Kindled Seizures (kindled + seizures)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Proteomic Identification of the Involvement of the Mitochondrial Rieske Protein in Epilepsy

EPILEPSIA, Issue 3 2005
Heike Junker
Summary:,Purpose: Kindled seizures are widely used to model epileptogenesis, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the attainment of kindling status are largely unknown. Recently we showed that achievement of kindling status in the Sprague,Dawley rat is associated with a critical developmental interval of 25 1 days; the identification of this long, well-defined developmental interval for inducing kindling status makes possible a dissection of the cellular and genetic events underlying this phenomenon and its relation to normal and pathologic brain function. Methods: By using proteomics on cerebral tissue from our new rat kindling model, we undertook a global analysis of protein expression in kindled animals. Some of the identified proteins were further investigated by using immunohistochemistry. Results: We report the identification of a modified variant of the Rieske iron-sulfur protein, a component of the mitochondrial cytochrome bc1 complex, whose isoelectric point is shifted toward more alkaline values in the hippocampus of kindled rats. By immunohistochemistry, the Rieske protein is well expressed in the hippocampus, except in the CA1 subfield, an area of selective vulnerability to seizures in humans and animal models. We also noted an asymmetric, selective expression of the Rieske protein in the subgranular neurons of the dorsal dentate gyrus, a region implicated in neurogenesis. Conclusions: These results indicate that the Rieske protein may play a role in the response of neurons to seizure activity and could give important new insights into the molecular pathogenesis of epilepsy. [source]

Contrasting Effects of Zonisamide and Acetazolamide on Amygdaloid Kindling in Rats

EPILEPSIA, Issue 11 2001
Koichi Hamada
Summary: ,Purpose: Zonisamide (ZNS) and acetazolamide (AZM) are two antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) that differ in clinical efficacy. To elucidate the mechanisms of action of these compounds, we investigated their therapeutic and prophylactic effects in rats by using a kindling model of partial epilepsy. Methods: Electrodes were implanted into the left amygdala of adult male Wistar rats. The animals were stimulated at the afterdischarge threshold until five stage 5 seizures were induced. The generalized seizure threshold was then determined. Therapeutic effects were examined in rats manifesting successive convulsions with near-threshold stimulation. To test prophylactic effects, drugs were administered intraperitoneally before daily kindling stimulation until the animal had a stage 5 seizure or reached day 18. Results: ZNS (10,40 mg/kg; n = 6) suppressed kindled seizures in a dose-dependent manner. Repeated administration for 7 days produced tolerance to anticonvulsive effects. AZM (25,200 mg/kg; n = 7) showed limited therapeutic effect, alleviating only the clonic convulsion in stage 5 seizures and reducing afterdischarge duration. Secondary generalization was not significantly suppressed during repeated treatment (50,200 mg/kg; n = 6). ZNS, 25 or 40 mg/kg (n = 8), significantly retarded seizure development; 15.0 or 17.0 daily stimulations were required to produce a stage 5 seizure. AZM, 50,200 mg/kg (n = 6), also retarded seizure development, with 14.0,14.8 stimulations required. Conclusions: ZNS exhibited modest therapeutic and prophylactic effects, whereas AZM showed mainly prophylactic effects. Hypotheses are presented that may explain the mechanisms of action of these drugs. [source]

Claustral Lesions Delay Amygdaloid Kindling in the Rat

EPILEPSIA, Issue 9 2000
Paul Mohapel
Summary: Purpose: Lesions of the claustrum in cats and primates have been shown to disrupt the development and expression of amygdaloid-kindled seizures in cats and primates. Because the structure and connectivity of the claustrum can vary between species, we wanted to examine the effects of claustral lesions on kindling in rats. Methods: One group of rats received bilateral radiofrequency lesions of both anterior and posterior regions of the claustrum before amygdaloid kindling. Another group of rats received bilateral anterior and posterior radiofrequency lesions of the claustrum after amygdaloid kindling. Some rats were tested for transfer of kindling to the contralateral amygdala after claustral lesions. Results: Small lesions that destroyed 13% of the claustrum were capable of delaying, but not blocking, amygdaloid kindling. The delay in kindling was due to an increase in the stimulation trials required to kindle to stage 5 seizures. The lesions had no effect on established kindled seizures or on transfer to the contralateral amygdala. Conclusions: As in other species, the claustrum in the rat appears to play a role in kindling from the amygdala. Because of the restricted size of our claustral lesions, however, we were unable to conclusively assess the full extent of the claustrum's participation in limbic kindling. [source]

Anticonvulsant and antiepileptic actions of 2-deoxy-D-glucose in epilepsy models,

Carl E. Stafstrom MD
Objective Conventional anticonvulsants reduce neuronal excitability through effects on ion channels and synaptic function. Anticonvulsant mechanisms of the ketogenic diet remain incompletely understood. Because carbohydrates are restricted in patients on the ketogenic diet, we evaluated the effects of limiting carbohydrate availability by reducing glycolysis using the glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) in experimental models of seizures and epilepsy. Methods Acute anticonvulsant actions of 2DG were assessed in vitro in rat hippocampal slices perfused with 7.5mM [K+]o, 4-aminopyridine, or bicuculline, and in vivo against seizures evoked by 6Hz stimulation in mice, audiogenic stimulation in Fring's mice, and maximal electroshock and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazol (Metrazol) in rats. Chronic antiepileptic effects of 2DG were evaluated in rats kindled from olfactory bulb or perforant path. Results 2DG (10mM) reduced interictal epileptiform bursts induced by 7.5mM [K+]o, 4-aminopyridine, and bicuculline, and electrographic seizures induced by high [K+]o in CA3 of hippocampus. 2DG reduced seizures evoked by 6Hz stimulation in mice (effective dose [ED]50 = 79.7mg/kg) and audiogenic stimulation in Fring's mice (ED50 = 206.4mg/kg). 2DG exerted chronic antiepileptic action by increasing afterdischarge thresholds in perforant path (but not olfactory bulb) kindling and caused a twofold slowing in progression of kindled seizures at both stimulation sites. 2DG did not protect against maximal electroshock or Metrazol seizures. Interpretation The glycolytic inhibitor 2DG exerts acute anticonvulsant and chronic antiepileptic actions, and has a novel pattern of effectiveness in preclinical screening models. These results identify metabolic regulation as a potential therapeutic target for seizure suppression and modification of epileptogenesis. Ann Neurol 2009;65:435,448. [source]