kinase/Akt Pathway (kinase/akt + pathway)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The TLR3 ligand polyI:C downregulates connexin 43 expression and function in astrocytes by a mechanism involving the NF-,B and PI3 kinase pathways

GLIA, Issue 8 2006
Yongmei Zhao
Abstract Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) is a component of the innate immune response that responds to dsRNA viruses and virus replication intermediates. In this study we show that activation of astrocytes with the dsRNA mimetic polyinosinic-cytidylic acid (pI:C) results in loss of expression of connexin43 (Cx43) mRNA and protein while upregulating the expression of the ionotropic P2 receptor P2X4R. Analysis of the signaling pathways involved failed to demonstrate a role for the p38 MAP kinase, ERK, or JNK signaling pathways whereas an inhibitor of the PI3 kinase/Akt pathway effectively blocked the action of pI:C. Using adenoviral vectors containing a super-repressor of NF-,B (NF-,B SR) construct or a dominant negative interferon regulatory factor 3 (dnIRF3) construct showed that inhibition of both transcription factors also blocked the effects of pI:C. To explore the functional consequences of pI:C activation we used a pore-forming assay for P2X4R activity and a scrape loading assay for gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC). No pore-forming activity consistent with functional P2X4R expression was detected in either control or activated astrocytes. In contrast, robust Lucifer yellow transfer indicative of GJIC was detected in resting cells that was lost following pI:C activation. The dnIRF3 construct failed to restore GJIC whereas the NF-,B SR or the NF-,B inhibitor BAY11-7082 and the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 all significantly reversed the effect of pI:C on GJ connectivity. We conclude that activation of the innate immune response in astrocytes is associated with functional loss of GJIC through a pathway involving NF-,B and PI3 kinase. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Ischemic preconditioning of the murine liver protects through the Akt kinase pathway,

HEPATOLOGY, Issue 3 2006
Kunihiko Izuishi
Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury occurs in the settings of transplantation, trauma, and elective liver resection. Ischemic preconditioning has been used as a strategy to reduce inflammation and organ damage from I/R of the liver. However, the mechanisms involved in this process are poorly understood. We examined the role of the phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI3) kinase/Akt-signaling pathway during hepatic ischemic preconditioning (IPC). Prior to a prolonged warm ischemic insult, BALB/c mice were subjected to a 20-minute IPC period consisting of 10 minutes of ischemia and 10 minutes of reperfusion. Mice undergoing IPC demonstrated a significantly greater level and earlier activation of Akt in the liver compared with control animals. IPC also resulted in markedly less hepatocellular injury and improved survival compared with control animals. Akt activation associated with hepatic IPC suppressed the activity of several modulators of apoptosis, including Bad, glycogen synthase kinase ,, and caspase-3. In addition, IPC also inhibited the activities of c-Jun N -terminal kinase and nuclear factor ,B after I/R. Pretreatment of mice with PI3 kinase inhibitors completely abolished Akt phosphorylation and the protective effects seen with IPC. In conclusion, these results indicate that the PI3 kinase/Akt pathway plays an essential role in the protective effects of IPC in hepatic I/R injury. Modulation of this pathway may be a potential strategy in clinical settings of ischemic liver injury to decrease organ damage. Supplementary material for this article can be found on the HEPATOLOGY website ( (HEPATOLOGY 2006;44:573,580.) [source]

Transcriptional and post-transcriptional control of DNA methyltransferase 3B is regulated by phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/Akt pathway in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines

Chuanzhong Mei
Abstract DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) are essential for maintenance of aberrant methylation in cancer cells and play important roles in the development of cancers. Unregulated activation of PI3K/Akt pathway is a prominent feature of many human cancers including human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In present study, we found that DNMT3B mRNA and protein levels were decreased in a dose- and time-dependent manner in HCC cell lines with LY294002 treatment. However, we detected that LY294002 treatment did not induce increase of the degradation of DNMT3B protein using protein decay assay. Moreover we found that Akt induced alteration of the expression of DNMT3B in cells transfected with myristylated variants of Akt2 or cells transfected with small interfering RNA respectively. Based on DNMT3B promoter dual-luciferase reporter assay, we found PI3K pathway regulates DNMT3B expression at transcriptional level. And DNMT3B mRNA decay analysis suggested that down-regulation of DNMT3B by LY294002 is also post-transcriptional control. Furthermore, we demonstrated that LY294002 down-regulated HuR expression in a time-dependent manner in BEL-7404. In summary, we have, for the first time, demonstrate that PI3K/Akt pathway regulates the expression of DNMT3B at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, which is particularly important to understand the effects of PI3K/Akt and DNMT3B on hepatocarcinogenesis. J. Cell. Biochem. 111: 158,167, 2010. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Activation of phosphoinositide-3 kinase/Akt pathway by FeSO4 in rat cerebral cortex synaptic endings

Romina M. Uranga
Abstract The aim of this work was to study the involvement of the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway in synaptic endings incubated under oxidative stress conditions. Synaptosomes purified from rat cerebral cortex were exposed to FeSO4 (50 ,M) for different periods of time. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction and lactate dehydrogenate (LDH) leakage were significantly affected after 5 min of incubation in the presence of FeSO4, with respect to control conditions. In whole synaptosomes incubated in the presence of [,- 32P]ATP, phosphoinositide (PPI) labeling was increased after 5 min of Fe2+ exposure. This effect was prevented by the specific PI3K inhibitor LY294002. Anti-p85 immunoprecipitates (IPs) obtained from synaptosomes preincubated with Fe2+ (5 min) showed a PI3K activity two-fold higher than the activity recovered under control conditions. Additionally, Akt activation was temporally coincident with PI3K activation. LY294002 was not able to prevent the LDH leakage and diminution of MTT reduction induced by Fe2+. Our results demonstrate that free iron provokes the early activation of PI3K/Akt pathway, but this activation is not sufficient for protecting synaptic endings from oxidative damage. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]