Distribution by Scientific Domains

Terms modified by Kitchen

  • kitchen waste

  • Selected Abstracts

    Get Back into that Kitchen, Woman: Management Conferences and the Making of the Female Professional Worker

    Jackie Ford
    Conferences are a little studied aspect of working lives. In this article we explore how management conferences contribute to the continuing imbalance of power between men and women in management. We analyse data gathered from a reflexive ethnographic study of a management conference. We show that women arrive at conferences as knowing subjects, able easily to occupy the subject position of conference participant, but they are then subjected to processes of infantilization and seduction. They are made to feel scared and are given the order, as were their mothers and grandmothers: get back to the kitchen. We avoid using a theoretical explanation for these findings, preferring to offer them without much explanation, for we favour instead a political approach, and we use the findings as a way of making a call to arms to change the ways in which conferences are hostile to women. [source]

    A History of Modern Germany 1800,2000 By Martin Kitchen

    HISTORY, Issue 307 2007
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Mendel in the Kitchen: A Scientist's View of Genetically Modified Foods

    Ioannis S Arvanitoyannis
    First page of article [source]

    The Book of Steps: The Syriac Liber Graduum , Robert A. Kitchen and Martien F. G

    Jeanne-Nicole Saint-Laurent
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Isabella Beeton: Management Lessons from the Kitchen

    Robin Wensley
    First page of article [source]

    Plundered Kitchens, Empty Wombs: Threatened Reproduction and Identity in the Cameroon Grassfields

    Elisha Renne
    Plundered Kitchens, Empty Wombs: Threatened Reproduction and Identity in the Cameroon Grassfields. Pamela Feldman-Savelsberg. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1999. ix. 257 pp., illustrations, photographs, notes, glossary, references, index. [source]

    Enterobacter sakazakii infection in the newborn

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 3 2001
    B Bar-Oz
    Enterobacter sakazakii, a Gram-negative bacillus, previously known as "yellow pigmented Enterobacter cloacae," is a rare cause of neonatal infection. We describe the detailed clinical presentation of two cases in whom E. sakazakii was isolated in our neonatal service during the course of 1 mo. These include one case of sepsis and meningitis complicated by cerebral infarction, and one case of sepsis. In addition, three cases of intestinal colonization were identified. The source of the organism was thoroughly sought and was found to be a blender in the milk kitchen that was used for preparation of the reconstituted powdered milk formula. Conclusion: Our paper adds clinical and laboratory information about the disease spectrum caused by this relatively rare organism and emphasizes the importance of a thorough search for the source of the infection. [source]

    Get Back into that Kitchen, Woman: Management Conferences and the Making of the Female Professional Worker

    Jackie Ford
    Conferences are a little studied aspect of working lives. In this article we explore how management conferences contribute to the continuing imbalance of power between men and women in management. We analyse data gathered from a reflexive ethnographic study of a management conference. We show that women arrive at conferences as knowing subjects, able easily to occupy the subject position of conference participant, but they are then subjected to processes of infantilization and seduction. They are made to feel scared and are given the order, as were their mothers and grandmothers: get back to the kitchen. We avoid using a theoretical explanation for these findings, preferring to offer them without much explanation, for we favour instead a political approach, and we use the findings as a way of making a call to arms to change the ways in which conferences are hostile to women. [source]

    Consumers' perceptions and awareness of food safety practices in Barbados and Trinidad, West Indies , a pilot study

    Ranate Odwin
    Abstract The objectives of this pilot study were to determine perception and awareness of food safety practices of consumers in Trinidad and Barbados. A structured questionnaire was self-administered to 148 respondents. Data were analysed by descriptive and chi-square analysis. Most (92%) consumers rated having safe food practices as ,very important'. Only 25.7% heard of the acronym ,HACCP' (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point), associated the HACCP approach to safe food preparation (25.7%) and reported it recommendatory in homes (19.6%). More than one-third (45.6%) felt that up to 20% of food poisoning was associated to the home. Over the last 12 months, 18.2% of consumers and/or family members had experienced food-borne illness, but no one associated it to the home. More (P < 0.01) consumers in Trinidad than in Barbados were aware of the HACCP, experienced food-borne illness and allowed pets in the kitchen. This study identified many gaps in proper food safety practices in the homes. [source]

    Cross-contamination in the kitchen: effect of hygiene measures

    A.E.I. De Jong
    Abstract Aims:, To determine the effect of hygiene measures on cross-contamination of Campylobacter jejuni at home and to select a safe tracer organism for C. jejuni. Methods and Results: Comparative tests were conducted with nonpathogenic Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus casei and L. casei was chosen as the safe tracer organism. Salads containing chicken breast fillet contaminated with a known number of C. jejuni and L. casei were prepared according to different cross-contamination scenarios and contamination levels of salads were determined. Cross-contamination could be strongly reduced when cleaning cutting board and cutlery with hot water (68°C), but generally was not prevented using consumer-style cleaning methods for hands and cutting board. Conclusions:, Dish-washing does not sufficiently prevent cross-contamination, thus different cutting boards for raw meat and other ingredients should be used and meat,hand contact should be avoided or hands should be thoroughly cleaned with soap. Lactobacillus casei can be used as a safe tracer organism for C. jejuni in consumer observational studies. Significance and Impact of the Study:, Cross-contamination plays an important role in the transmission of food-borne illness, especially for C. jejuni. This study delivers suitable data to quantitatively assess the risk of campylobacteriosis caused by cross-contamination and it shows the effect of different preventive hygiene measures. [source]

    Achieving hygiene in the domestic kitchen: the effectiveness of commonly used cleaning procedures

    T.A. Cogan
    Aims:,To quantify the transmission of Salmonella and Campylobacter to hands, cloths, and hand- and food-contact surfaces during the preparation of raw poultry in domestic kitchens, and to examine the impact on numbers of these bacteria of detergent-based cleaning alone, or in conjunction with thorough rising. Methods and Results:,Groups of volunteers prepared chickens for cooking. Surfaces were sampled either before cleaning or after cleaning using water and detergent with or without thorough rinsing. Although cleaning followed by rinsing consistently achieved decontamination of surfaces contaminated with Campylobacter, significant numbers of surfaces were still contaminated with low numbers of Salmonella. Where cloths contaminated with Salmonella were stored overnight, a reduction in the efficacy of detergent-based cleaning regimes was observed. Conclusions:,Rinsing is the critical step in ensuring that bacteria are removed from surfaces during cleaning, but this may still leave residual contamination. Growth of Salmonella occurs in some contaminated cloths during overnight storage; Salmonella on cloths stored overnight are also more difficult to remove by washing. Significance and Impact of the Study:,Rinsing, as part of the cleaning process, is a critical step in achieving hygiene in the kitchen. However, to achieve completely hygienic surfaces, the use of an antimicrobial agent may be necessary. [source]


    JOURNAL OF FOOD SAFETY, Issue 2 2010
    ABSTRACT The study, which analyzed knowledge levels of the staff who work in food and beverage departments of hotels in Turkey about food safety, was carried out in December 2007,March 2008. Researchers applied face to face survey to 522 employees of seven hotels. The difference has been found meaningful statistically between kitchen and kitchenware hygiene, employee hygiene, food hygiene and general hygiene knowledge points and their education status and occupations in the result of the study (P < 0.05). On the other hand, a meaningful relationship has not been found statistically between food safety knowledge levels of the staff and their age ranges (P > 0.05). First, it is required to pay attention to the determining of the training needs of employees working for the enterprise, and to make a point of applying necessary training and seminars concerning the staff in each degree by making a training program. It has been determined that training, occupation and experience of the staff are so important in order to provide food safety in enterprises. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Each year, millions of people worldwide suffer from foodborne diseases and illnesses. Therefore, food-related infection is an important health problem in many countries. This study analyzed the knowledge levels of employees who work in the food and beverage departments. It has been found that there is a need to develop a state policy regarding education to be given to consumers and employees about food safety knowledge and practices. Education should be repeated with specific intervals to ensure that learnt information is turned into attitudes and behaviors; and procedures and processes should be controlled regularly. [source]

    Residential Design Implications of Consumers' Recycling Behaviors

    Sharon Macy M.A.
    ABSTRACT Each year landfills receive a growing amount of waste that could be eliminated by recycling practices supported through the design of kitchens. This study had three objectives: (a) to examine residential design implications for incorporating recycling within the home, (b) to examine consumer's feelings of environmental altruism and their behaviors toward recycling within the context of situational conditions within the home, and (c) to examine consumer's views regarding the convenience of their home's recycling facilities. The primary research instrument was a survey of consumer behaviors and attitudes toward recycling. Certified Kitchen Designers provided client names for whom they had designed a kitchen as part of a remodel or new home construction within the last five years. Questionnaires were mailed to 271 households with a 58.2% response rate achieved. Five areas of information were addressed in the survey: sociode-mographics, behaviors and situational design factors, altruistic values, perceived inconvenience, and economic factors. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for analysis with Chi-square tests used to examine relationships between variables. Results support including an area for recycling in the kitchen or a space that is directly adjacent such as an attached garage; convenience was found to be a primary factor in the recycling behaviors of highly altruistic individuals. It is important to design an environment that supports recycling. Whether recycling is convenient or not will have an influence on an individual's recycling behaviors. With environments that support recycling behaviors, consumers will increase their quantity and accuracy in recycling, which in turn could lead to an increase in attitudes toward other pro-environmental actions. [source]


    S. D. Killops
    A study of the molecular composition of oil inclusions in the Maui field, Taranaki Basin, New Zealand, reveals compositional variation in oil during the filling history of the Paleocene reservoir. The homogenization temperatures of aqueous inclusions in quartz suggest that oil in genetically associated inclusions first reached the proto-Maui structure about 7.0,7.5 Ma ago, and that an effective trap was present at the Paleocene F-sands level, given the abundant oil inclusions. This date coincides with what is believed to represent the early stages of structural development of the trap. The Maui or Pihama sub-basin appears the most likely kitchen for this early charge. The quartz-included oil exhibits a biomarker distribution with a slightly more marine-influenced signature than an oil stain from the same core plug, oil included in authigenic feldspar, and oil-production samples from the overlying Eocene D sands as well as the F sands. The greater similarity of the feldspar-included oil to the production oils together with its possibly slightly lower maturity suggest that the feldspar inclusions formed later than the quartz inclusions. Otherwise, all oil samples examined (inclusion oil, oil / bitumen in sandstones and producible oil) are of similar maturity. [source]


    H. Hugh Wilson
    The majority of petroleum geologists today agree that the complex problems that surround the origin, generation, migration and accumulation of hydrocarbons can be resolved by accepting the geochemical conclusion that the process originates by catagenic generation in deeply-buried organically-rich source rocks. These limited source rock intervals are believed to expel hydrocarbons when they reach organic maturity in oil kitchens. The expelled oil and gas then follow migration pathways to traps at shallower levels. However, there are major geological obstacles that cast doubt upon this interpretation. The restriction of the source rock to a few organically rich levels in a basin forces the conclusion that the basin plumbing system is leaky and allows secondary horizontal and vertical migration through great thicknesses of consolidated sedimentary rocks in which there are numerous permeability barriers that are known to effectively prevent hydrocarbon escape from traps. The sourcing of lenticular traps points to the enclosing impermeable envelope as the logical origin of the trapped hydrocarbons. The lynch-pin of the catagenic theory of hydrocarbon origin is the expulsion mechanism from deeply-buried consolidated source rock under high confining pressures. This mechanism is not understood and is termed an "enigma". Assuming that expulsion does occur, the pathways taken by the hydrocarbons to waiting traps can be ascertained by computer modelling of the basin. However, subsurface and field geological support for purported migration pathways has yet to be provided. Many oilfield studies have shown that oil and gas are preferentially trapped in synchronous highs that were formed during, or very shortly after, the deposition of the charged reservoir. An unresolved problem is how catagenically generated hydrocarbons, expelled during a long-drawn-out maturation period, can have filled synchronous highs but have avoided later traps along the assumed migration pathways. From many oilfield studies, it has also been shown that the presence of hydrocarbons inhibits diagenesis and compaction of the reservoir rock. This "Füchtbauer effect" points to not only the early charging of clastic and carbonate reservoirs, but also to the development of permeability barriers below the early-formed accumulations. These barriers would prevent later hydrocarbon additions during the supposed extended period of expulsion from an oil kitchen. Early-formed traps that have been sealed diagenetically will retain their charge even if the trap is opened by later structural tilting. Diagenetic traps have been discovered in clastic and carbonate provinces but their recognition as viable exploration targets is discouraged by present-day assumptions of late hydrocarbon generation and a leaky basin plumbing system. Because there are so many geological realities that cast doubt upon the assumptions that devolve from the paradigm of catagenic generation, the alternative concept of early biogenic generation and accumulation of immature oil, with in-reservoir cracking during burial, is again worthy of serious consideration. This concept envisages hydrocarbon generation by bacterial activity in many anoxic environments and the charging of synchronous highs from adjacent sources. The resolution of the fundamental problem of hydrocarbon generation and accumulation, which is critical to exploration strategies, should be sought in the light of a thorough knowledge of the geologic factors involved, rather than by computer modelling which may be guided by questionable geochemical assumptions. [source]

    "Jehovah Will Provide": Lillian Gobitas and Freedom of Religion

    James F. Van Orden
    In 1935, twelve-year-old Lillian Gobitas and her siblings heard the words of Joseph Rutherford, the head of the Jehovah's Witness group the Watchtower Society, on the radio in their kitchen. He implored Witnesses to refuse to salute the American flag since it amounted to the worship of a false idol, which violated the law of God as set forth in the Bible.1 Rutherford made reference to the courage of Witnesses in Germany who refused to salute Hitler in the face of the unbelievable oppressions of the Nazi regime and similarly called for American Witnesses to refuse to salute the flag. It was a message that struck a chord with Lillian Gobitas. [source]

    Occurrence of faecal contamination in households along the US,Mexico border

    L. Carrasco
    Abstract Aims:, The study aim was to determine the presence of total and faecal coliforms on kitchen surfaces, in tap water and on the hands of caregivers in households on both sides of the US,Mexico border. Methods and Results:, Samples were collected in 135 randomly selected households in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, and El Paso, Texas. Different surfaces throughout the kitchen and head of households' hands were sampled using sterile cotton swabs moistened in D/E neutralizing solution. Sponge/dishcloth and drinking water samples were also obtained. Total and faecal coliforms were enumerated on m-Endo LES and mFC respectively. Total coliforms and Escherichia coli in drinking water samples were enumerated in accordance with the Quanti-TrayTM method. Sponge/dishcloth samples were the most commonly contaminated kitchen sites, followed by countertops and cutting boards. We recovered faecal coliforms from 14% of the hands of child caregivers, and this indicator was moderately associated with self-reported failure to wash hands after using the toilet (OR = 3·2; 95% CI: 0·9, 11·1). Conclusions:, Hand washing should continue to be emphasized, and additional interventions should be directed to specific kitchen areas, such as sponges/dishcloths, tables/countertops and cutting boards. Significance and Impact of the Study:, There is a need for additional interventions regarding kitchen sanitation. [source]

    Gas cooking, kitchen ventilation, and asthma, allergic symptoms and sensitization in young children , the PIAMA study

    ALLERGY, Issue 5 2006
    S. M. Willers
    Background:, Several studies reported inconsistent associations between using gas for cooking and respiratory symptoms or lung function in children. Kitchen ventilation characteristics may modify the relationship between gas cooking and respiratory health. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of kitchen ventilation (while cooking) on the relationship between gas cooking, combustion product dispersal, and respiratory and allergic outcomes in children. Methods:, Data on respiratory and allergic symptoms and diagnoses were collected by yearly questionnaires in a population of over 3000 children participating in a birth cohort study on development of allergy and asthma. At 4 years of age, a sub-sample of 647 children provided blood samples for antibody testing. Data on gas cooking and kitchen ventilation were collected when the children were 5 years old. Based on these data a model was constructed to determine the chance of accumulation of combustion products (CACP) in the kitchen. Results:, No relationship was found between gas cooking and any of the respiratory or allergy outcomes except nasal symptoms. The overall results did not change when the ,CACP' was used as exposure variable instead, while the association for nasal symptoms decreased to borderline significance. Conclusion:, Our results suggest that gas cooking per se is associated with nasal symptoms in young children and not with the other respiratory symptoms that were investigated. Taking kitchen ventilation characteristics into account did not lead to different conclusions in this population where, according to the classification system, the majority of households using gas for cooking have insufficient kitchen ventilation. [source]

    A pilot study of the activity patterns of five elderly persons after a housing adaptation

    Bernt Niva
    Abstract The importance of an accessible home environment for occupational performance has been emphasized in occupational therapy, but knowledge about how accessibility can affect a person's activity patterns is limited. The purpose of this study was to describe the activity patterns of five elderly persons aged between 70 and 84 years and their views about accessibility and usability of their homes before and after a housing adaptation. Two different questionnaires, ,Accessibility in My Home' and the ,Occupational Questionnaire' were used for data collection. Adaptations in the home included: removing thresholds, installing new taps in the bathroom and kitchen and broadening doorways. After the adaptations the five participants reported that they increased their outside activities, reduced naps during the day and slept better at night. The results showed that the participants performed more and new activities when their home environment had become accessible. Activities performed were also perceived as more important after the housing adaptation. There is a need to replicate the study with a larger sample. Further research is needed on the impact of home adaptations on the activity patterns of elderly people. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons. Ltd [source]

    Quality of light and quality of life , the effect of lighting adaptation among people with low vision

    Gunilla Brunnström
    Abstract Purpose:, The study has investigated the effect of lighting on the daily activities (ADL) of the visually impaired in their homes by comparison before and after light adjustments were made in the kitchen, hall and bathroom. It has also investigated the additional effects on the quality of life after providing task lighting in the living room. Method:, A total of 56 people were consecutively recruited from those receiving lighting adaptation help by the Low Vision Clinic in Göteborg. Ten persons did not complete the study. After medical examinations, lighting standards and psychosocial factors were charted. After lighting improvements were carried out in the kitchen, hall and bathroom, the subjects were randomly divided into two groups, an intervention and a comparison group. The task lighting in the living room was also improved for those included in the intervention group. Follow-up interviews to determine ADL and quality of life were performed 6 months after lighting adaptation. Results:, A marked effect on quality of life of the lighting in the living room was found for the intervention group. The effect on ADL of the basic lighting adaptation in kitchen, hall and bathroom for both groups was significant for tasks carried out on the working surface in the kitchen. Other activities in the kitchen and in the bathroom tended to improve but changes were not significant. Conclusion:, The results confirm that it is possible to increase quality of life by improving the lighting conditions. [source]

    The prevalence of mouse allergen in inner-city homes

    Iwona Stelmach
    Mouse allergen has not been studied in detail in the general population. It is common for patients from inner-city environments to report significant mouse infestation in their homes and neighborhoods. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of mouse allergen in the homes of inner-city children with asthma in relation to the demographic features of these children and their specific housing characteristics. Seventy-eight dust samples from 39 inner-city homes of Lodz, Poland, were analyzed for mouse allergen. Skin-prick tests (SPTs) to mouse allergen were performed in all patients. In addition, data regarding the demographics and housing of the subjects were related to the mouse allergen levels. Mouse allergen was detected in 22 of 78 dust samples (28%), and in 18 of 39 homes (46%), including 13 kitchen (33%) and nine bedroom (23%) samples. Mouse allergen levels did not correlate between different rooms in the same home. The levels detected ranged from 0.09 to 2.34 µg/g of dust. The highest levels were found in kitchens, with median levels of 0.2 µg/g, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.12,0.85 (range: 0.1,2.34 µg/g); in bedrooms the mean levels were 0.23 µg/g, 95% CI: 0.1,0.97 (range: 0.09,1.62 µg/g). Eleven of 18 children with detectable mouse allergen in house dust, and three of 21 without detectable mouse allergen in house dust, had a positive SPT to mouse allergen. On home inspection, 18% of the homes had evidence of mice in one or two rooms and had higher levels of mouse allergen (p < 0.01). None of the other subject or housing variables evaluated were associated with higher mouse allergen levels. In Polish children, mouse allergen is an important factor of sensitivity and should be recognized in the diagnosis of allergic diseases as well as in allergen-reduction programmes. [source]

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the absence of chronic bronchitis in China

    RESPIROLOGY, Issue 7 2010
    Ming LU
    ABSTRACT Background and objective: COPD has a variable natural history and not all individuals follow the same course. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of COPD in the absence of chronic bronchitis (CB) based on a population survey in China, and to identify the determinants of CB in patients with COPD. Methods: A multi-stage cluster sampling strategy was used to survey a population from seven different provinces/cities of China. All residents over 40 years of age were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire and spirometry was measured. A post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC < 70% was defined as the diagnostic criterion for COPD. All COPD patients who were screened were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of CB. Results: Of the population of 20 245 that was surveyed, 70% of the 1668 patients who were diagnosed with COPD reported no history of CB. The ages, BMI and comorbidities of COPD patients with or without CB were similar. Male gender, residence in a rural area, having a lower level of education, exposure to tobacco smoke or biomass fuels, poor ventilation in the kitchen and a family history of respiratory disease were all associated with a higher risk of COPD with CB. Patients without CB had less difficulty in walking and higher FEV1/FVC values than patients with CB, but were more likely to be underdiagnosed. The strongest predictors of CB were male gender, current smoking and severity of dyspnoea. Conclusions: This survey confirmed that there is a high prevalence of COPD in the absence of CB in China. It appears that CB is not essential to the diagnosis of COPD. [source]

    The influence of schematic knowledge on contradictory versus additive misinformation: false memory for typical and atypical items

    Robert J. Nemeth
    In the current study, we examined the influence of schema consistency on contradictory and additive misinformation. Sixty-four participants were shown a series of still photographs of common scenes (e.g., a kitchen), were later exposed to narratives containing misinformation, and were then tested on their memory of the photographic scenes. In addition, participants were asked to reflect on their phenomenological experience of remembering by giving remember/know responses. Participants reported greater false memory for schema-inconsistent items than schema-consistent items. The findings failed to replicate Roediger, Meade, and Bergman (2001). Explanations for the discrepant findings are discussed. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    An Inexpensive, Easily Constructed, Reusable Task Trainer for Simulating Ultrasound-Guided Pericardiocentesis

    Daniel Girzadas
    Pericardiocentesis is a low frequency, high-risk procedure integral to the practice of emergency medicine.1, 2 Ultrasound-guided pericardiocentesis is the preferred technique for providing this critical care.3 Traditionally, emergency physicians learned pericardiocentesis real time, at the beside, on critically ill patients. Medical education is moving toward simulation for training and assessment of procedures such as pericardiocentesis, because it allows learners to practice time-sensitive skills without risk to patient or learner.4 There are mannequin-based simulators capable of supporting landmark-guided pericardiocentesis, but they are expensive. No commercially available simulation models enable physicians to practice pericardiocentesis under ultrasound guidance. We have developed an ultrasound-guided pericardiocentesis task trainer that allows the physician to insert a needle under ultrasound guidance, pierce the "pericardial sac" and aspirate "blood". Our model can be simply constructed in a home kitchen and the overall preparation time is one hour. Our model costs $20.00 (US, 2008). Materials needed for the construction include 12 ounces of plain gelatin, one large balloon, one golf ball, food coloring, non-stick cooking spray, one wooden cooking skewer, BetadineÔ, and a 3-quart sized Tupperware container. Refrigeration and a heat source for cooking are also required. Once prepared, the model is usable for two weeks at room temperature and may be preserved an additional week if refrigerated. When the model shows signs of wear, it can be easily remade, by simply recycling the existing materials. 1. Ann Emerg Med. 2001, 37:745,770. 2. Acad Emerg Med. 2008, 15:1046,1057. 3. Crit Care Med. 2007, 35:S290,304. 4. Ann Emerg Med. 2008, 15:1117,1129. [source]

    Teaching a simple meal preparation skill to adults with moderate and severe mental retardation using video modeling

    Ruth Anne Rehfeldt
    We evaluated whether adults with mental retardation in the moderate or severe range would acquire simple meal preparation skills via video modeling. Training was conducted in the kitchen of the participants' day treatment setting. The intervention consisted of (i) watching a video of an adult with a developmental disability making a peanut butter and jelly sandwich and (ii) receiving verbal praise for each step of the task that was performed correctly. All three participants mastered the task and demonstrated generalization across settings. All three participants also demonstrated maintenance of the skill one month following mastery. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The effect of fever, febrile illnesses, and heat exposures on the risk of neural tube defects in a Texas-Mexico border population

    Lucina Suarez
    Abstract BACKGROUND Hyperthermia produces neural tube defects (NTDs) in a variety of animal species. Elevated maternal body temperatures may also place the developing human embryo at risk. We examined the relation between maternal hyperthermia and the development of NTDs in a high-risk Mexican-American population. METHODS Case-women were Mexican-American women with NTD-affected pregnancies who resided and delivered in any of the 14 Texas counties bordering Mexico, during 1995,2000. Control-women were randomly selected from study area residents delivering normal live births, frequency-matched to cases by hospital and year. Information on maternal fevers, febrile illnesses, exposures to heat generated from external sources, and hyperthermia-inducing activities was gathered through in-person interviews, conducted about six weeks postpartum. RESULTS The risk effect (OR) associated with maternal fever in the first trimester, compared to no fever, was 2.9 (95% CI, 1.5,5.7). Women taking fever-reducing medications showed a lower risk effect (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.0,5.6) than those who did not (OR, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.4,10.9). First-trimester maternal exposures to heat devices such as hot tubs, saunas, or electric blankets were associated with an OR of 3.6 (95% CI, 1.1,15.9). Small insignificant effects were observed for activities such as cooking in a hot kitchen (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.0,2.6) and working or exercising in the sun (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 0.9,2.2). CONCLUSIONS Maternal hyperthermia increases the risk for NTD-affected offspring. Women intending to become pregnant should avoid intense heat exposures, carefully monitor and manage their febrile illnesses, and routinely consume folic acid supplements. Birth Defects Research (Part A), 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Accumulation Mechanisms and Evolution History of the Giant Puguang Gas Field, Sichuan Basin, China

    Fang HAO
    Abstract: Solid bitumens were found throughout the carbonate reservoirs in the Puguang gas field, the largest gas field so far found in marine carbonates in China, confirming that the Puguang gas field evolved from a paleo-oil reservoir. The fluid conduit system at the time of intensive oil accumulation in the field was reconstructed, and petroleum migration pathways were modeled using a 3-D model and traced by geochemical parameters. The forward modeling and inversion tracing coincided with each other and both indicated that oils accumulated in the Puguang-Dongyuezhai structure originated from a generative kitchen to the northwest of the Puguang gas field. The deposition of organic-rich Upper Permian source rocks dominated by sapropelic organic matter in the Northeast Sichuan Basin, the development of fluid conduit system that was vertically near-source rock and laterally near-generative kitchen, and the focusing of oils originated from a large area of the generative kitchen, were the three requirements for the formation of the giant paleo-oil reservoir from which the giant Puguang gas field evolved. The Puguang gas field had experienced a three-stage evolution. The post-accumulation processes, especially the organic-inorganic interaction in the hydrocarbon-water-rock system, had not only profoundly altered the composition and characteristics of the petroleum fluids, but also obviously changed the physicochemical conditions in the reservoir and resulted in complicated precipitation and solution of carbonate minerals. [source]

    Comparative Analysis of Indoor Levels of Suspended Particulates and Nitrogen Dioxide a Few Hours later after an Asthmatic Attack

    Emmanuel Ehiabhi UKPEBOR
    Abstract Suspended particulates (TSP) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are known respiratory irritants linked to asthma aggravation. This pilot study was designed to investigate the role of these pollutants on the frequency of asthmatic attack on two of the inhabitants of a household. The surveillance of TSP and NO2 in this household commenced a few hours later, after one of the occupants suffered an attack. The TSP load determination was done using a High Volume Gravimetric sampler and a light scattering method via a Haz-Dust 10 µm particulate monitor. Palmes Diffusion tubes for NO2 and a portable Crowcon Gasman toxic gas detector were utilized for NO2 screening. In the first day of monitoring in the living room, the in situ particulate sampler (Haz-Dust) recorded a mean TSP level of 26,000 µg·m,3. A confirmatory test with the eight hour average Gravimetric sampler gave 25,833 µg·m,3. With the use of the Gasman toxic gas detector for NO2, the NO2 concentration for the first few hours of sampling was lower than 188 µg·m,3, the detection limit of this instrument. However, the exact NO2 concentrations for the 7 day monitoring after the attack were 27.50 µg·m,3 (kitchen) and 12.03 µg·m,3 (living room) as recorded by the Palmes diffusion tubes. [source]

    Kneading life: women and the celebration of the dead in the Ecuadorian Andes

    Emilia Ferraro
    This article analyses the celebration of the dead in the Quichua village of Pesillo, in the Northern Andes of Ecuador. My aim is to present a view of these celebrations from the viewpoint of the women participating in them. Unlike classical approaches to death in the Andes, my analysis presents the commemoration of the dead ,from the kitchen', in order to make room for women's elaborations of death and the deceased that previous analyses have neglected. My focus is therefore not on agriculture but on conviviality and everyday practice. Résumé L'auteur analyse la commémoration des morts dans le village quechua de Pesillo, dans le nord des Andes équatoriennes. Son but est de décrire les célébrations du point de vue des femmes qui y participent. Ŕ la différence des approches classiques de la mort dans les Andes, l'analyse de l'auteur présente la commémoration des morts « vue de la cuisine », pour faire place ŕ l'élaboration de la mort et des défunts par les femmes, que les analyses antérieures ont négligée. L'attention se porte ici non pas sur l'agriculture, mais sur la convivialité et les pratiques quotidiennes. [source]

    Soup and sadaqa: charity in Islamic societies*

    HISTORICAL RESEARCH, Issue 205 2006
    Amy Singer
    Charity, both obligatory almsgiving and voluntary donations, was and is an important practice of Muslims throughout the world. Historically, charity addressed poverty, but also reached a much broader spectrum of recipients. Soup served both as a literary image of giving and as a concrete means of distributing assistance, particularly in the Ottoman world. There, enormous purpose-built kitchens distributed soup and bread to a broad spectrum of people deemed needy and/or deserving. This article examines key aspects of charity in Islamic societies through an investigation of these kitchens. It demonstrates that charity overlapped with hospitality and patronage to create webs of responsibility and obligation in Islamic societies. [source]