Kinship Relations (kinship + relation)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Finding evolutionary relations beyond superfamilies: Fold-based superfamilies

PROTEIN SCIENCE, Issue 10 2003
Keiko Matsuda
Abstract Superfamily classifications are based variably on similarity of sequences, global folds, local structures, or functions. We have examined the possibility of defining superfamilies purely from the viewpoint of the global fold/function relationship. For this purpose, we first classified protein domains according to the ,-sheet topology. We then introduced the concept of kinship relations among the classified ,-sheet topology by assuming that the major elementary event leading to creation of a new ,-sheet topology is either an addition or deletion of one ,-strand at the edge of an existing ,-sheet during the molecular evolution. Based on this kinship relation, a network of protein domains was constructed so that the distance between a pair of domains represents the number of evolutionary events that lead one from the other domain. We then mapped on it all known domains with a specific core chemical function (here taken, as an example, that involving ATP or its analogs). Careful analyses revealed that the domains are found distributed on the network as >20 mutually disjointed clusters. The proteins in each cluster are defined to form a fold-based superfamily. The results indicate that >20 ATP-binding protein superfamilies have been invented independently in the process of molecular evolution, and the conservative evolutionary diffusion of global folds and functions is the origin of the relationship between them. [source]


Family and nation: Brazilian national ideology as contested transnational practice in Japan

GLOBAL NETWORKS, Issue 4 2008
PAUL GREEN
Abstract Studies of Brazilian Nikkeis (Japanese emigrants and their descendants) living in Japan tend to conceptualize ,family' and ,nation' as two distinct entities. Such distinctions are filtered through mutually exclusive discourses and understandings of national and ethnic identity. In this article, however, I view national attachments and migrant experiences in Japan through the lens of ideology, embodied experience and kinship relations. Treating national ideology as lived process sheds fresh light on the dynamics of state,society relations in transnational social spaces. I suggest that the ability of Brazilian state actors to impose social, moral and economic regulation on its citizens in Japan is compromised by the extent to which such discourses are ontologically grounded in the social relations of migrant family life. It is through these kin ties, I argue, that people set the tone and rules of play for state interests to encroach or otherwise on their everyday lives in these transnational social spaces. [source]


Anthropological Perspectives on the Trafficking of Women for Sexual Exploitation

INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION, Issue 1 2004
Lynellyn D. Long
Contemporary trafficking operations transform traditional bride wealth and marriage exchanges (prestations) by treating women's sexuality and bodies as commodities to be bought and sold (and exchanged again) in various Western capitals and Internet spaces. Such operations are also global with respect to scale, range, speed, diversity, and flexibility. Propelling many trafficking exchanges are political economic processes, which increase the trafficking of women in times of stress, such as famine, unemployment, economic transition, and so forth. However, the disparity between the global market operations, which organize trafficking, and the late nineteenth century social/public welfare system of counter-trafficking suggests why the latter do not effectively address women's risks and may even expose them to increased levels of violence and stress. Drawing on historical accounts, anthropological theory, and ethnographic work in Viet Nam and Bosnia and Herzegovina, this essay examines how specific cultural practices embedded in family and kinship relations encourage and rationalize sexual trafficking of girls and young women in times of stress and dislocation. The essay also analyses how technologies of power inform both trafficking and counter-trafficking operations in terms of controlling women's bodies, sexuality, health, labour, and migration. By analysing sexual trafficking as a cultural phenomenon in its own right, such an analysis seeks to inform and address the specific situations of girls and young women, who suffer greatly from the current migration regimes. [source]


Producing and Editing Diagrams Using Co-Speech Gesture: Spatializing Nonspatial Relations in Explanations of Kinship in Laos

JOURNAL OF LINGUISTIC ANTHROPOLOGY, Issue 1 2003
N.J. Enfield
This article presents a description of two sequences of talk by urban speakers of Lao (a southwestern Tai language spoken in Laos) in which co-speech gesture plays a central role in explanations of kinship relations and terminology. The speakers spontaneously use hand gestures and gaze to spatially diagram relationships that have no inherent spatial structure. The descriptive sections of the article are prefaced by a discussion of the semiotic complexity of illustrative gestures and gesture diagrams. Gestured signals feature iconic, indexical, and symbolic components, usually in combination, as well as using motion and three-dimensional space to convey meaning. Such diagrams show temporal persistence and structural integrity despite having been projected in midair by evanescent signals (i.e., handmovements anddirected gaze). Speakers sometimes need or want to revise these spatial representations without destroying their structural integrity. The need to "edit" gesture diagrams involves such techniques as hold-and-drag, hold-and-work-with-free-hand, reassignment-of-old-chunk-tonew-chunk, and move-body-into-new-space. [source]


Finding evolutionary relations beyond superfamilies: Fold-based superfamilies

PROTEIN SCIENCE, Issue 10 2003
Keiko Matsuda
Abstract Superfamily classifications are based variably on similarity of sequences, global folds, local structures, or functions. We have examined the possibility of defining superfamilies purely from the viewpoint of the global fold/function relationship. For this purpose, we first classified protein domains according to the ,-sheet topology. We then introduced the concept of kinship relations among the classified ,-sheet topology by assuming that the major elementary event leading to creation of a new ,-sheet topology is either an addition or deletion of one ,-strand at the edge of an existing ,-sheet during the molecular evolution. Based on this kinship relation, a network of protein domains was constructed so that the distance between a pair of domains represents the number of evolutionary events that lead one from the other domain. We then mapped on it all known domains with a specific core chemical function (here taken, as an example, that involving ATP or its analogs). Careful analyses revealed that the domains are found distributed on the network as >20 mutually disjointed clusters. The proteins in each cluster are defined to form a fold-based superfamily. The results indicate that >20 ATP-binding protein superfamilies have been invented independently in the process of molecular evolution, and the conservative evolutionary diffusion of global folds and functions is the origin of the relationship between them. [source]


Contact calls of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus): influence of age of caller on antiphonal calling and other vocal responses

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PRIMATOLOGY, Issue 2 2009
H.-C. Chen
Abstract Marmosets, as do many other primates, live in forest environments, are group living and constantly at risk of predation. Retaining contact with one another is therefore a matter of survival. We ask here whether their contact calls (phee and twitter vocalizations) are in some way ordered acoustically by sex or age and whether the calls of older marmosets elicit different responses than those of younger marmosets. In our study, marmosets (2,14 years) were visually isolated from conspecifics and the vocal responses to each isolated caller by other marmosets in the colony were recorded. Vocal responses to phee calls largely consisted of phee calls and, less commonly, twitter calls. No differences between the responses to calls by males and females were apparent. However, we found a strong positive and significant correlation between the caller's age and the percentage of its phee calls receiving a phee response, and a significant negative correlation between the caller's age and the percentage of its phee calls receiving a twitter response. The older the marmoset, the more antiphonal calling occurred. Two-syllable phee calls were emitted more often by older marmosets (10,14 years) than by younger ones (2,6 years). Hence, we have found age-dependent differences in phee-call production and a consistent change in the response received across the adult life-span. This age-dependent effect was independent of kinship relations. This is the first evidence that marmosets distinguish age by vocal parameters alone and make social decisions based on age. Am. J. Primatol. 71:165,170, 2009. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Community, society, culture: three keys to understanding today's conflicted identities

THE JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL ANTHROPOLOGICAL INSTITUTE, Issue 1 2010
Maurice Godelier
The author redefines three major concepts used in the social sciences: tribe, society, and community. He begins with his discovery that the Baruya, a tribe in New Guinea with whom he lived and worked, were not a society a few centuries ago. This made him wonder: How is a new society made? The author shows that neither kinship relations nor economic relations are sufficient to forge a new society. What welded a certain number of Baruya kin groups into a society were their political-religious relations, which enabled them to establish a form of sovereignty over a territory, its inhabitants, and its resources. He goes on to compare other examples of more or less recently formed societies, among which is Saudi Arabia, whose beginnings date from the end of the eighteenth century; and he then clarifies the difference between tribe, society, ethnic group, and community, showing that a tribe is a society, but an ethnic group is a community. His analysis elucidates some contemporary situations, since tribes still play an important role in Iraq, Afghanistan, Jordan, and so on. Résumé L'auteur redéfinit trois grands concepts utilisés dans les sciences sociales : tribu, société et communauté. Son point de départ est le fait que les Baruya, une tribu de Nouvelle-Guinée avec laquelle il a vécu et travaillé, ne formaient pas une société il y a quelques siècles. Cette découverte l'a conduit à se demander comment une société voyait le jour. L'auteur montre que ni les liens de parenté ni les relations économiques ne sont suffisants pour donner naissance à une nouvelle société. Ce qui a soudé un certain nombre de groupes de parenté baruya en une société, ce sont leurs relations politiques et religieuses, qui leur ont permis d'établir une forme de souveraineté sur un territoire, ses habitants et ses ressources. L'auteur poursuit en comparant d'autres exemples de sociétés d'apparition plus ou moins récentes, par exemple l'Arabie Saoudite dont les débuts remontent à la fin du XVIIIe siècle. Il éclaircit ensuite la différence entre tribu, société, groupe ethnique et communauté, en montrant qu'une tribu est une société mais un groupe ethnique est une communauté. Son analyse fait la lumière sur certaines situations contemporaines, dans la mesure où les tribus jouent encore un rôle important en Irak, en Afghanistan, en Jordanie et ailleurs. [source]


Milk Teeth and Jet Planes: Kin Relations in Families of Sri Lanka's Transnational Domestic Servants

CITY & SOCIETY, Issue 1 2008
MICHELE R. GAMBURD
Abstract This essay examines the confluence of local and global dynamics, exploring how transnational migration affects and is affected by gender roles, kinship relations, intergenerational obligations, and ideologies of parenthood. Journeying to the Middle East repeated on two-year labor contracts, many of Sri Lanka's migrant housemaids leave behind their husbands and children. Women's long-term absences reorganize and disrupt widely accepted gendered attributions of parenting roles, with fathers and female relatives taking over household tasks. Migrants say that economic difficulties prompt migration, and assess commitment to kin in financial terms. The government also benefits from remittances. Nevertheless, stakeholders (villagers, politicians, and the national media) worry about the social costs born by children. Drawing on interviews with the adult children of migrant mothers in four extended families in the Sri Lankan coastal village of Naeaegama, I examine the long-term effects of transnational labor migration on local households. The case studies do not support media claims that children suffer abuse and neglect in their mothers' absence, but do in part support survey information on reduced education, shifting marriage patterns, and paternal alcohol consumption. [source]