Kinase Signalling (kinase + signalling)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Terms modified by Kinase Signalling

  • kinase signalling pathway

  • Selected Abstracts

    Helicobacter pylori activates protein kinase C delta to control Raf in MAP kinase signalling: Role in AGS epithelial cell scattering and elongation

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 10 2009
    Sabine Brandt
    Abstract Helicobacter pylori is a major etiological agent in the development of chronic gastritis, duodenal ulcer and gastric carcinoma in humans. Virulent H. pylori strains harbor a type IV secretion system (T4SS) encoded by the cag pathogenicity island. This T4SS injects the CagA protein into gastric epithelial cells leading to actin-cytoskeletal rearrangements followed by cell elongation and scattering. Here we report that PMA (4,-phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate), a well-known cell-permeable activator of protein kinase C (PKC), induces a remarkably similar cellular phenotype as compared to infection with H. pylori. PKCs comprise a large family of serine/threonine kinases which are important for multiple physiological processes of host cells. We therefore investigated the role of individual PKC members and the signalling pathways involved in phenotypical outcome. Using isoform-specific silencing RNAs and pharmacological inhibitors we found that two isoforms, PKC-, and PKC-,, were essential for both PMA- and H. pylori -induced elongation phenotype. Furthermore, we provide evidence that PKC-, activity is profoundly stimulated during the course of infection using activation-specific antibodies against PKC phosphorylated at threonine residue 505 or serine residue 660. Infection with H. pylori wild-type and mutants showed that at least two bacterial factors activate PKC-, in a time-dependent manner, one of which is CagA. Immunofluorescence microscopy studies further demonstrated that phosphorylated PKC-, is accumulated and recruited to dynamic actin-structures at the cell membrane. Finally, we show that PKC-, specifically targets Raf kinase to stimulate the Erk1/2 kinase pathway, which is also crucial for phenotypical outcome. Thus, PKC-, is another important mediator of H. pylori -induced pathogenesis. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Calcineurin phosphatase in signal transduction: lessons from fission yeast

    GENES TO CELLS, Issue 7 2002
    Reiko Sugiura
    Calcineurin (protein phosphatase 2B), the only serine/threonine phosphatase under the control of Ca2+/calmodulin, is an important mediator in signal transmission, connecting the Ca2+ -dependent signalling to a wide variety of cellular responses. Furthermore, calcineurin is specifically inhibited by the immunosuppressant drugs cyclosporin A and tacrolimus (FK506), and these drugs have been a powerful tool for identifying many of the roles of calcineurin. Calcineurin is enriched in the neural tissues, and also distributes broadly in other tissues. The structure of the protein is highly conserved from yeast to man. The combined use of powerful genetics and of specific calcineurin inhibitors in fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe (S. pombe) identified new components of the calcineurin pathway, and defined new roles of calcineurin in the regulation of the many cellular processes. Recent data has revealed functional interactions in which calcineurin phosphatase is involved, such as the cross-talk between the Pmk1 MAP kinase signalling, or the PI signalling. Calcineurin also participates in membrane traffic and cytokinesis of fission yeast through its functional connection with members of the small GTPase Rab/Ypt family, and Type II myosin, respectively. These findings highlight the potential of fission yeast genetic studies to elucidate conserved elements of signal transduction cascades. [source]

    Trophic factors attenuate nitric oxide mediated neuronal and axonal injury in vitro: roles and interactions of mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathways

    Alastair Wilkins
    Abstract Inflammation in the central nervous system occurs in diseases such as multiple sclerosis and leads to axon dysfunction and destruction. Both in vitro and in vivo observations have suggested an important role for nitric oxide (NO) in mediating inflammatory axonopathy. The purposes of this study were to model inflammatory axonopathy in vitro and identify modulators of the process. Rat cortical neurones were cultured and exposed to an NO-donor plus potential protective factors. Cultures were then assessed for neuronal survival, axon survival and markers of intracellular signalling pathways. The NO-donor produced dose-dependent neuronal loss and a large degree of axon destruction. Oligodendrocyte conditioned medium (OCM) and insulin-like growth factor type-1 (IGF-1), but not glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), improved survival of neurones exposed to NO donors. In addition p38 MAP kinase was activated by NO exposure and inhibition of p38 signalling led to neuronal and axonal survival effects. OCM and IGF-1 (but not GDNF) reduced p38 activation in NO-exposed cortical neurones. OCM, IGF-1 and GDNF improved axon survival in cultures exposed to NO, a process dependent on mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-related kinase signalling. This study emphasizes that different mechanisms may underlie neuronal/axonal destructive processes, and suggests that trophic factors may modulate NO-mediated neurone/axon destruction via specific pathways. [source]

    Heparin regulates colon cancer cell growth through p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling

    CELL PROLIFERATION, Issue 1 2010
    G. Chatzinikolaou
    Objectives:, Heparin acts as an extracellular stimulus capable of activating major cell signalling pathways. Thus, we examined the putative mechanisms utilized by heparin to stimulate HT29, SW1116 and HCT116 colon cancer cell growth. Materials and methods:, Possible participation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade on heparin-induced HT29, SW1116 and HCT116 colon cancer cell growth was evaluated using specific MAPK cascade inhibitors, Western blot analysis, real-time quantitative PCR and FACS apoptosis analysis. Results:, Treatment with a highly specific p38 kinase inhibitor, SB203580, significantly (50,70%) inhibited heparin-induced colon cancer cell growth, demonstrating that p38 MAPK signalling is involved in their heparin-induced proliferative response. This was shown to be correlated with increased (up to 3-fold) phosphorylation of 181/182 threonine/tyrosine residues on p38 MAP kinase. Furthermore, heparin inhibited cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21WAF1/CIP1 and p53 tumour suppressor gene and protein expression up to 2-fold or 1.8-fold, respectively, and stimulated cyclin D1 expression up to 1.8-fold, in these cell lines through a p38-mediated mechanism. On the other hand, treatment with heparin did not appear to affect HT29, SW1116 and HCT116 cell levels of apoptosis. Conclusions:, This study demonstrates that an extracellular glycosaminoglycan, heparin, finely modulates expression of genes crucial to cell cycle regulation through specific activation of p38 MAP kinase to stimulate colon cancer cell growth. [source]

    Ringing the alarm bells: signalling and apoptosis in influenza virus infected cells

    Stephan Ludwig
    Summary Small RNA viruses such as influenza viruses extensively manipulate host-cell functions to support their replication. At the same time the infected cell induces an array of defence mechanisms to fight the invader. These processes are mediated by a variety of intracellular signalling cascades. Here we will review the current knowledge of functional kinase signalling and apoptotic events in influenza virus infected cells and how these viruses have learned to misuse these cellular responses for efficient replication. [source]