KIT Expression (kit + expression)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma-associated lung cancers show chromosomal aberrations differing from primary lung cancer

Sonja Hahtola
Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) patients have an increased risk of certain secondary cancers, the most common of which are lung cancers, especially small cell lung cancer. To reveal the molecular pathogenesis underlying CTCL-associated lung cancer, we analyzed genomic aberrations in CTCL-associated and reference lung cancer samples. DNA derived from microdissected lung cancer cells of five CTCL-associated lung cancers and five reference lung cancers without CTCL association was analyzed by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), immunohistochemistry (IHC), and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis were performed for selected genes. In CTCL-associated lung cancer, CGH revealed chromosomal aberrations characterizing both lung cancer and CTCL, but also losses of 1p, and 19, and gains of 4q and 7, hallmarks of CTCL. LOH for the CTCL-associated NAV3 gene was detected in two of the four informative primary lung cancers. FISH revealed increased copy number of the KIT gene in 3/4 of CTCL-associated lung cancers and 1/5 of primary lung cancers. PDGFRA and VEGFR2 copy numbers were also increased. IHC showed moderate KIT expression when the gene copy number was increased. CTCL-associated lung cancer shows chromosomal aberrations different from primary lung cancer, especially amplifications of 4q, a chromosome arm frequently deleted in the latter tumor type. Copy numbers and expression of selected genes in chromosome 4 differed between CTCL-associated and reference lung cancers. These preliminary observations warrant further prospective studies to identify the common underlying factors between CTCL and CTCL-associated lung cancer. This article contains Supplementary Material available at 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

KIT and RAS signalling pathways in testicular germ cell tumours: new data and a review of the literature

N. C. Goddard
Summary Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs) are the leading cause of cancer deaths in young male Caucasians. Identifying changes in DNA copy number can pinpoint genes involved in tumour development. We defined the smallest overlapping regions of imbalance in TGCTs using array comparative genomic hybridization analysis. Novel regions, or regions which refined those previously reported, were identified. The expression profile of genes from 12p, which is invariably gained in TGCTs, and amplicons defined at 12p11.2-12.1 and 4q12, suggest KRAS and KIT involvement in TGCT and seminoma development, respectively. Amplification of these genes was not found in intratubular germ cell neoplasia adjacent to invasive disease showing these changes, suggesting their involvement in tumour progression. Activating mutations of RAS genes (KRAS or NRAS) and overexpression of KRAS were mutually exclusive events. These, correlations between the expression levels of KIT, KRAS and GRB7 (which encodes an adapter molecule known to interact with the KIT tyrosine kinase receptor) and other reported evidence reviewed here, are consistent with a role for activation of KIT and RAS signalling in TGCT development. In order to assess a role for KIT in seminomas, we modulated the level of KIT expression in TCam-2, a seminoma cell line. The likely seminomatous origin of this cell line was supported by demonstrating KIT and OCT3/4 overexpression and gain of 12p material. Reducing the expression of KIT in TCam-2 through RNA inhibition resulted in decreased cell viability. Further understanding of KIT and RAS signalling in TGCTs may lead to novel therapeutic approaches for these tumours. [source]

Pathology of gastrointestinal stromal tumors

Seiichi Hirota
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are the most common mesenchymal tumors in the gastrointestinal tract. It was found that most GIST expressed KIT, a receptor tyrosine kinase encoded by protooncogene c- kit. In normal gastrointestinal wall, KIT is expressed by interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), which are a pacemaker for autonomous gastrointestinal movement. Because both GIST and ICC are double-positive for KIT and CD34, and because familial and multiple GIST appear to develop from diffuse hyperplasia of ICC, GIST are considered to originate from ICC or their precursor cells. It was also found that approximately 90% of the sporadic GIST have somatic gain-of-function mutations of the c- kit gene, and that the patients with familial and multiple GIST have germline gain-of-function mutations of the c- kit gene. These facts strongly suggest that the c- kit gene mutations are a cause of GIST. Approximately half of the sporadic GIST without c- kit gene mutations were demonstrated to have gain-of-function mutations in platelet-derived growth factor receptor-, (PDGFRA) gene that encodes another receptor tyrosine kinase. Because KIT is immunohistochemically negative in a minority of GIST, especially in PDGFRA gene mutation-harboring GIST, mutational analyses of c- kit and PDGFRA genes may be required to diagnose such GIST definitely. Imatinib mesylate was developed as a selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor. It inhibits constitutive activation of mutated KIT and PDGFRA, and is now being used for KIT-positive metastatic or unresectable GIST as a molecular target drug. Confirmation of KIT expression by immunohistochemistry is necessary for application of the drug. The effect of imatinib mesylate is different in various types of c- kit and PDGFRA gene mutations, and the secondary resistance against imatinib mesylate is often acquired by the second mutation of the identical genes. Mutational analyses of c- kit and PDGFRA genes are also significant for prediction of effectiveness of drugs including newly developed agents. [source]

Pleomorphic phenotypes of gastrointestinal stromal tumors at metastatic sites with or without imatinib treatment

CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 5 2010
Kazuha Sakamoto
Secondary resistance of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) to tyrosine kinase inhibitors occurs after several years' administration. However, the mechanism of resistance has not been fully clarified. In this study, we analyzed the genotypes and the histologic and immunohistochemical phenotypes of metastatic GISTs with and without imatinib treatment, and clarified the pleomorphic nature of metastatic GISTs. We examined 31 autopsy cases in which the patients died of multiple metastases of GISTs, and two surgically resected specimens with and without imatinib treatment. A total of 152 primary and metastatic lesions in 33 cases of GISTs were examined for histologic and immunohistochemical expression of KIT and CD34. We analyzed the expression of other receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) in KIT-negative lesions, including human EGFR-related 2 (HER2), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET), platelet-derived growth factor receptor-, (PDGFRA), and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-, (PDGFRB). Fifteen lesions in seven cases (9.9%) lacked KIT expression, and 74 (49%) in 22 cases lacked CD34 expression. Eight KIT-negative lesions in five cases expressed PDGFRB, one of which also expressed EGFR, and three lesions in one case expressed MET. Results for the other RTKs were negative. Missense point mutations at PDGFRB gene exon 12 were detected in one PDGFRB-positive case. Our results indicate that histomorphology, immunohistochemical phenotypes, and genotypes of metastatic GISTs vary among lesions, even in cases without imatinib treatment. A KIT-independent mechanism, such as activation of other RTKs, might participate in the proliferation of late-stage GISTs and might be a cause of secondary imatinib resistance. (Cancer Sci 2010; 101: 1270,1278) [source]

Activity of triptolide against human mast cells harboring the kinase domain mutant KIT

CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 7 2009
Yanli Jin
Gain-of-function mutations of the receptor tyrosine kinase KIT can cause systemic mastocytosis (SM) and gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Most of the constitutively active KIT can be inhibited by imatinib; D816V KIT cannot. In this study, we investigated the activity of triptolide, a diterpenoid isolated from the Chinese herb Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f., in cells expressing mutant KIT, including D816V KIT. Imatinib-sensitive HMC-1.1 cells harboring the mutation V560G in the juxtamembrane domain of KIT, imatinib-resistant HMC-1.2 cells harboring both V560G and D816V mutations, and murine P815 cells, were treated with triptolide, and analyzed in terms of growth, apoptosis, and signal transduction. The in vivo antitumor activity was evaluated by using the nude mouse xenograft model. Our results demonstrated that triptolide potently inhibits the growth of both human and murine mast cells harboring not only imatinib-sensitive KIT mutation but also imatinib-resistant D816V KIT. Triptolide markedly inhibited KIT mRNA levels and strikingly reduced the levels of phosphorylated and total Stat3, Akt, and Erk1/2, downstream targets of KIT. Triptolide triggered apoptosis by inducing depolarization of mitochondrial potential and release of cytochrome c, downregulation of Mcl-1 and XIAP. Furthermore, triptolide significantly abrogated the growth of imatinib-resistant HMC-1.2 cell xenografts in nude mice and decreased KIT expression in xenografts. Our data demonstrate that triptolide inhibits imatinib-resistant mast cells harboring D816V KIT. Further investigation of triptolide for treatment of human neoplasms driven by gain-of-function KIT mutations is warranted. (Cancer Sci 2009; 100: 1335,1343) [source]