Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Kingdom

  • animal kingdom
  • middle kingdom
  • plant kingdom
  • united kingdom

  • Terms modified by Kingdom

  • kingdom prospective diabetes study

  • Selected Abstracts


    Article first published online: 24 DEC 200
    First page of article [source]


    First page of article [source]


    THE HEYTHROP JOURNAL, Issue 4 2010
    KEVIN LENEHANArticle first published online: 12 MAR 2010
    The work of René Girard invites us to re-imagine a ,religious,secular' interactivity within social space in a way released from the violent dualisms of the ,sacred/profane.' Earlier Dietrich Bonhoeffer considered the same task and suggested directions for a positive theology of church-state relations, even as the inherited forms of these institutions were collapsing about him. This paper explores the Girardian scenario for church and state becoming rivalrous ,doubles', whether it be secular utopic projects doubling religious narratives of redemption, or churches doubling the state as parallel yet purer societies , and suggests resources from Bonhoeffer by which a non-rivalrous church-state relationality - both mutually-constituting and mutually-limiting - may be configured. [source]


    Overseas remittances are a vital source of income for many developing economies. In this paper we empirically model the remittance behaviour of a diverse set of ethnic minority households in England and Wales using survey data. Our results indicate that the probability of remitting is higher for richer households and for those containing more immigrants. Measures of social distance also appear to influence the sending of remittances. Significant ethnic differences in the incidence of remitting and the timing of payments remain after controlling for these and other factors. [source]


    ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 5 2008
    FRACS Nuffield Professor of Surgery Emeritus(University of Oxford)Honorary Professor(University of London), Peter J. Morris AC
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    ART HISTORY, Issue 4 2008
    This article considers how the artist, writer and critic Giorgio Vasari (1511,1574) in his canonical text Le vite de pił eccellenti pittori scultori e architettori characterized the artists working in the city of Naples and the monuments they produced. Through his own experience working in Naples (1544,45) Vasari acquired significant first-hand knowledge of the city and its artistic culture. His account of his experiences and those of other artists who worked in the city portrays Naples as lacking a dominant local artistic tradition and the support of active and interested patrons. With the intention of furthering the central themes and aims of his text, Vasari created a carefully constructed image of Naples as a rhetorical foil for the alleged superior virtue and strength of northern artists and urban centres where art and architecture played a key role in civic pride. [source]

    Emergency Medicine Practitioner Knowledge and Use of Decision Rules for the Evaluation of Patients with Suspected Pulmonary Embolism: Variations by Practice Setting and Training Level

    Michael S. Runyon MD
    Abstract Background Several clinical decision rules (CDRs) have been validated for pretest probability assessment of pulmonary embolism (PE), but the authors are unaware of any data quantifying and characterizing their use in emergency departments. Objectives To characterize clinicians' knowledge of and attitudes toward two commonly used CDRs for PE. Methods By using a modified Delphi approach, the authors developed a two-page paper survey including 15 multiple-choice questions. The questions were designed to determine the respondents' familiarity, frequency of use, and comprehension of the Canadian and Charlotte rules. The survey also queried the frequency of use of unstructured (gestalt) pretest probability assessment and reasons why physicians choose not to use decision rules. The surveys were sent to physicians, physician assistants, and medical students at 32 academic and community hospitals in the United States and the United Kingdom. Results Respondents included 555 clinicians; 443 (80%) work in academic practice, and 112 (20%) are community based. Significantly more academic practitioners (73%) than community practitioners (49%) indicated familiarity with at least one of the two decision rules. Among all respondents familiar with a rule, 50% reported using it in more than half of applicable cases. A significant number of these respondents could not correctly identify a key component of the rule (23% for the Charlotte rule and 43% for the Canadian rule). Fifty-seven percent of all respondents indicated use of gestalt rather than a decision rule in more than half of cases. Conclusions Academic clinicians were more likely to report familiarity with either of these two specific decision rules. Only one half of all clinicians reporting familiarity with the rules use them in more than 50% of applicable cases. Spontaneous recall of the specific elements of the rules was low to moderate. Future work should consider clinical gestalt in the evaluation of patients with possible PE. [source]

    Twenty-five years quaternium-15 in the European baseline series: does it deserve its place there?

    CONTACT DERMATITIS, Issue 4 2010
    Anton C. De Groot
    For allergens to be included in the European baseline series, they should have allergy rates of at least 1%. In several studies quaternium-15 had lower scores. Also, many cases of sensitization are already detected by formaldehyde contact allergy. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether quaternium-15 deserves continued inclusion in the baseline series on the basis of current criteria: 1% positive reactions, common occurrence in the environment, many relevant reactions. We used the literature survey method in this study. Only the United Kingdom has rates consistently over 1%. The mean for all other countries together and for many individual nations is lower than 1%. At least half of the reactions are already detected by formaldehyde sensitivity, which lowers rates for allergy to quaternium-15 per se (i.e. not caused or at least detected by formaldehyde sensitivity) to less than 0.6% for all countries except the United Kingdom. Neither common occurrence in the environment nor a high percentage of relevant reactions has been ascertained. It may well be argued that quaternium-15 does not deserve its place in the European baseline series and could be incorporated in a cosmetic screening series or preservative series instead. In the United Kingdom, routine testing should be continued. [source]

    Senior Management Support in the New Product Development Process

    Jorge Gomes
    This paper studies the relationship between senior management support to new product development activities by means of a quantitative and qualitative analysis of questionnaire and interview data collected in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. The quantitative analysis showed that there is a small to medium association between senior management support to new product development and project performance in the dimensions of time, cost, and end product quality. The qualitative analysis suggests that these weak links could be explained by separating the influence of senior management support on new product development activities into direct and indirect effects. Direct effects include issues such as the use of multifunctional senior teams and process champions, whereas indirect effects include issues such as organization mission and goals, and learning and knowledge management systems. [source]

    Benchmarking Innovation: A Short Report

    Zoe Radnor
    A project is reported that benchmarked ,best practice' mature organisations, with a base in the United Kingdom, on the processes and practices that they perceive underpinned successful innovation projects. The majority of organisations had director level personnel involved in the innovation process but only three had active involvement of the top management. However, the majority saw the greatest level of innovation being obtained through the use of cross-functional teams. Five key innovation supports were identified during the benchmarking exercise. These were top management support for, and involvement in the process; the appointment of an innovation champion or sponsor; rewards for innovative behaviours and ideas; and finally a positive attitude to building on creative ideas, irrespective of their source. It is suggested that benchmarking can play a role in identifying best-practice innovation structures and procedures. [source]

    Dr Harold Frederick Shipman: An enigma

    John Gunn
    Dr. Shipman was the worst known serial killer in British history, at least in terms of numbers of victims, and possibly the worst in world history, if politicians are excluded. He killed at least 215 patients and may have begun his murderous career at the age of 25, within a year of finishing his medical training. His case has had a profound impact on the practice of medicine in the United Kingdom. Was he a special case? What were the origins of this behaviour? Could the behaviour have been prevented? It is necessary to learn what we can from a few personal facts and largely circumstantial evidence. He withheld himself from any useful clinical investigation or treatment once he had been taken into custody. Could he have been treated at any stage? Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Think Globally, Publish Virtually, Act Locally: A U.S.-Saudi International Museum Partnership

    Paul Michael Taylor
    ABSTRACT This paper examines an on-going cooperative project between the National Museum of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, undertaken within the framework of the International Partnership Among Museums (IPAM) program of the American Association of Museums. The project,Written in Stone: Epigraphy from the National Museum of Saudi Arabia,is a virtual Web exhibition of inscriptions dating from the late second millennium B.C. to the nineteenth century AD. It is undoubtedly representative of many special-purpose cooperative projects (for exhibitions, research, or other purposes) that are taking place across international boundaries between pairs or groups of museums in various countries. Such collaborations provide examples of how partner institutions can take advantage of the opportunities that globalization and standardization of museum practices offer. [source]

    Liquid-based cytology: applying international experience to the United Kingdom

    CYTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 3 2004
    K. J. Denton
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Prevalence of dental trauma in 5,6- and 12,14-year-old boys in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Ibrahim Al-Majed
    Abstract , This study involved 354 boys aged 5,6 years and 862 boys aged 12,14 years, attending 40 schools in Riyadh. All children were examined at school by a single dental examiner, using criteria similar to those employed in the survey of children's dental health in the United Kingdom. The prevalence of dental trauma in 354 Saudi boys aged 5,6 years was 33%. The most common type of dental trauma was fracture of enamel (71%) followed by loss of tooth due to trauma (13%), fracture into enamel and dentine (7%), discolouration (5%), pulp involvement (4%). No relationship between the degree of overjet and the occurrence of dental trauma in the primary dentition was observed. The prevalence of dental trauma in 862 12,14-year-old boys was 34%. The commonest dental trauma was fracture of enamel (74%) followed by fracture into enamel and dentine (15%), fracture into enamel-dentine and pulp (5%), loss of tooth due to trauma (3%), and discolouration (0.4%). A significant relationship (P=0.02) between the increased overjet (, 6 mm) and the occurrence of dental trauma in the permanent dentition was reported. The present study found no evidence of dental care provided for traumatised primary incisors in 5,6-year-old boys. The treatment of dental trauma in 12,14-year-old boys was negligible (2.4%). The present Saudi Arabian study showed higher prevalence of dental trauma in 5,6- and 12,14-year-old boys than the reported results of the United Kingdom Children's Dental Health Survey of the same age groups. [source]

    Increase in Surgical Procedures in a Dermatology Department in United Kingdom

    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Design management education: The UK experience

    Bill Hollins
    In the United Kingdom, the first courses in design management appeared almost three decades ago. Since then, there have been disappointments, as well as successes. Bill Hollins examines the record to highlight promising initiatives, along with the problems,including a poor understanding of design among business professionals, a lack of teachers, and accreditation issues,that thwart academic momentum in this arena. [source]

    The role of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers in the prevention and management of diabetes mellitus

    G. Mathur
    Angiotensin II Receptor blockers (ARBs) are an important addition to the current range of medications available for treating a wide spectrum of diseases including cardiovascular diseases. Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most common cause of death in the United Kingdom and worldwide. More importantly, the presence of the metabolic syndrome and the likelihood of diabetes mellitus taking on epidemic proportions in the years to come all threaten to maintain the mortality rate due to CHD. This review article focuses on the clinical studies that have helped define the trends in the usage of these agents in the prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus and its complications and also explores possible mechanisms of action and future developments. [source]

    Treatment of symptomatic diabetic neuropathy

    Andrew J. M. Boulton
    Abstract Painful diabetic neuropathy is a common and particularly unpleasant long-term complication of diabetes that affects a significant minority of patients with distal polyneuropathy. After exclusion of other causes of neuropathic pain, attention should be focused on achieving optimal and stable glycaemic control avoiding flux of blood glucose levels, which have been shown to aggravate pain. Most patients will require pain control therapy and whilst the tricyclic drugs remain a first-line approach, their use is often hampered by predictable but troublesome side effects. Gabapentin, the only agent specifically licensed for the treatment of neuropathic pain in the United Kingdom, is useful in diabetic neuropathy and is generally better tolerated than the tricyclics. Additionally, other pharmacological and non-pharmacological pain management approaches may be useful. Patient education has a significant role to play in the avoidance of late neurological complications. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The advantages and disadvantages of a ,herbal' medicine in a patient with diabetes mellitus: a case report

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 6 2004
    D. M. Wood
    Abstract Background Patient-initiated alternative treatments in the management of chronic conditions are common and increasing in the United Kingdom. To date, there have been no reports of herbal medicine use alone in the management of diabetes mellitus. We report here the case of a man who attained excellent glycaemic control using a ,herbal' medicine and reveal how important it was to identify the products of active constituents. Case report A 48-year-old man attending our clinic in Tooting, South London with known Type 2 diabetes, with evidence of both micro- and macro-vascular diabetes-related complications, was poorly controlled despite a drug regimen consisting of oral metformin and twice daily insulin. He went to India for at least 1 year and on returning to the clinic had excellent glycaemic control off all diabetic medication. While away he had started himself on a regimen of three different ,herbal' balls. Samples of blood were found to contain chlorpropamide in a therapeutic concentration; chlorpropamide was also found in one of the balls. He has been counselled on the potential risks associated with chlorpropamide and his treatment reverted to a more conventional treatment regimen. Conclusions General practitioners and hospital physicians should be alert to those patients returning from abroad on effective ,herbal' medications that these may in fact contain an active ingredient. [source]

    Diabetes prevalence data for the United Kingdom,what do we have and what do we need?

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 6 2003
    R. Williams
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Realising a resilient and sustainable built environment: towards a strategic agenda for the United Kingdom

    DISASTERS, Issue 3 2007
    Lee Bosher
    Recent natural and human-induced emergencies have highlighted the vulnerability of the built environment. Although most emergency events are not entirely unexpected, and the effects can be mitigated, emergency managers in the United Kingdom have not played a sufficiently proactive role in the mitigation of such events. If a resilient and sustainable built environment is to be achieved, emergency management should be more proactive and receive greater input from the stakeholders responsible for the planning, design, construction and operation of the built environment. This paper highlights the need for emergency management to take a more systematic approach to hazard mitigation by integrating more with professions from the construction sector. In particular, design changes may have to be considered, critical infrastructures must be protected, planning policies should be reviewed, and resilient and sustainable agendas adopted by all stakeholders. [source]

    The International Adult Literacy Survey in Britain: Impact on policy and practice

    DYSLEXIA, Issue 2 2003
    Angela J. Fawcett
    Abstract There is increasing concern for the skills of the workforce in the UK and elsewhere, but despite this concern until recently there has been little information available which objectively measures basic skills in adults. In this paper, evidence derived from the prose scale of the International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS, 1996) is outlined, with emphasis on the performance of adults at the lowest levels, 1 and 2 in the United Kingdom. A new analysis based on the 183 adults who self-reported learning disabilities demonstrates that over 50% of this group perform at level 1 on the prose scale. Over 60% report that these disabilities persist into adult life, although this number falls to 50% in the youngest age group, reflecting changes in recognition of learning disabilities within the education system. The paper concludes with a case study of the redefinition of basic skill levels in Britain based on the IALS levels. The impact of the IALS findings on policy and practice, and in particular through the recommendations of the Moser report, are discussed. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    A qualitative study of young people's sources of cigarettes and attempts to circumvent underage sales laws

    ADDICTION, Issue 10 2010
    Jude Robinson
    ABSTRACT Aims To explore how young people continue to access cigarettes following an increase of the age of sale to 18 years and the implications for future smoking prevention policy and practice. Design Qualitative study using 14 focus groups. Setting Schools and community projects in disadvantaged areas of Birmingham, UK. Participants Eighty-five smokers and non-smokers aged 12,15 years. Measurements Focus group topic guides. Findings While young people did use social sources to access cigarettes, most obtained cigarettes from small local shops. Smoking and non-smoking participants knew which shops sold to underage children and what strategies to employ, suggesting a widespread acceptance of underage sales in some communities. Some young people bought directly from retailers, reporting that the retailers did not ask for identification. Some young people reported that retailers were complicit, knowingly selling to underage smokers. Young people waited outside shops and asked strangers to buy them cigarettes (proxy sales). Young people expressed cynicism about some shopkeepers' motives, who they believed knew that they were selling to under-18s, but did not care as long as they made a profit. Conclusions The ban in selling cigarettes to those under 18 in the United Kingdom appears to be easily circumvented, and one important route appears to be ,proxy sales' in which young people approach strangers outside retailers and ask them to purchase cigarettes on their behalf. [source]

    The Global Diversion of Pharmaceutical Drugs

    ADDICTION, Issue 9 2010
    Opiate treatment, the diversion of pharmaceutical opiates: a clinician's perspective
    ABSTRACT Aim To provide a clinician's perspective on the problem of diversion of prescribed pharmaceuticals. Methods The paper provides a personal account of working in a treatment context where diversion from opioid substitution treatment (OST) became a political issue potentially compromising the continued delivery of OST. It summarizes evidence on the impact of diversion, and measures to contain it, from the United Kingdom 1986,2006, Australia 1996,2008 and the United States and France from the mid-1990s. Results Opioid diversion to the black market occurs in proportion to the amount of opioids prescribed to be taken without supervision, and in inverse proportion to the availability of heroin. Diversion for OST programmes using supervision of dosing is less than diversion of opioids prescribed for pain, which is now a growing public health problem. Adverse consequences of diversion include opioid overdose fatalities, an increased incidence of addiction (particularly in jurisdictions where heroin is scarce) and compromising the public acceptance of long-term opioid prescribing. All long-term opioid prescribing requires monitoring of risk and appropriate dispensing arrangements,including dilution of methadone take-aways, supervision of administration for high-risk patients and random urine testing. Clinical guidelines influence practice, although prescribing often deviates from guidelines. Conclusion Clinical guidelines and clinical audit to enhance compliance with guidelines are helpful in maintaining the quality and integrity of the treatment system, and can contribute to keeping diversion within acceptable levels. [source]

    Meta-analysis of drug-related deaths soon after release from prison

    ADDICTION, Issue 9 2010
    Elizabeth L. C. Merrall
    ABSTRACT Aims The transition from prison back into the community is particularly hazardous for drug-using offenders whose tolerance for heroin has been reduced by imprisonment. Studies have indicated an increased risk of drug-related death soon after release from prison, particularly in the first 2 weeks. For precise, up-to-date understanding of these risks, a meta-analysis was conducted on the risk of drug-related death in weeks 1 + 2 and 3 + 4 compared with later 2-week periods in the first 12 weeks after release from prison. Methods English-language studies were identified that followed up adult prisoners for mortality from time of index release for at least 12 weeks. Six studies from six prison systems met the inclusion criteria and relevant data were extracted independently. Results These studies contributed a total of 69 093 person-years and 1033 deaths in the first 12 weeks after release, of which 612 were drug-related. A three- to eightfold increased risk of drug-related death was found when comparing weeks 1 + 2 with weeks 3,12, with notable heterogeneity between countries: United Kingdom, 7.5 (95% CI: 5.7,9.9); Australia, 4.0 (95% CI: 3.4,4.8); Washington State, USA, 8.4 (95% CI: 5.0,14.2) and New Mexico State, USA, 3.1 (95% CI: 1.3,7.1). Comparing weeks 3 + 4 with weeks 5,12, the pooled relative risk was: 1.7 (95% CI: 1.3,2.2). Conclusions These findings confirm that there is an increased risk of drug-related death during the first 2 weeks after release from prison and that the risk remains elevated up to at least the fourth week. [source]

    How ideology shapes the evidence and the policy: what do we know about cannabis use and what should we do?

    ADDICTION, Issue 8 2010
    John Macleod
    ABSTRACT In the United Kingdom, as in many places, cannabis use is considered substantially within a criminal justice rather than a public health paradigm with prevention policy embodied in the Misuse of Drugs Act. In 2002 the maximum custodial sentence tariff for cannabis possession under the Act was reduced from 5 to 2 years. Vigorous and vociferous public debate followed this decision, centred principally on the question of whether cannabis use caused schizophrenia. It was suggested that new and compelling evidence supporting this hypothesis had emerged since the re-classification decision was made, meaning that the decision should be reconsidered. The re-classification decision was reversed in 2008. We consider whether the strength of evidence on the psychological harms of cannabis has changed substantially and discuss the factors that may have influenced recent public discourse and policy decisions. We also consider evidence for other harms of cannabis use and public health implications of preventing cannabis use. We conclude that the strongest evidence of a possible causal relation between cannabis use and schizophrenia emerged more than 20 years ago and that the strength of more recent evidence may have been overstated,for a number of possible reasons. We also conclude that cannabis use is almost certainly harmful, mainly because of its intimate relation to tobacco use. The most rational policy on cannabis from a public health perspective would seem to be one able to achieve the benefit of reduced use in the population while minimizing social and other costs of the policy itself. Prohibition, whatever the sentence tariff associated with it, seems unlikely to fulfil these criteria. [source]

    Changes in the Distribution of Male and Female Wages Accounting for Employment Composition Using Bounds

    ECONOMETRICA, Issue 2 2007
    Richard Blundell
    This paper examines changes in the distribution of wages using bounds to allow for the impact of nonrandom selection into work. We show that worst case bounds can be informative. However, because employment rates in the United Kingdom are often low, they are not informative about changes in educational or gender wage differentials. Thus we explore ways to tighten these bounds using restrictions motivated from economic theory. With these assumptions, we find convincing evidence of an increase in inequality within education groups, changes in educational differentials, and increases in the relative wages of women. [source]

    Listing BRICs: Stock Issuers from Brazil, Russia, India, and China in New York, London, and Luxembourg

    ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY, Issue 3 2010
    Dariusz Wójcik
    abstract In the past decade, hundreds of companies from emerging markets have listed their shares on American and European stock markets. Brazil, Russia, India, and China (BRIC) are the main countries of origin of issuers, and stock exchanges in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Luxembourg are the main destinations involved in the process. We use a comprehensive data set for these home and host markets for the end of 2008 to explore the intensity of foreign listings, the subnational geography of cross-listed firms, and the destinations of foreign listings. Cross-listing firms tend to be relatively large and come from capital-intensive, export-oriented, and high-growth sectors. Trading links with and industrial specialization of the host markets affect the choice of destination markets. These patterns, however, are not universal across countries. There is a high concentration of cross-listed firms in the leading financial centers of the BRIC countries, particularly in Russia and Brazil. Firms outside of the leading centers rarely cross-list, and when they do, they enter second-tier host markets. While BRIC countries have a large potential for further foreign listings, the process remains politically sensitive. Our results highlight the shortcomings of the literature on cross-listing in economics and the significance of the cross-listing phenomenon to future research in financial geographies. [source]


    The United Kingdom has had a long and important history of trade relations with Australia and New Zealand. Although trade declined, both in absolute and relative importance, during the late 1960s and 1970s there still exists a large and significant volume of trade between them, and the relative and absolute decline in this trade does appear to have been halted. In this paper the trading relationship between the United Kingdom on the one hand and New Zealand and Australia on the other is analysed and the prospects of future trade between them is examined. Overall it is expected that the United Kingdom and Australia/New Zealand trade relations will grow in importance rather than decline as they did before 1985. [source]

    House Price Shocks and Household Indebtedness in the United Kingdom

    ECONOMICA, Issue 307 2010
    We use household panel data to explore the link between changes in house prices and household indebtedness (both secured on housing assets and unsecured) in the United Kingdom. We show that households which are borrowing-constrained by a lack of housing equity as collateral make greater use of unsecured debt such as credit cards or personal loans. In response to rising house prices, which relax this constraint, such households are more likely to refinance and to increase their indebtedness relative to unconstrained households. However, for most households, house price movements appear to have little impact on indebtedness. [source]