus of mainstream theories. In their stead, I offer a preliminary description of a contextual and contingent approach to thinking about and analyzing global political economy. I place people at the center of my framework, and use the tools of historical materialism, feminist theory, and agency-structure analysis to generate an understanding of the relationship between what I call the "social individual" and global politics and political economy. [source]

    International Organization: What Do We Know and How Do We Pass on Our Knowledge?

    Kent J. Kille
    First page of article [source]

    Older Women and HIV: How Much Do They Know and Where Are They Getting Their Information?

    Susan J. Henderson MD
    Objectives: To assess older urban women's knowledge about sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and to evaluate the relationship between their HIV/AIDS knowledge level and sources of information. Design: Cross-sectional survey conducted between June 2001 and July 2002. Trained research assistants administered a questionnaire in a face-to-face interview. Setting: General medicine clinic in a large public hospital in a high HIV/AIDS incidence area. Participants: Five hundred fourteen women aged 50 and older. Measurements: Nine questions assessing knowledge of risk of HIV sexual transmission with potential scores ranging from 0 to 9 correct answers. Participants identified all sources of HIV information. Results: The mean knowledge score was 3.7 out of a possible 9 correct responses (range 0 (3%) to 8 (1%)). Younger age, employment, and higher educational level were associated with higher knowledge scores, whereas marital status was unrelated. No respondent correctly answered all of the nine questions. The most commonly identified sources of HIV/AIDS information were television (85%), friends (54%), and newspapers (51%). Only 38% of respondents identified health professionals as a source of information about HIV/AIDS. Health professionals, newspapers, and family members were each independently associated with higher knowledge scores (P<.05). Conclusion: Older women in a general medicine clinic had limited knowledge of sexual transmission of HIV. HIV/AIDS education specifically targeted to this subpopulation is warranted, and health professionals may have an important role in disseminating such messages. [source]

    Classroom Assessment: What Teachers Need to Know (Second Edition)

    Allen E. Doolittle
    First page of article [source]

    Inner-City Children's Exposure to Community Violence: How Much Do Parents Know?

    Rosario Ceballo
    This study examines the psychological impact of children's exposure to violence and the influence of mothers' knowledge about their children's encounters with violence. Our sample consists of a poor, multiethnic sample of 104 fourth- or fifth-grade children and their mothers. Children in this sample were exposed to rather high levels of community violence, and on the whole, mothers greatly underestimated their children's exposure to violence and feelings of psychological distress. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that children's exposure to violence was associated with greater psychological distress. Our findings suggest that the detrimental effects of community violence are present for all children, irrespective of their racial background. Further, greater mother-child agreement about children's exposure to violence was related to better psychological functioning. The implications of these results for effective parenting strategies and community-based interventions are discussed. [source]

    Surrogate Alcohol: What Do We Know and Where Do We Go?

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 10 2007
    Dirk W. Lachenmeier
    Background:, Consumption of surrogate alcohols (i.e., nonbeverage alcohols and illegally produced alcohols) was shown to impact on different causes of death, not only poisoning or liver disease, and appears to be a major public health problem in Russia and elsewhere. Methods:, A computer-assisted literature review on chemical composition and health consequences of "surrogate alcohol" was conducted and more than 70 references were identified. A wider definition of the term "surrogate alcohol" was derived, including both nonbeverage alcohols and illegally produced alcohols that contain nonbeverage alcohols. Results:, Surrogate alcohol may contain substances that cause severe health consequences including death. Known toxic constituents include lead, which may lead to chronic toxicity, and methanol, which leads to acute poisoning. On the other hand, the role of higher alcohols (e.g., propanol, isobutanol, and isoamyl alcohol) in the etiology of surrogate-associated diseases is currently unclear. Whether other constituents of surrogates have contributed to the high all-cause mortality over and above the effect of ethanol in recent studies also remains unclear. Conclusions:, Given the high public health importance associated with the consumption of surrogate alcohols, further knowledge on its chemical composition is required as well as research on its links to various disease endpoints should be undertaken with priority. Some interventions to reduce the harm resulting from surrogate alcohol could be undertaken already at this point. For example, the use of methanol or methanol-containing wood alcohol should be abolished in denatured alcohol. Other possible surrogates (e.g., automobile products) should be treated with bittering agents to avoid consumption. [source]

    Inconsistencies Between Actual and Estimated Blood Alcohol Concentrations in a Field Study of College Students: Do Students Really Know How Much They Drink?

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 9 2005
    Courtney L. Kraus
    Background: Alcohol use by college students is commonly measured through the use of surveys. The validity of such data hinge on the assumption that students are aware of how much alcohol they actually consume. Recent studies call this assumption into question. Students tend to overestimate the appropriate sizes of standard drinks, suggesting that they might underestimate how much alcohol they consume. If this is true, then students' actual blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) should be higher than BACs estimated based on self-report data. The present study examined this issue Methods: Breathalyzer readings and self-reported drinking data were collected from 152 college students during the fall of 2004. Estimated BACs were calculated by means of a standard formula, and the relation between actual and estimated BACs was examined. Factors contributing to discrepancies between the two values were identified Results: Estimated BAC levels were significantly higher, not lower, than breath BAC measures. The accuracy of estimated BACs decreased as the number of drinks and amount of time spent drinking increased. Being male and drinking only beer predicted greater accuracy of estimated BACs Conclusions: Although laboratory data suggest that students underestimate how much they drink, the hypothesis was not supported by data collected in the field. It appears that students might actually overestimate rather than underestimate their levels of consumption when surveyed in the midst of a night of drinking. The findings corroborate observations made by other researchers and suggest that the findings of laboratory studies on college drinking do not necessarily extend to real-world settings. [source]

    The Validity of DSM-IV Alcohol Dependence: What Do We Know and What Do We Need to Know?

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 2 2003
    Deborah S. Hasin
    This article presents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2002 RSA Meeting in San Francisco, California. Deborah S. Hasin organized the symposium and co-chaired it with Marc Schuckit. The purpose of the symposium was to provide an overview of what is known about the validity of DSM-IV and ICD-10 alcohol dependence and abuse, with a focus on work done since 1994. Presentations included: (1) Validity of DSM-III-R alcohol dependence in adolescents, by Christopher S. Martin; (2) Reliability and validity of DSM and ICD formulations of alcohol use disorders: findings from epidemiology, by Bridget F. Grant; (3) Validity and reliability of the alcohol-dependence phenotype in the context of genetic studies, by Kathleen K. Bucholz; and (4) DSM-IV and beyond: uniting the clinical utility of categories with the precision of dimensions, by John E. Helzer. The findings supported the validity of DSM-IV alcohol dependence across numerous study designs and samples, suggested some value in a dimensional dependence measure, and raised questions about the validity of the diagnosis of alcohol abuse as currently defined. Marc Schuckit, as discussant for the symposium, placed the issues in perspective for the upcoming DSM-V. [source]

    Companion Animal Medicine in the Age of Medical Genetics

    Donald F. Patterson
    We'd like to explain what pathology means, In terms of what's wrong with the structure of genes; Know if a control or a structural locus Constitutes the exact pathological focus. With the help of the enzymes that slice DNA, And cloning techniques, we now have a way To study the actual sequence of bases; To know when those purines are not in their places.1 [source]

    What Do Juvenile Offenders Know About Being Tried as Adults?

    Implications for Deterrence
    ABSTRACT An underlying assumption in the nationwide policy shift toward transferring more juveniles to criminal court has been the belief that stricter, adult sentences will act as either a specific or general deterrent to juvenile crime. With respect to general deterrence,whether transfer laws deter would-be offenders from committing crimes,it is important to examine whether juveniles know about transfer laws, whether this knowledge deters criminal behavior, and whether juveniles believe the laws will be enforced against them. The current study is one of the first to examine juveniles' knowledge and perceptions of transfer laws and criminal sanctions. We interviewed 37 juveniles who had been transferred to criminal court in Georgia, obtaining quantitative as well as qualitative data based on structured interviewed questions. Four key findings emerged. First, juveniles were unaware of the transfer law. Second, juveniles felt that awareness of the law may have deterred them from committing the crime or may deter other juveniles from committing crimes, and they suggested practical ways to enhance juveniles' awareness of transfer laws. Third, the juveniles generally felt that it was unfair to try and sentence them as adults. Finally, the consequences of committing their crime were worse than most had imagined, and the harsh consequences of their incarceration in adult facilities may have had a brutalizing effect on some juveniles. The implications for general and specific deterrence are discussed. [source]

    Reading Comprehension in Adolescents with LD: What We Know; What We Need to Learn

    Michael N. Faggella-Luby
    The changing job market requires a sophisticated array of literacy skills that adolescents with learning disabilities reading below grade level have not yet acquired. This summary of the research on reading comprehension highlights emerging findings and related instructional conditions necessary to achieve optimal student outcomes with limited instructional time. Limitations in the existing evidence base are addressed via four factors for future research and development agendas: (a) use theory to inform research and practice, (b) study the role that dosage plays as an independent variable, (c) study tiered models of instruction that are applicable for use in middle and high school settings, and (d) study factors that can enhance scaling of reading comprehension interventions. [source]

    Shipboard Maintenance: What Do Surface Warfare Officers Need to Know,and When Do They Need to Know It?

    As the Navy has moved into the 21st century and the War on Terror has unfolded, the challenges to ship maintenance management have never been greater. These challenges include: a continuing high operating tempo compounded by less predictable schedules and coupled with fewer, shorter scheduled opportunities to conduct maintenance; a fleet of fewer albeit more capable,and therefore more complex,ships; a trend toward smaller, perhaps less stable crews to operate and maintain the ships; and continuing competition for the available budget dollars between operations and maintenance, as well as between current and future readiness concerns. In an era of "operations focused maintenance," what is the role of the Surface Warfare Officer (SWO) in managing their shipboard maintenance? What do they need to know, and when do they need to know it? This paper addresses these questions and related issues and offers, where applicable, some near-term and long-term recommendations for improvement. [source]

    What Parents of Near-Term Infants Need to Know

    Article first published online: 9 MAR 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    The Knowledge About Risk for Breast Cancer: The Patients' Right to Know

    THE BREAST JOURNAL, Issue 3 2008
    Shahla Masood MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Children and Sports: What Parents Need to Know

    Article first published online: 5 JAN 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Eating Disorders in Children: What Parents Need to Know

    Article first published online: 18 AUG 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Patient Confidentiality and the Surrogate's Right to Know

    Lynn A. Jansen
    First page of article [source]

    The Relative Importance of Interfirm Relationships and Knowledge Transfer for New Product Development Success,

    Mette Praest Knudsen
    The relationship and network literature has primarily focused on particular partner types, for example, buyer,supplier relationships or competitor interaction. This article explores the nature and relative importance of different types of interfirm relationships for new product development (NPD) success. The underlying premise of the study is that not only the type of interfirm relationships but also the combination of relationships are important for NPD performance. The interaction with a specific type of partner is expected to influence innovative performance by means of appropriate knowledge transfer. Varying needs for external knowledge, and thus types of relationships, are observed depending on the particular stages in the NPD process, the character of the knowledge base of the firm, and the industrial conditions. The absorption of external knowledge is discussed using the degree of redundancy in knowledge, which is defined as the degree of overlap in the knowledge base of the sender and the recipient of knowledge. Hence, the degree of redundancy has direct implications for the ease and, hence, use of knowledge shared with an external partner. The article is based on data from the Know for Innovation survey on innovative activities among European firms, which was carried out in 2000 in seven European countries covering five industries. The article explores the extent of use of external relationships in collaborative product development and finds that customers are involved more frequently in joint development efforts. Second, the industry association of the most important relationship is studied, and the results show that firms tend to partner with firms from their own industry. The danger in this approach is that firms from their own industry tend to contribute similar knowledge, which ultimately may endanger the creation of new knowledge and therefore more radical product developments. The analyses combine the finding that relationships with customers are used most frequently at both early and late stages of the product development process, with a second and more contradictory finding that at the same time customer relationships have a negative impact on innovative success. Moreover, the combination of customers, with both universities and competitors, has a significant negative effect on innovative performance. The potential causes of this apparent paradox can be narrowed down to two: (1) the average customer may be unable to articulate needs for advanced technology-based products; and (2) the average customer may be unable to conceptualize ideas beyond the realm of his or her own experience. Based on this evidence the article cautions product development managers to think explicitly about what certain customers can contribute with and, more importantly, to match this contribution directly with their own sense of what direction product development should go in the future. Finally, the role of complementary as well as supplementary knowledge is investigated for innovative success finding that sharing of supplementary knowledge with external partners in NPD leads to a positive effect on innovative performance. The article is concluded by a discussion of the implication of this finding for building knowledge within the firm and for selecting external partners for NPD. [source]

    How Much Do Rural Hispanics Know About the Adverse Health Risks of Smoking?

    Tania Butkovic B.S.
    ABSTRACT: The object of this study was to measure knowledge in a rural Hispanic community about the adverse health effects of smoking and to compare knowledge between current smokers and nonsmokers. A survey was administered to waiting room patients (n=137) over 16 years old at three predominantly Hispanic rural community health centers in the central San Joaquin Valley of California. Proportions of respondents who believed that smoking caused a specific consequence were calculated and compared between smokers and nonsmokers by chi-square tests. Likelihood of attributing negative health consequences to smoking was determined and compared between smokers and nonsmokers. A majority of all participants (smokers and nonsmokers) knew that smoking causes lung cancer (93 percent) and emphysema (91 percent). Many fewer participants knew that smoking contributes to problems such as osteoporosis (39 percent) or sexual dysfunction (33 percent). Current smokers were less likely than nonsmokers (P=0.01) to say that smoking causes any adverse health outcome, including those not known to be related to smoking. Although this is a culturally, ethnically and geographically unique group, knowledge of smoking risks among smoking and nonsmoking rural Hispanics is similar to that found in the general population. When compared with nonsmokers, current smokers underestimate the risk that smoking poses to health. [source]

    Patients Responding to Phosphodiesterase Type 5 Inhibitor Therapy,What Do Their Sexual Partners Know?

    Theodor Klotz MD
    ABSTRACT Introduction., Phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors are an efficacious therapy in men with erectile dysfunction (ED). There are only a few studies that also focus on the participating couples during PDE5 inhibitor therapy. Aim., To determine to what extent patients personally informed their sexual partners about their ongoing PDE5 inhibitor therapy. Main Outcome Measures., Likelihood of informing the female partner by the patient himself about the use of PDE5 inhibitors. Methods., A total of 216 men (mean age 62.3 years) with ED were successfully treated with PDE5 inhibitors in three independent centers. After an interval of at least 3 months of successful ED therapy, all patients were asked by questionnaire whether their sexual partners were informed of their PDE5 inhibitor therapy. Results., Eighty-two percent of the patients were exclusively involved in one stable sexual relationship, 9.7% of the men admitted to having changing sexual partners, and 6% did not give any information at all about their sexual partners. Twenty percent of the men had a severe ED (International Index of Erectile Function [IIEF-5] <11). Forty-nine percent showed a moderate ED (IIEF-5 11,16) and 31% suffered a mild ED (IIEF-5 >16). PDE5 inhibitor medication was used 1.2 times/month by men with a severe ED, 2.1 times/month by patients with a moderate ED, and 2.9 times/month by men with a mild ED. Forty-one (93%) of the 44 patients with a severe ED informed their sexual partners that they were taking PDE5 inhibitors. In the patient group with moderate ED, 49 (47%) of 105 patients and only 14 (21%) of 67 of the patients with mild ED shared this information with their partners. Conclusion., Less than 40% of the patients suffering a moderate or mild ED using PDE5 inhibitors shared this information with their partners. It seems that patients find ED so disturbing that many patients do not inform their partners of PDE5 inhibitor use. Klotz T, Mathers M, Klotz R, and Sommer F. Patients responding to phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor therapy,What do their sexual partners know? J Sex Med 2007;4:162,165. [source]

    Better the Devil You Know: Response to Professor Ponticelli and Colleagues

    L. G. Hidalgo
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]