Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Humanities and Social Sciences

Terms modified by King

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  • Selected Abstracts

    Discussion on ,Personality psychology as a truly behavioural science' by R. Michael Furr

    Article first published online: 14 JUL 200
    Yes We Can! A Plea for Direct Behavioural Observation in Personality Research MITJA D. BACK and BORIS EGLOFF Department of Psychology, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Germany Furr's target paper (this issue) is thought to enhance the standing of personality psychology as a truly behavioural science. We wholeheartedly agree with this goal. In our comment we argue for more specific and ambitious requirements for behavioural personality research. Specifically, we show why behaviour should be observed directly. Moreover, we illustratively describe potentially interesting approaches in behavioural personality research: lens model analyses, the observation of multiple behaviours in diverse experimentally created situations and the observation of behaviour in real life. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. The Categories of Behaviour Should be Clearly Defined PETER BORKENAU Department of Psychology, Martin-Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Germany The target paper is helpful by clarifying the terminology as well as the strengths and weaknesses of several approaches to collect behavioural data. Insufficiently considered, however, is the clarity of the categories being used for the coding of behaviour. Evidence is reported showing that interjudge agreement for retrospective and even concurrent codings of behaviour does not execeed interjudge agreement for personality traits if the categories being used for the coding of behaviour are not clearly defined. By contrast, if the behaviour to be registered is unambiguously defined, interjudge agreement may be almost perfect. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Behaviour Functions in Personality Psychology PHILIP J. CORR Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK Furr's target paper highlights the importance, yet under-representation, of behaviour in published articles in personality psychology. Whilst agreeing with most of his points, I remain unclear as to how behaviour (as specifically defined by Furr) relates to other forms of psychological data (e.g. cognitive task performance). In addition, it is not clear how the functions of behaviour are to be decided: different behaviours may serve the same function; and identical behaviours may serve different functions. To clarify these points, methodological and theoretical aspects of Furr's proposal would benefit from delineation. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. On the Difference Between Experience-Sampling Self-Reports and Other Self-Reports WILLIAM FLEESON Department of Psychology, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC, USA Furr's fair but evaluative consideration of the strengths and weaknesses of behavioural assessment methods is a great service to the field. As part of his consideration, Furr makes a subtle and sophisticated distinction between different self-report methods. It is easy to dismiss all self-reports as poor measures, because some are poor. In contrast, Furr points out that the immediacy of the self-reports of behaviour in experience-sampling make experience-sampling one of the three strongest methods for assessing behaviour. This comment supports his conclusion, by arguing that ESM greatly diminishes one the three major problems afflicting self-reports,lack of knowledge,and because direct observations also suffer from the other two major problems afflicting self-reports. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. What and Where is ,Behaviour' in Personality Psychology? LAURA A. KING and JASON TRENT Department of Psychology, University of Missouri, Columbia, USA Furr is to be lauded for presenting a coherent and persuasive case for the lack of behavioural data in personality psychology. While agreeing wholeheartedly that personality psychology could benefit from greater inclusion of behavioural variables, here we question two aspects of Furr's analysis, first his definition of behaviour and second, his evidence that behaviour is under-appreciated in personality psychology. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Naturalistic Observation of Daily Behaviour in Personality Psychology MATTHIAS R. MEHL Department of Psychology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA This comment highlights naturalistic observation as a specific method within Furr's (this issue) cluster direct behavioural observation and discusses the Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR) as a naturalistic observation sampling method that can be used in relatively large, nomothetic studies. Naturalistic observation with a method such as the EAR can inform researchers' understanding of personality in its relationship to daily behaviour in two important ways. It can help calibrate personality effects against act-frequencies of real-world behaviour and provide ecological, behavioural personality criteria that are independent of self-report. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Measuring Behaviour D. S. MOSKOWITZ and JENNIFER J. RUSSELL Department of Psychology, McGill University, Montreal, Canada Furr (this issue) provides an illuminating comparison of the strengths and weaknesses of various methods for assessing behaviour. In the selection of a method for assessing behaviour, there should be a careful analysis of the definition of the behaviour and the purpose of assessment. This commentary clarifies and expands upon some points concerning the suitability of experience sampling measures, referred to as Intensive Repeated Measurements in Naturalistic Settings (IRM-NS). IRM-NS measures are particularly useful for constructing measures of differing levels of specificity or generality, for providing individual difference measures which can be associated with multiple layers of contextual variables, and for providing measures capable of reflecting variability and distributional features of behaviour. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Behaviours, Non-Behaviours and Self-Reports SAMPO V. PAUNONEN Department of Psychology, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada Furr's (this issue) thoughtful analysis of the contemporary body of research in personality psychology has led him to two conclusions: our science does not do enough to study real, observable behaviours; and, when it does, too often it relies on ,weak' methods based on retrospective self-reports of behaviour. In reply, I note that many researchers are interested in going beyond the study of individual behaviours to the behaviour trends embodied in personality traits; and the self-report of behaviour, using well-validated personality questionnaires, is often the best measurement option. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. An Ethological Perspective on How to Define and Study Behaviour LARS PENKE Department of Psychology, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK While Furr (this issue) makes many important contributions to the study of behaviour, his definition of behaviour is somewhat questionable and also lacks a broader theoretical frame. I provide some historical and theoretical background on the study of behaviour in psychology and biology, from which I conclude that a general definition of behaviour might be out of reach. However, psychological research can gain from adding a functional perspective on behaviour in the tradition of Tinbergens's four questions, which takes long-term outcomes and fitness consequences of behaviours into account. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. What is a Behaviour? MARCO PERUGINI Faculty of Psychology, University of Milan,Bicocca, Milan, Italy The target paper proposes an interesting framework to classify behaviour as well as a convincing plea to use it more often in personality research. However, besides some potential issues in the definition of what is a behaviour, the application of the proposed definition to specific cases is at times inconsistent. I argue that this is because Furr attempts to provide a theory-free definition yet he implicitly uses theoretical considerations when applying the definition to specific cases. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Is Personality Really the Study of Behaviour? MICHAEL D. ROBINSON Department of Psychology, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND, USA Furr (this issue) contends that behavioural studies of personality are particularly important, have been under-appreciated, and should be privileged in the future. The present commentary instead suggests that personality psychology has more value as an integrative science rather than one that narrowly pursues a behavioural agenda. Cognition, emotion, motivation, the self-concept and the structure of personality are important topics regardless of their possible links to behaviour. Indeed, the ultimate goal of personality psychology is to understanding individual difference functioning broadly considered rather than behaviour narrowly considered. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Linking Personality and Behaviour Based on Theory MANFRED SCHMITT Department of Psychology, University of Koblenz-Landau, Landau, Germany My comments on Furr's (this issue) target paper ,Personality as a Truly Behavioural Science' are meant to complement his behavioural taxonomy and sharpen some of the presumptions and conclusions of his analysis. First, I argue that the relevance of behaviour for our field depends on how we define personality. Second, I propose that every taxonomy of behaviour should be grounded in theory. The quality of behavioural data does not only depend on the validity of the measures we use. It also depends on how well behavioural data reflect theoretical assumptions on the causal factors and mechanisms that shape behaviour. Third, I suggest that the quality of personality theories, personality research and behavioural data will profit from ideas about the psychological processes and mechanisms that link personality and behaviour. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. The Apparent Objectivity of Behaviour is Illusory RYNE A. SHERMAN, CHRISTOPHER S. NAVE and DAVID C. FUNDER Department of Psychology, University of California, Riverside, CA, USA It is often presumed that objective measures of behaviour (e.g. counts of the number of smiles) are more scientific than more subjective measures of behaviour (e.g. ratings of the degree to which a person behaved in a cheerful manner). We contend that the apparent objectivity of any behavioural measure is illusory. First, the reliability of more subjective measures of behaviour is often strikingly similar to the reliabilities of so-called objective measures. Further, a growing body of literature suggests that subjective measures of behaviour provide more valid measures of psychological constructs of interest. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Personality and Behaviour: A Neglected Opportunity? LIAD UZIEL and ROY F. BAUMEISTER Department of Psychology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, USA Personality psychology has neglected the study of behaviour. Furr's efforts to provide a stricter definition of behaviour will not solve the problem, although they may be helpful in other ways. His articulation of various research strategies for studying behaviour will be more helpful for enabling personality psychology to contribute important insights and principles about behaviour. The neglect of behaviour may have roots in how personality psychologists define the mission of their field, but expanding that mission to encompass behaviour would be a positive step. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Ludwig II, King of Bavaria: a royal medical history

    H. Förstl
    Objective:, The case of Ludwig II, King of Bavaria, had soon become synonymous with paranoia, after he had drowned at the age of 40 together with the neuropsychiatrist Gudden. Method:, We were granted access to the Secret Archive of the House of Wittelsbach to study documents on Ludwig's medical history. Results:, The documents underlying Gudden's expert opinion which led to Ludwig being deposed would be insufficient for a diagnosis of schizophrenia according to contemporary standards. The autopsy revealed prominent prefrontal brain atrophy. Conclusion:, The evidence is compatible with a diagnosis of schizotypal personality and suspected frontotemporal degeneration. [source]

    Measuring the national wealth in seventeenth-century England

    This article discusses William Petty's 1665 estimate of the wealth of England and Wales,the first set of national accounts,and compares it with Gregory King's (1696), which is shown to be heavily influenced by it. There are conclusions about the methodology of the first political arithmeticians, the kinds of national resources which could be measured for the first time in the seventeenth century, and the lacunae which made it likely that Petty and King underestimated per caput and aggregate incomes. An appendix prints a contemporary analysis of hearth tax returns for every county. [source]

    The cost of apparel in seventeenth-century England, and the accuracy of Gregory King

    Margaret Spufford
    First page of article [source]

    Mastering Complaint: Michael Drayton's Peirs Gaveston and the Royal Mistress Complaints

    Kelly Quinn
    Michael Drayton's poem Peirs Gaveston tells the story of Edward II's doomed lover and is modeled closely on the royal mistress complaint poems of the 1590s, and reading the poem through the genre is illuminating. The poem differs from its models significantly, however, in that the royal "mistress" of Drayton's poem is male. This difference signifies politically, and the poem demonstrates the dangerous power of male royal consorts who translate their erotic sway into active political power. Pointed parallels with the royal mistress complaint poems accentuate the consequences for rulers in taking male lovers, and Drayton makes connections between Gaveston's use of the penetrative sexual position with his increasing political power and authority over Edward II. In distinction, the female royal mistress poems in fact tend to minimize the political power the historical women actually wielded; whereas their power is contained by the complaint poems, Gaveston's is magnified. Gaveston frames his relationship in the language of humanist friendship, but he uses the rhetoric of friendship and its mirroring imagery as part of his strategy for achieving first equality and then dominance over the King. For Drayton, the royal mistress complaint genre functions as both precursor and foil to Peirs Gaveston. (K.Q.) [source]

    Decomposing the construct of ambivalence over emotional expression in a Chinese cultural context

    Sylvia Xiaohua Chen
    The present study examined the construct of ambivalence over emotional expression proposed by King and Emmons (1990) in the Chinese context, and identified a factor structure different from those proposed in previous Western studies. The results of this study provided discriminant validity for this newly extracted two-factor structure of ambivalence, viz., Emotional Rumination and Emotional Suppression. Emotional Rumination was significantly predicted by the personality scales of introversion and inferiority, and the belief dimension of fate control, whereas Emotional Suppression was predicted by the personality scales of diversity, face, and harmony, and the belief dimension of social complexity. The different effects of Emotional Rumination and Emotional Suppression in predicting life satisfaction showed that emotional experience has its own specific characteristics in Chinese culture, and that responding to its emic characteristics will yield a more culturally responsive understanding of emotional experience and expression. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Darwin would be proud: Bioturbation, dynamic denudation, and the power of theory in science

    D. L. Johnson
    Charles Darwin's worm book influenced many early researchers who, following his lead, demonstrated how soil biota mechanically generate new strata and soil horizons, as well as blur or destroy them. Such early observations on biomechanical processes failed to find visibility in our models of landscape evolution for several reasons, chief of which are (1) except for ichnology, an Earth sciences tradition of adopting frameworks where biomechanical processes are absent and (2) a lapse of over 100 years after Darwin before a genetic language backed by supporting theory appeared that could showcase the importance of such processes. Examples of influential Earth science frameworks in which biomechanical processes are absent are the V.V. Dokuchaev,USDA,H. Jenny soil formational (five factors) paradigm, W.M. Davis' geographical cycle, the W. Penck,L.C. King,R.V. Ruhe backwasting-pedimentation concept, the stratigraphic Law of Superposition, and other traditional approaches to archaeology, geomorphology, and pedology. Examples of recent genetic language that serve to ameliorate the problem are soil thickness concepts, biomantle, bioturbation, faunalturbation, floralturbation, and pedoturbation. Examples of recent supporting theory that incorporate biomechanical processes are soil evolution, biomantle evolution, dynamic pedogenesis, and the dynamic denudation framework advocated here. Dynamic denudation is a unified synthesis that elevates bioturbation to parity levels with other major archaeogenic, geomorphogenic, and pedogenic processes. The general framework and its principal elements are summarized and simulated by diagrams and augmented by photographs taken in disparate parts of the world. The model has useful explanatory and predictive value in archaeology, geomorphology, pedology, and other surficial process research. © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. [source]

    Foxe's Book of Martyrs and Early Modern Print Culture By John N. King

    HISTORY, Issue 310 2008
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    ,King of the Sea': The Prince of Wales and the Stuart Monarchy, 1648,1649

    HISTORY, Issue 308 2007
    From their outset, the prince of Wales played a politically and symbolically significant part in the English civil wars. But from mid-1646, with Charles I in the hands of his enemies, primary responsibility for the military and diplomatic aspirations of the House of Stuart devolved almost entirely upon the king's eldest son. Indeed, this essential fact was central to the king's own strategic thinking because he had persuaded himself that his opponents must seek an accommodation with him as long as his successor was at large. The threat posed by the prince became violent reality in 1648 when he commissioned a string of mutinies and rebellions across England and Wales and briefly reasserted royal dominion of the seas. Although his martial and maritime escapades came to nothing, they nevertheless gave the prince his first opportunity to wield the instruments of sovereign power in the exercise of an authority independent of his father's. The second civil war also sharpened the contrast between the prince's freedom of action and the king's hapless captivity. The fortunes of the Stuart monarchy had hit rock bottom, but in the eyes of at least some royalists, an obvious solution had also begun to suggest itself. [source]

    Families of the King: Writing Identity in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle By Alice Sheppard

    HISTORY, Issue 305 2007
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Tribute to Imogene King

    Mary Ann Lavin ScD
    First page of article [source]

    No Easy Choices: Estimating the Effects of United Nations Peacekeeping (Response to King and Zeng)

    In a study published in the American Political Science Review, we argued that United Nations peace operations have had a positive effect on peacebuilding processes after civil war and presented empirical evidence in support of our claim. Gary King and Langche Zeng have criticized our conclusions for being dependent on indefensible theoretical assumptions and unsupported by the empirical evidence. We show that their critique is based on a misinterpretation of our arguments, that our results are robust to alternative econometric assumptions, that their diagnostic tools cannot be meaningfully applied to our data and that they cannot be used to establish the validity of counterfactual inference. [source]

    Officers King and Zeng and the Case of the Unsupported Counterfactual

    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Ossiarz, chivalry and the politics of genre: the case of Fingnl King of Morven, a knight-errant

    First page of article [source]


    ABSTRACT The characteristics of four soybean cultivars, grown in the Northern plain region of the U.S.A. and harvested in different years were investigated. These soybeans were fermented into natto products. The characteristics of the intermediate and finished products were analyzed. Correlation coefficients among certain physical, chemical, sensory characteristics of raw soybeans, intermediate products and finished products were significant (P < 0.05). The ammonia content significantly correlated with firmness of the natto products made from these cultivars (r = 0.65). Minnatto and MN 91-468 cultivars were similar to the Danatto cultivar in objective measurements and sensory properties. Compared with the other cultivars, Natto King had a higher solid matter content (1.92%) in the soaking water, a higher broken bean ratio (22.71%) after steaming and the hardest texture of the finished natto products. The effect of harvest year of Danatto cultivars and the quality attributes of the finished natto products varied with Bacillus natto strains. [source]

    Fluctuation of Vegetative Storage Proteins in the Seedlings of Swietenia macrophylla, Analogous to the Seasonal Changes of Those in the Shoot of the Adult Tree

    Ya-Qin Han
    Abstract In order to identify appropriate plant materials for studying the gene expression and biological function of vegetative storage proteins (VSPs) in woody plants, the VSPs in the seedlings of Swietenia macrophylla King were investigated by using light microscopy, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western-blotting. The seed of S. macrophylla was rich in storage proteins that accumulated in the vacuoles of cotyledon parenchyma cells in appearance of compact spherical grains. The growth and development of S. macrophylla seedlings were characterized by an obvious growth rhythm. The storage proteins in seeds disappeared during seedling growth while VSPs appeared in the stem 2 weeks after seedling leaves matured. Thereafter, the VSPs in the seedling stem almost exhausted during new shoot growth, and when the leaves of new shoot just matured, both the stem beneath the new shoot of seedlings and the stem of new shoot started to accumulate VSPs. Nitrogen application dramatically increased the level of VSPs, but had little influence on the dynamics of VSP consumption and accumulation in seedling stem. Together with these data, the fluctuation of VSPs in seedlings was very similar to that in the branches of the adult trees. In addition, seedlings are easy to be treated due to their small size. Our results suggested that S. macrophylla seedlings were suitable for investigating the biological roles of VSPs and the mechanism of nitrogen storage in trees. [source]

    ASD/PFO Devices: What Is in the Pipeline?

    Since the initial description of an atrial septal defect (ASD) occluding device in the mid-1970s by King and Mills,a number of devices have been developed. To date, various transcatheter devices and methods to close congenital heart defects are currently available commercially or within clinical trials. Devices have been designed specifically for the ASD and patent foramen ovale (PFO). The trend in interventional treatment of intracardiac shunts is toward defect-specific systems and new devices minimizing the foreign material left in the atria. This review first focuses on new devices that are not approved in the United States but are elsewhere, and then reviews the experimental devices for PFO and ASD closure. [source]

    BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Emergency and Critical Care

    Robert Goggs
    BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Emergency and Critical Care Edited by Lesley G. King and Amanda K. Boag Published by the British Small Animal Veterinary Association, 2007, 2nd edition, paperback, 380 pages, Price £85.00, ISBN-13: 978-0905214993 [source]

    D.S. Vogt, A.P. Pless, L.A. King, and D.W. King. ,Deployment stressors, gender, and mental health outcomes among Gulf War I veterans'.

    Journal of Traumatic Stress 18(2) 200
    The original article to which this Erratum refers was published in the Journal of Traumatic Stress 18(2) 2005, 115,127. [source]

    Analgesic and anti-inflammatory actions of robenacoxib in acute joint inflammation in dog

    V. B. SCHMID
    Schmid, V. B., Spreng, D. E., Seewald, W., Jung, M., Lees, P., King, J. N. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory actions of robenacoxib in acute joint inflammation in dog. J. vet. Pharmacol. Therap. 33, 118,131. The objectives of this study were to establish dose,response and blood concentration,response relationships for robenacoxib, a novel nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug with selectivity for inhibition of the cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 isoenzyme, in a canine model of synovitis. Acute synovitis of the stifle joint was induced by intra-articular injection of sodium urate crystals. Robenacoxib (0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mg/kg), placebo and meloxicam (0.2 mg/kg) were administered subcutaneously (s.c.) 3 h after the urate crystals. Pharmacodynamic endpoints included data from forceplate analyses, clinical orthopaedic examinations and time course of inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2 in ex vivo whole blood assays. Blood was collected for pharmacokinetics. Robenacoxib produced dose-related improvement in weight-bearing, pain and swelling as assessed objectively by forceplate analysis (estimated ED50 was 1.23 mg/kg for z peak force) and subjectively by clinical orthopaedic assessments. The analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of robenacoxib were significantly superior to placebo (0.25,4 mg/kg robenacoxib) and were non-inferior to meloxicam (0.5,4 mg/kg robenacoxib). All dosages of robenacoxib produced significant dose-related inhibition of COX-2 (estimated ED50 was 0.52 mg/kg) but no inhibition of COX-1. At a dosage of 1,2 mg/kg administered s.c., robenacoxib should be at least as effective as 0.2 mg/kg of meloxicam in suppressing acute joint pain and inflammation in dogs. [source]

    Exodus as Travelling Theory: Excavating the Promised Land in the African American Imagination

    Anna Hartnell
    This essay won the 2006 Literature Compass Graduate Essay Prize, American Section. Exodus, this article suggests, is one of the defining texts through which Americans have imaginatively re-mapped the nation's relationship to the spectre of ,Egyptian' oppression. This article proposes to consider the evolution of the Exodus text from its pivotal place in an often imperialist presidential rhetoric to its central position in African American elaborations of resistance. I suggest that the story of Exodus issuing from the lips of W. E. B. Du Bois, Martin Luther King or Toni Morrison crucially unsettles the ,innocent' position assumed by America's political establishment in relation to the enigmatic question of ,freedom'. This article reviews the interruptive possibilities of African American re-tellings of the Exodus narrative in the context of Edward Said's notion of ,travelling theory'. In his examination of theories devolved from their point of origin, Said poses a crucial distinction between theories that lose their critical power via domestication to the status quo and those which ,flame out' from this path by reaffirming and even furthering their radical potential. I argue here that it is these destablizing currents that largely animate the African American counter-cultural tradition that excavates the promised land in order to tell of a fundamentally ,unhomely' exodus. Where mainstream invocations of Exodus present America's rendition as an epochal overcoming of Hegel's seemingly inexorable master/slave dialectic, the appropriation of this story by America's internal ,others' is a standing reminder that America is not , contra Hegel's memorable suggestion , the destination of ,History's' end. [source]

    Analytical modelling of the current distribution in resistive loaded thin-wire antennas excited by a transient electric field

    2Article first published online: 28 FEB 200, F. Sagnard
    Abstract The analytical modelling of the excitation of a Wu and King loaded dipole by an oblique transient electric-plane wavefront has been revisited and extended in order to analyze in detail the physical phenomena involved in the time and space domains. The role of several components of the current induced along a dipole as a function of different parameters is discussed. The modelling developed herein allows us to consider a V-dipole. This study will allow us to consider, in a future work, the case of an assembly of dipoles in the space domain for representing more complex antenna geometries. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microwave Opt Technol Lett 48: 730,736, 2006; Published online in Wiley InterScience ( DOI 10.1002/mop.21459 [source]

    Justa Edovardo King (1638)

    MILTON QUARTERLY, Issue 3 2001
    Article first published online: 17 DEC 200
    First page of article [source]

    Translations: Obsequies for Edward King

    MILTON QUARTERLY, Issue 3 2001
    Article first published online: 17 DEC 200
    First page of article [source]

    Population genetic structure of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King, Meliaceae) across the Brazilian Amazon, based on variation at microsatellite loci: implications for conservation

    MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 11 2003
    Maristerra R. Lemes
    Abstract Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla, Meliaceae) is the most valuable and intensively exploited Neotropical tree. No information is available regarding the genetic structure of mahogany in South America, yet the region harbours most of the unlogged populations of this prized hardwood. Here we report on the genetic diversity within and the differentiation among seven natural populations separated by up to 2100 km along the southern arc of the Brazilian Amazon basin. We analysed the variation at eight microsatellite loci for 194 adult individuals. All loci were highly variable, with the number of alleles per locus ranging from 13 to 27 (mean = 18.4). High levels of genetic diversity were found for all populations at the eight loci (mean HE = 0.781, range 0.754,0.812). We found moderate but statistically significant genetic differentiation among populations considering both estimators of FST and RST, , = 0.097 and , = 0.147, respectively. Estimates of , and , were significantly greater than zero for all pairwise population comparisons. Pairwise ,-values were positively and significantly correlated with geographical distance under the isolation-by-distance model. Furthermore, four of the populations exhibited a significant inbreeding coefficient. The finding of local differentiation among Amazonian mahogany populations underscores the need for in situ conservation of multiple populations of S. macrophylla across its distribution in the Brazilian Amazon. In addition, the occurrence of microgeographical genetic differentiation at a local scale indicates the importance of maintaining populations in their diverse habitats, especially in areas with mosaics of topography and soil. [source]

    Three Centuries of Woodlands Indian Art: A Collection of Essays by J. C. H. King and Christian Feest

    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    The Bullet Cluster 1E0657-558 evidence shows modified gravity in the absence of dark matter

    J. R. Brownstein
    ABSTRACT A detailed analysis of the 2006 November 15 data release X-ray surface density ,-map and the strong and weak gravitational lensing convergence ,-map for the Bullet Cluster 1E0657-558 is performed and the results are compared with the predictions of a modified gravity (MOG) and dark matter. Our surface density ,-model is computed using a King ,-model density, and a mass profile of the main cluster and an isothermal temperature profile are determined by the MOG. We find that the main cluster thermal profile is nearly isothermal. The MOG prediction of the isothermal temperature of the main cluster is T= 15.5 ± 3.9 keV, in good agreement with the experimental value T= 14.8+2.0,1.7 keV. Excellent fits to the 2D convergence ,-map data are obtained without non-baryonic dark matter, accounting for the 8, spatial offset between the ,-map and the ,-map reported in Clowe et al. The MOG prediction for the ,-map results in two baryonic components distributed across the Bullet Cluster 1E0657-558 with averaged mass fraction of 83 per cent intracluster medium (ICM) gas and 17 per cent galaxies. Conversely, the Newtonian dark matter ,-model has on average 76 per cent dark matter (neglecting the indeterminant contribution due to the galaxies) and 24 per cent ICM gas for a baryon to dark matter mass fraction of 0.32, a statistically significant result when compared to the predicted ,-cold dark matter cosmological baryon mass fraction of 0.176+0.019,0.012. [source]

    Interpretation of the 1998 outburst of the unique X-ray transient CI Camelopardalis (XTE J0421+560)

    ABSTRACT We present an analysis of the 1998 outburst of the peculiar X-ray binary and X-ray transient CI Cam (XTE J0421+560). We discuss the observations in the framework of several possible models and argue that this outburst can be explained by the thermal instability of the accretion disc, analogous to the outbursts of soft X-ray transients. Applying the model by King & Ritter and Shahbaz, Charles & King on the X-ray light curve, we obtain a realistic mass of the disc at the peak of outburst to be Mh(0) , 1.5 × 1023 g (the distance d= 5 kpc) or 3.8 × 1022 g (d= 2.5 kpc). The disc radius at this moment is then Rh(0) , 2.5 × 1010 cm (d= 5 kpc) or 1.6 × 1010 cm (d= 2.5 kpc), provided that the factor f (the ratio of the mass of the hot disc at that moment with respect to its maximum possible mass) is close to unity. Even if we take a quite low f= 0.05, we still obtain Rh(0) by only 2.7 times larger. The reddening in the outburst maximum and brighter peak absolute magnitude of CI Cam with respect to those of soft X-ray transients in outbursts can be explained if the disc in CI Cam heats up an extended envelope and/or a strong jet is formed. We thus bring firm arguments for Robinson, Ivans & Welsh's hypothesis. On the other hand, we bring the arguments against the mass transfer burst from the donor and the periastron passage of the compact object. [source]

    Taíno Indian Myth and Practice: The Arrival of the Stranger King by William F. Keegan

    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Evolving God: A Provocative View on the Origins of Religion by Barbara J. King

    No abstract is available for this article. [source]