Kinase Pathway (kinase + pathway)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Kinase Pathway

  • jun n-terminal kinase pathway
  • map kinase pathway
  • mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway
  • n-terminal kinase pathway
  • protein kinase pathway

  • Selected Abstracts

    Carbon Monoxide has Antioxidative Properties in the Liver Involving p38 MAP Kinase Pathway in a Murine Model of Systemic Inflammation

    MICROCIRCULATION, Issue 7 2010
    Please cite this paper as: Brugger, Schick, Brock, Baumann, Muellenbach, Roewer and Wunder (2010). Carbon Monoxide has Antioxidative Properties in the Liver Involving p38 MAP Kinase Pathway in a Murine Model of Systemic Inflammation. Microcirculation17(7), 504,513. Abstract Objective:, Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important in the hepatocellular injury process during a systemic inflammation. We examined the role of carbon monoxide (CO) on the hepatic generation of ROS with in-vivo and in-vitro models of systemic inflammation. Methods:, Using a murine model of bilateral hindlimb ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) we examined the effect of CO treatment on hepatic ROS formation, oxidative status, and cell injury. Cultured HUVEC were used to investigate intracellular pathways. Results:, CO treatment reduced hepatic lipid peroxidation, re-established total hepatic glutathione and glutathione disulfide (GSH/GSSG) levels and reduced hepatocellular injury. Inhibition of heme oxygenase (HO) during treatment with CO during hindlimb I/R failed to alter the antioxidant qualities provided by CO. The production of ROS after tumor necrosis factor-, (TNF-,) stimulation in HUVEC was diminished after exposure to CO. Treatment with CO during HO inhibition reduced both ROS formation and cell injury. Inhibiting the p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) pathway with pyridinyl imidazol (SB203580) revealed that the antioxidant potential of CO involved the activation of p38 MAPK. Conclusions:, CO has direct antioxidant potential independently of any HO activity during systemic inflammation. The antioxidant effects afforded by CO involve the activation of the p38 MAPK pathway. [source]

    Helicobacter pylori activates protein kinase C delta to control Raf in MAP kinase signalling: Role in AGS epithelial cell scattering and elongation

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 10 2009
    Sabine Brandt
    Abstract Helicobacter pylori is a major etiological agent in the development of chronic gastritis, duodenal ulcer and gastric carcinoma in humans. Virulent H. pylori strains harbor a type IV secretion system (T4SS) encoded by the cag pathogenicity island. This T4SS injects the CagA protein into gastric epithelial cells leading to actin-cytoskeletal rearrangements followed by cell elongation and scattering. Here we report that PMA (4,-phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate), a well-known cell-permeable activator of protein kinase C (PKC), induces a remarkably similar cellular phenotype as compared to infection with H. pylori. PKCs comprise a large family of serine/threonine kinases which are important for multiple physiological processes of host cells. We therefore investigated the role of individual PKC members and the signalling pathways involved in phenotypical outcome. Using isoform-specific silencing RNAs and pharmacological inhibitors we found that two isoforms, PKC-, and PKC-,, were essential for both PMA- and H. pylori -induced elongation phenotype. Furthermore, we provide evidence that PKC-, activity is profoundly stimulated during the course of infection using activation-specific antibodies against PKC phosphorylated at threonine residue 505 or serine residue 660. Infection with H. pylori wild-type and mutants showed that at least two bacterial factors activate PKC-, in a time-dependent manner, one of which is CagA. Immunofluorescence microscopy studies further demonstrated that phosphorylated PKC-, is accumulated and recruited to dynamic actin-structures at the cell membrane. Finally, we show that PKC-, specifically targets Raf kinase to stimulate the Erk1/2 kinase pathway, which is also crucial for phenotypical outcome. Thus, PKC-, is another important mediator of H. pylori -induced pathogenesis. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Maspin controls mammary tumor cell migration through inhibiting Rac1 and Cdc42, but not the RhoA GTPase

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 5 2007
    Heidi Y. Shi
    Abstract Rac1 and Cdc42 are members of the Rho family of small GTPases that play essential roles in diverse cellular functions, including cell migration. The activities of these Rho family proteins are controlled by growth factor receptor activation and cell-ECM interactions. Here, we show that maspin, a well-documented tumor suppressor gene, also controls cell motility through inhibiting Rac1/Cdc42 activity. Using the GST-PAK and GST-Rho binding protein pull-down assays for GTP-bound Rac1, Cdc42, and RhoA, we showed that treatment of MDA-MB-231 tumor cells with recombinant maspin for a short time period significantly inhibited the activity of Rac1 and Cdc42, but not RhoA. The reactive site loop (RSL) within maspin protein is the functional domain involved in the inhibition. Maspin mutants with the RSL deleted or a point mutation in the RSL region lost their inhibitory activity. We further examined the ability of maspin to inhibit Rac1- and Cdc42-mediated signaling pathways and transcription factors. Treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells with maspin led to the inhibition of JNK kinase activity as assayed by immuno-kinase assays. In addition, the AP-1 transcription activity downstream of JNK kinase pathway was also reduced. Together, we have identified Rac1 and Cdc42 as the downstream targets that mediate the inhibition of mammary tumor cell migration by maspin. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Coordination of development and metabolism in the pre-midblastula transition zebrafish embryo

    Bryce A. Mendelsohn
    Abstract To define the mechanisms that coordinate early embryonic development and metabolism, we have examined the response of zebrafish embryos to anoxia before the midblastula transition. Our findings reveal that anoxic pre-midblastula transition embryos slow the cell cycle, arrest before the midblastula transition and can recover normally if restored to a normoxic environment. Analyses of respiratory rates reveal that pre-midblastula transition embryos are less reliant on oxidative phosphorylation than older embryos. Interestingly, arrest in anoxia occurs despite inhibition of zygotic transcription, revealing a central role for maternal factors in the response to energy limitation. Consistent with this concept, we demonstrate that the posttranslational energy-sensing AMP-activated protein kinase pathway is activated in anoxia in pre-midblastula transition embryos. Taken together, these findings demonstrate a maternal program capable of coordinating developmental rate and metabolism in the absence of transcription-based pathways or cell cycle checkpoints. Developmental Dynamics 237:1789,1798, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    N -methyl- d -aspartate-triggered neuronal death in organotypic hippocampal cultures is endocytic, autophagic and mediated by the c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway

    Tiziana Borsello
    Abstract Acute excitotoxic neuronal death was studied in rat organotypic hippocampal slices exposed to 100 µmN -methyl- d -aspartate. Fulgurant death of pyramidal neurons occurred in the CA1 and CA3 regions and was already detectable within 2 h of the N-methyl- d -aspartate administration. Morphologically, the neuronal death was neither apoptotic nor necrotic but had the hallmarks of autophagic neuronal death, as shown by acid phosphatase histochemistry in both CA1 and CA3 and by electron microscopy in CA1. The dying neurons also manifested strong endocytosis of horseradish peroxidase or microperoxidase, occurring probably by a fluid phase mechanism, and followed, surprisingly, by nuclear entry. In addition to these autophagic and endocytic characteristics, there were indications that the c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway was activated. Its target c-Jun was selectively phosphorylated in CA1, CA3 and the dentate gyrus and c-Fos, the transcription of which is under the positive control of c-Jun N-terminal kinase target Elk1, was selectively up-regulated in CA1 and CA3. All these effects, the neuronal death itself and the associated autophagy and endocytosis, were totally prevented by a cell-permeable inhibitor of the interaction between c-Jun N-terminal kinase and certain of its targets. These results show that pyramidal neurons undergoing excitotoxic death in this situation are autophagic and endocytic and that both the cell death and the associated autophagy and endocytosis are under the control of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway. [source]

    Trafficking of neurokinin receptors: regulation, mechanism and function

    N. Bunnett
    Cellular responses to agonists of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) depend in large part on the trafficking of receptors between the plasma membrane and intracellular locations. Receptor activation usually triggers rapid endocytosis of receptors, which either recycle to the cell surface or are targeted for degradation, depending on the receptor in question and the nature of the stimulation. Activation of neurokinin receptors (NKRs) induces membrane translocation of G-protein receptor kinases, which phosphorylate the receptors and ,-arrestins, which interact with phosphorylated receptors. ,-arrestins: 1) uncouple receptors from G-proteins to mediate desensitization; 2) are adaptors for clathrin and AP-2 and mediate clathrin and dynamin-dependent endocytosis of receptors; and 3) interact with components of the MAP kinase pathway such as src, and thereby determine the subcellular location and function of activated MAP kinases. The fate of endocytosed NKRs depends on the receptor and the nature of the stimulus. Transient stimulation with low concentrations of SP (1 nm, 10 min) induces rapid recycling of the NK1R from superficially located endosomes by a mechanism that is mediated by rab4a and rab11a. Higher concentrations of SP (10 nm) induce rab5a-dependent trafficking of the NK1R to perinuclear sorting endosomes and a gradual recycling to the plasma membrane. Continuous stimulation with high concentrations of SP (100 nm, 180 min) induces NK1R ubiquitination and trafficking for degradation. The fate of endocytosed receptors also depends on their interaction with ,-arrestins. The NK1R forms stable high-affinity interactions with both ,-arrestins 1 and 2 at the plasma membrane and in endosomes, whereas the NK3R interacts transiently only with ,-arrestin 2 at the cell surface. The nature of these interactions is specified by domains in the intracellular loop 3 and the carboxyl terminus and determine the rate of recycling and resensitization of these receptors. [source]

    Proteolysis of the tumour suppressor hDlg in response to osmotic stress is mediated by caspases and independent of phosphorylation

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 2 2009
    Francisco A. Iñesta-Vaquera
    Human disc-large (hDlg) is a scaffold protein critical for the maintenance of cell polarity and adhesion. hDlg is a component of the p38, MAP kinase pathway, which is important for the adaptation of mammalian cells to changes in environmental osmolarity. Here we report a strong decrease in the levels of hDlg protein in the human epithelial cell line HeLa when exposed to osmotic shock. This is independent of the phosphorylation state of hDlg, is prevented by preincubating the cell with the caspase inhibitor z-VAD and is part of the apoptotic process triggered by cellular stress. Although, both caspase 3 and caspase 6 are strongly activated by osmotic shock, the time course of caspase 6 activation parallels hDlg degradation, suggesting that this caspase may be responsible for the proteolysis. Mutating hDlg Asp747 to Ala abolishes caspase-induced cleavage, but does not affect the early stage of apoptosis or cell attachment. Our findings show that osmotic stress triggers hDlg degradation through a mechanism different from the one mediated by proteasomes, and we identify hDlg as a caspase substrate during the apoptotic process, although its proteolysis may not be implicated in the progression of early apoptosis. [source]

    Coupling of endothelin receptors to the ERK/MAP kinase pathway,

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 20 2001
    Roles of palmitoylation
    Endothelins are potent mitogens that stimulate extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK/MAP kinases) through their cognate G-protein-coupled receptors, ETA and ETB. To address the role of post-translational ET receptor modifications such as acylation on ERK activation and to identify relevant downstream effectors coupling the ET receptor to the ERK signaling cascades we have constructed a panel of palmitoylation-deficient ET receptor mutants with differential G, protein binding capacity. Endothelin-1 stimulation of wild-type ETA or ETB induced a fivefold to sixfold increase in ERK in COS-7 and CHO cells whereas full-length nonpalmitoylated ETA and ETB mutants failed to stimulate ERK. A truncated ETB lacking the C-terminal tail domain including putative phosphorylation and arrestin binding site(s) but retaining the critical palmitoylation site(s) was still able to fully stimulate ERK activation. Using mutated ET receptors with selective G-protein-coupling we found that endothelin-induced stimulation of G,q, but not of G,i or G,s, is essential for endothelin-mediated ERK activation. Inhibition of protein kinases A and C or epidermal growth factor receptor kinase failed to prevent ETA - and ETB -mediated ERK activation whereas blockage of phospholipase C-, completely abrogated endothelin-promoted ERK activation through ETA and ETB in recombinant COS-7 and native C6 cells. Complex formation of Ca2+ or inhibition of Src family tyrosine kinases prevented ET-1-induced ERK-2 activation in C6-cells. Our results indicate that endothelin-promoted ERK/MAPK activation criticially depends on palmitoylation but not on phosphorylation of ET receptors, and that the G,q/phospholipase C-,/Ca2+/Src signaling cascade is necessary for efficient coupling of ET receptors to the ERK/MAPK pathway. [source]

    Role of the Slt2 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in cell wall integrity and virulence in Candida glabrata

    FEMS YEAST RESEARCH, Issue 3 2010
    Taiga Miyazaki
    Abstract The Slt2 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway plays a major role in maintaining fungal cell wall integrity. In this study, we investigated the effects of SLT2 deletion and overexpression on drug susceptibility and virulence in the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida glabrata. While the ,slt2 strain showed decreased tolerance to elevated temperature and cell wall-damaging agents, the SLT2 -overexpressing strain exhibited increased tolerance to these stresses. A mutant lacking Rlm1, a transcription factor downstream of Slt2, displayed a cell wall-associated phenotype intermediate to that of the ,slt2 strain. When RLM1 was overexpressed, micafungin tolerance was increased in the wild-type strain and partial restoration of the drug tolerance was observed in the ,slt2 background. It was also demonstrated that echinocandin-class antifungals were more effective against C. glabrata under acidic conditions or when used concurrently with the chitin synthesis inhibitor nikkomycin Z. Finally, in a mouse model of disseminated candidiasis, the deletion and overexpression of C. glabrata SLT2 resulted in mild decreases and increases, respectively, in the CFUs from murine organs compared with the wild-type strain. These fundamental data will help in further understanding the mechanisms of cell wall stress response in C. glabrata and developing more effective treatments using echinocandin antifungals in clinical settings. [source]

    Two-component signal transduction in human fungal pathogens

    FEMS YEAST RESEARCH, Issue 2 2006
    Michael Kruppa
    Abstract Signal transduction pathways provide mechanisms for adaptation to stress conditions. One of the most studied of these pathways is the HOG1 MAP kinase pathway that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used to adapt cells to osmostress. The HOG1 MAPK has also been studied in Candida albicans, and more recently observations on the Hog1p functions have been described in two other human pathogens, Aspergillus fumigatus and Cryptococcus neoformans. The important, but not surprising, concept is that this pathway is used for different yet similar functions in each of these fungi, given their need to adapt to different environmental signals. Current studies of C. albicans focus upon the identification of two-component signal proteins that, in both C. albicans and S. cerevisiae, regulate the HOG1 MAPK. In C. albicans, these proteins regulate cell wall biosynthesis (and, therefore, adherence to host cells), osmotic and oxidant adaptation, white-opaque switching, morphogenesis, and virulence of the organism. [source]

    Novel insights into the osmotic stress response of yeast

    FEMS YEAST RESEARCH, Issue 3 2002
    Willem H Mager
    Abstract Response to hyperosmolarity in the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has attracted a great deal of attention of molecular and cellular biologists in recent years, from both the fundamental scientific and applied viewpoint. Indeed the underlying molecular mechanisms form a clear demonstration of the intricate interplay of (environmental) signalling events, regulation of gene expression and control of metabolism that is pivotal to any living cell. In this article we briefly review the cellular response to conditions of hyperosmolarity, with focus on the high-osmolarity glycerol mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway as the major signalling route governing cellular adaptations. Special attention will be paid to the recent finding that in the yeast cell also major structural changes occur in order to ensure maintenance of cell integrity. The intriguing role of glycerol in growth of yeast under (osmotic) stress conditions is highlighted. [source]

    Sustained activation of M-Ras induced by nerve growth factor is essential for neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells

    GENES TO CELLS, Issue 9 2006
    Peng Sun
    Neuronal differentiation in PC12 cells induced by nerve growth factor (NGF) requires sustained activation of ERK/MAP kinase pathway (Raf,MEK,ERK cascade). Although classical Ras (H-Ras, K-Ras, and N-Ras) activated by NGF signaling induces activation of ERK pathway, the activation is transient and not sufficient for PC12 cell differentiation. Instead, it has been widely accepted that NGF signaling-mediated Rap1 activation causes sustained activation of ERK pathway. There has been no direct evidence, however, that Rap1 participates in neuronal differentiation. Here we show that NGF signaling induces sustained activation of M-Ras and subsequent sustained activation of ERK pathway and the transcription factor CREB leading to PC12 cell differentiation. Exogenously expressed constitutively active mutant of M-Ras caused neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells and activating phosphorylation of ERK, whereas activated Rap1 did not. Knockdown of endogenous M-Ras by small interfering RNAs as well as the expression of a dominant,negative mutant of M-Ras interfered with NGF-induced neuritogenesis. Since MEK inhibitors prevented M-Ras-induced neurite outgrowth, ERK pathway participates in this differentiation pathway. Furthermore, M-Ras brought about ERK pathway-mediated activating phosphorylation of CREB and the CREB-mediated transcription. In addition, a dominant,negative mutant of CREB inhibited M-Ras-induced neuritogenesis. Taken together, NGF-induced PC12 cell differentiation requires M-Ras,ERK pathway-mediated activation of CREB. M-Ras was predominantly expressed in the hippocampus and cerebellum of mouse brain and in the gray matter of the spinal cord. All these properties of M-Ras were apparently indistinguishable from those of H-Ras. However, NGF stimulation caused transient activation of classical Ras proteins but sustained activation of M-Ras as well as sustained activating phosphorylation of ERK and CREB. Therefore, M-Ras is essential for neuronal differentiation in PC12 cells by inducing sustained activation of ERK pathway. [source]

    Long-term modulation of glucose utilization by IL-1, and TNF-, in astrocytes: Na+ pump activity as a potential target via distinct signaling mechanisms

    GLIA, Issue 1 2002
    Céline Véga
    Abstract Interleukin-1, (IL-1,) and tumor necrosis factor-, (TNF-,) markedly stimulate glucose utilization in primary cultures of mouse cortical astrocytes. The mechanism that gives rise to this effect, which takes place several hours after application of cytokine, has remained unclear. Experiments were conducted to identify the major signaling cascades involved in the metabolic action of cytokine. First, the selective IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) prevents the effect of IL-1, on glucose utilization in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas it has no effect on the action of TNF-,. Then, using inhibitors of three classical signaling cascades known to be activated by cytokines, it appears that the PI3 kinase is essential for the effect of both IL-1, and TNF-,, whereas the action of IL-1, also requires activation of the MAP kinase pathway. Participation of a phospholipase C-dependent pathway does not appear critical for both IL-1, and TNF-,. Inhibition of NO synthase by L-NAME did not prevent the metabolic response to both IL-1, and TNF-,, indicating that nitric oxide is probably not involved. In contrast, the Na+/K+ ATPase inhibitor ouabain prevents the IL-1,- and TNF-,-stimulated 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) uptake. When treatment of astrocytes with a cytokine was followed 24 h later by an acute application of glutamate, a synergistic enhancement in glucose utilization was observed. This effect was greatly reduced by ouabain. These data suggest that Na+ pump activity is a common target for both the long-term metabolic action of cytokines promoted by the activation of distinct signaling pathways and the enhanced metabolic response to glutamate. GLIA 39:10,18, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    RANTES stimulates inflammatory cascades and receptor modulation in murine astrocytes

    GLIA, Issue 1 2002
    Yi Luo
    Abstract Cultured mouse astrocytes respond to the CC chemokine RANTES by production of chemokine and cytokine transcripts. Stimulation of astrocytes with 1 nM RANTES or 3,10 nM of the structurally related chemokines (eotaxin, macrophage inflammatory protein-1, and -, [MIP-1,, MIP-1,]) induced transcripts for KC, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor-, (TNF-,), MIP-1,, MIP-2, and RANTES in a chemokine and cell-specific fashion. Synthesis of chemokine (KC and MCP-1) and cytokine (TNF-,) proteins was also demonstrated. RANTES-mediated chemokine synthesis was specifically inhibited by pertussis toxin, indicating that G-protein-coupled chemokine receptors participated in astrocyte signaling. Astrocytes expressed CCR1 and CCR5 (the redundant RANTES receptors). Astrocytes derived from mice with targeted mutations of either CCR1 or CCR5 respond after RANTES stimulation, suggesting multiple chemokine receptors may separately mediate RANTES responsiveness in astrocytes. Preliminary data suggest activation of the MAP kinase pathway is also critical for RANTES-mediated signaling in astrocytes. Treatment with RANTES specifically modulated astrocyte receptors upregulating intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and downregulating CX3CR1 expression. Thus, after chemokine treatment, astrocytes release proinflammatory mediators and reprogram their surface molecules. The combined effects of RANTES may serve to amplify inflammatory responses within the central nervous system. GLIA 39:19,30, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Ischemic preconditioning of the murine liver protects through the Akt kinase pathway,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 3 2006
    Kunihiko Izuishi
    Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury occurs in the settings of transplantation, trauma, and elective liver resection. Ischemic preconditioning has been used as a strategy to reduce inflammation and organ damage from I/R of the liver. However, the mechanisms involved in this process are poorly understood. We examined the role of the phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI3) kinase/Akt-signaling pathway during hepatic ischemic preconditioning (IPC). Prior to a prolonged warm ischemic insult, BALB/c mice were subjected to a 20-minute IPC period consisting of 10 minutes of ischemia and 10 minutes of reperfusion. Mice undergoing IPC demonstrated a significantly greater level and earlier activation of Akt in the liver compared with control animals. IPC also resulted in markedly less hepatocellular injury and improved survival compared with control animals. Akt activation associated with hepatic IPC suppressed the activity of several modulators of apoptosis, including Bad, glycogen synthase kinase ,, and caspase-3. In addition, IPC also inhibited the activities of c-Jun N -terminal kinase and nuclear factor ,B after I/R. Pretreatment of mice with PI3 kinase inhibitors completely abolished Akt phosphorylation and the protective effects seen with IPC. In conclusion, these results indicate that the PI3 kinase/Akt pathway plays an essential role in the protective effects of IPC in hepatic I/R injury. Modulation of this pathway may be a potential strategy in clinical settings of ischemic liver injury to decrease organ damage. Supplementary material for this article can be found on the HEPATOLOGY website ( (HEPATOLOGY 2006;44:573,580.) [source]

    Hepatocyte growth factor promotes cell survival from Fas-mediated cell death in hepatocellular carcinoma cells via Akt activation and Fas-death,inducing signaling complex suppression

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 4 2000
    Atsushi Suzuki
    The Akt/PI-3 kinase pathway is a system essential for cell survival. In the current study, we showed that hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) activates the Akt/PI-3 kinase pathway to suppress Fas-mediated cell death in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC; 3 lines; SK-Hep1, HLE, and Chang Liver cell lines), hepatoblastoma (1 line; HepG2), and embryonic hepatocyte (1 line; WRL). Five tested cell lines showed the resistance to Fas-mediated cell death by the pretreatment of HGF. This HGF-induced cell survival was suppressed by wortmannin (Akt/PI-3 kinase pathway inhibitor), suggesting an involvement of Akt. When cells were pretreated with HGF, Fas-mediated cell death was suppressed, followed by Akt phosphorylation at Ser473. Fas-death,inducing signaling complex (DISC) formation, especially FADD and caspase 8 interaction, was suppressed by HGF and the suppression of the Akt/PI-3 kinase pathway by transient expression of PTEN, resulting in acquisition of Fas-DISC formation and Fas-mediated cell death in HGF-treated cells. We suggest that HGF promotes cell survival in hepatocyte-derived cell lines (HCC, hepatoblastoma, and embryonic hepatocyte) from Fas-mediated cell death via Fas-DISC suppression as a result of Akt activation. [source]

    Hepatitis B virus/hepatitis C virus upregulate angiopoietin-2 expression through mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway

    HEPATOLOGY RESEARCH, Issue 10 2010
    Yanmei Li
    Aim:, To explore the molecular mechanism of hepatitis B virus (HBV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV) upregulate angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) expression. Methods:, Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT,PCR), quantitative real-time (qRT),PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis were used to measure the Ang-2 transcription and expression level. Reporter gene assays were used to determine the cis -element of the Ang-2 promoter. The specific inhibitors assay, immunofluorescence and western blot analysis were conducted to verify the signal pathway involved in the upregulation of Ang-2 expression. Results:, The level of transcription and expression of Ang-2 increased in the HepG2.2.15 and Con-1 cells. Reporter gene assays in HepG2.2.15 and Con-1 cells revealed that HBV/HCV could enhance Ang-2 promoter expression by activating AP-1 and Ets1. Analysis with specific inhibitors indicated that HBV/HCV upregulated the expression of Ang-2 through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. Conclusion:, This study illustrates a distinct mechanism by which a tumor virus modulates vasculature to promote tumorigenesis. [source]

    Interleukin-7 promotes the survival of human CD4+ effector/memory T cells by up-regulating Bcl-2 proteins and activating the JAK/STAT signalling pathway

    IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 3 2010
    Nizar Chetoui
    Summary Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is a crucial cytokine involved in T-cell survival and development but its signalling in human T cells, particularly in effector/memory T cells, is poorly documented. In this study, we found that IL-7 protects human CD4+ effector/memory T cells from apoptosis induced upon the absence of stimulation and cytokines. We show that IL-7 up-regulates not only Bcl-2 but also Bcl-xL and Mcl-1 as well. Interleukin-7-induced activation of the janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) signalling pathway is sufficient for cell survival and up-regulation of Bcl-2 proteins. In contrast to previous studies with naive T cells, we found that IL-7 is a weak activator of the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/AKT (also referred as protein kinase B) pathway and IL-7-mediated cell survival occurs independently from the PI3K/AKT pathway as well as from activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway. Considering the contribution of both IL-7 and CD4+ effector/memory T cells to the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and colitis, our study suggests that IL-7 can contribute to these diseases by promoting cell survival. A further understanding of the mechanisms of IL-7 signalling in effector/memory T cells associated with autoimmune inflammatory diseases may lead to potential new therapeutic avenues. [source]

    A p38 MAP kinase regulates the expression of the Aedes aegypti defensin gene in mosquito cells

    R. Chen-Chih Wu
    Abstract An Aedes aegypti p38 (Aap38) mitogen-activated protein kinase was isolated and characterized in this study. The 1761 bp long full-length Aap38 cDNA encodes an open reading frame of 358 amino acids, exhibiting characteristics of Thr/Tyr dual kinase specificities. We showed that bacteria activate both the kinase activity of Aap38 and the expression of the Aedes aegypti defensin A (AaDefA) gene, which is inhibited by a p38 kinase inhibitor SB203580 and dsRNA interference of Aap38. A similar result was obtained by a reporter construct containing the AaDefA regulatory region linked to Ds-Red. The lipopolysaccharide-activated reporter gene was inhibited by SB203580. In addition, Aap38 translocated to the nucleus after lipopolysaccharide induction. Our findings suggest that the p38 protein kinase pathway is involved in the antibacterial peptide synthesis in mosquitoes. [source]

    Prostaglandin E2 -Mediated Anabolic Effect of a Novel Inhibitor of Phosphodiesterase 4, XT-611, in the In Vitro Bone Marrow Culture,

    Ken-Ichi Miyamoto
    Abstract The mechanism of osteoblast formation by a novel PDE4 inhibitor, XT-611, was studied in the in vitro bone marrow culture system. The compound potentiated the osteoblast differentiation through accumulation of cyclic AMP after autocrine stimulation of EP4 receptor by PGE2 in pro-osteoblastic cells. Introduction: We previously reported that inhibitors of phosphodiesterase (PDE)4 isoenzyme increase osteoblast formation in an in vitro bone marrow culture system and inhibit bone loss in animal osteoporosis models. Here we investigated the mechanism of the effect of a novel PDE4 inhibitor, 3,4-dipropyl-4,5,7,8-tetrahydro-3H -imidazo[1,2- i]-purin-5-one (XT-611), on osteoblast formation in the in vitro bone marrow culture system. Materials and Methods: Rodent bone marrow cells were cultured in the presence of 0.2 mM ascorbic acid phosphate ester, 1 mM ,-glycerophosphate, and 10 nM dexamethasone for 10 days. Drug treatments were done for 24 h on day 3 of culture. Results: PDE4 inhibitors, including XT-611, but not PDE3 and PDE5 inhibitors, increased mineralized nodule formation in rat and mouse bone marrow cell cultures. During culture of the bone marrow cells, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production increased with a peak on day 4, but the increase was completely inhibited by indomethacin, an unselective cyclo-oxygenase (COX) inhibitor. Spontaneous and XT-611-induced mineralized-nodule formation was also inhibited by indomethacin and COX-2 inhibitors, in a similar potential. Alkaline phosphatase-positive nodule formation in the absence or presence of XT-611 was inhibited by an antagonist of EP4 receptor, AH23848B, and synergistically potentiated by 11-deoxy-PGE1, but it was not influenced by other EP antagonists and agonists examined. The expression of PDE4 and EP4 mRNAs was observed in bone marrow cells. The effect of XT-611 was also confirmed to involve an increase of cyclic AMP and the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase pathway. Conclusion: These results suggest that PGE2 stimulates differentiation of osteoblast progenitor cells through the EP4 receptor in an autocrine manner, and the PDE4 inhibitor potentiates the differentiation by inhibiting hydrolysis of cyclic AMP in the cells. [source]

    RhoA/ROK Pathway Related to the Mechanism of Higher Susceptibility to Spasm in RA Than in IMA

    Xia Kun M.D.
    Methods: RA, IMA, and GSV that would otherwise have been discarded were collected from 25 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting. Eleven matched rings of RA, IMA, and GSV were used to evaluate the vasodilatory properties of 10,7,10,4 mol/l of fasudil, a Rho-kinase inhibitor, by using in vitro organ chambers. Another 14 matched RA, IMA, and GSV were used to demonstrate the immunohistochemistry (IHC) of RhoA and mRNA of RhoA and Rho kinase. Results: The maximal vasodilation of RA to fasudil was significantly greater than IMA. RhoA protein IHC staining was different in IMA, RA, and GSV (RA > GSV >IMA). The expression of RhoA and Rho kinase mRNA in the RA was significantly greater than in the IMA. Conclusions: The expression of RhoA/Rho kinase mRNA and protein and function in the RA were significantly stronger than in the IMA, suggesting that RhoA/Rho kinase pathway may be one mechanism by which RA is more susceptible to spasm than IMA. Rho kinase inhibitors can be effective drug candidates to prevent and treat vasospasm. [source]

    Inhibition of low density lipoprotein receptor expression by long-term exposure to phorbol ester via p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway

    Jiyoung Oh
    Abstract The proximal region ,234 to (+58 bp) of low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) is responsible for its up-regulation by sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP). However, the mechanism of sterol-independent repression of LDLR has not been determined yet. In this study, we observed that there was an early induction and a later repression of LDLR by phorbol ester (PMA) in SK-Hep1 hepatocarcinoma cells and investigated the mechanisms through which PMA repressed LDLR transcription. SK-Hep1 cells were exposed to PMA and LDLR mRNA was evaluated by RT-PCR and Northern blot analysis. The effect of phorbol ester on LDLR transcriptional activity was studied using transient transfection of LDLR promoter-luciferase constructs. Overexpression of N-SREBP-2, a dominant positive SREBP2, did not reverse the PMA-repressed LDLR promoter activity. Serial deletion of LDLR promoter revealed that the region between ,1,563 and ,1,326 was responsible for the repression. The pretreatment with SB202190, an inhibitor for p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway (p38-MAPK), but not other signaling inhibitors, reversed the PMA-induced repression. The 24 h-treatment with PMA efficiently arrested the SK-Hep1 cell cycle at G0/G1 as demonstrated by FACS analysis and decreased the 3H-thymidine incorporation. The PMA-induced repression of LDLR transcription may be exerted by the factor(s), not SREBP2, induced or modified by p38-MAPK-mediated signaling pathway and associated with cell cycle blockage. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Phosphorylated osteopontin promotes migration of human choriocarcinoma cells via a p70 S6 kinase-dependent pathway

    Rania Al-Shami
    Abstract This study examined the role of osteopontin (OPN), a phosphorylated secreted glycoprotein, in the promotion of trophoblastic cell migration, an early event in the embryo implantation process. Three human choriocarcinoma cell lines, namely JAR, BeWo, and JEG-3, were treated with variants of OPN differing in the extent of phosphorylation following sequential dephosphorylation with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), and their migratory response was measured. The highly phosphorylated human milk form of OPN (OPN-1) strongly triggered migration in all three cell lines, whereas the less phosphorylated variants, OPN-2a and OPN-2b, failed to stimulate migration. JAR cell migration in response to OPN-1 was accompanied by a rapid rearrangement of actin filaments to the cellular membrane. Using broad spectrum protein kinase profiling, we identified p70 S6 kinase as a major signal transduction pathway activated by OPN-1 during the migratory response in JAR cells. Activation was blocked completely by rapamycin and LY294002, thus demonstrating that OPN-1-stimulated migration occurs through mTOR and PI3K pathways, respectively. Conversely, PD98059 did not affect the activation of p70 S6 kinase by OPN-1, therefore, this response does not involve the Ras/ MAPK signaling cascade. Together, these data show that the highly phosphorylated human OPN-1 can stimulate trophoblastic cell migration and provides evidence for the involvement of the PI3K/mTOR/p70 S6 kinase pathway in the JAR cells response. Because both OPN and TRAP are expressed in the uterus during early pregnancy, it is conceivable that extracellular phosphatases such as TRAP may modify OPN charge state and thus modulate cell migration. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Differential regulation of platelet-derived growth factor stimulated migration and proliferation in osteoblastic cells,

    Meenal Mehrotra
    Abstract Osteoblastic migration and proliferation in response to growth factors are essential for skeletal development, bone remodeling, and fracture repair, as well as pathologic processes, such as metastasis. We studied migration in response to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF, 10 ng/ml) in a wounding model. PDGF stimulated a twofold increase in migration of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and murine calvarial osteoblasts over 24,48 h. PDGF also stimulated a tenfold increase in 3H-thymidine (3H-TdR) incorporation in MC3T3-E1 cells. Migration and DNA replication, as measured by BrdU incorporation, could be stimulated in the same cell. Blocking DNA replication with aphidicolin did not reduce the distance migrated. To examine the role of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases in migration and proliferation, we used specific inhibitors of p38 MAP kinase, extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). For these signaling studies, proliferation was measured by carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) using flow cytometry. Inhibition of the p38 MAP kinase pathway by SB203580 and SB202190 blocked PDGF-stimulated migration but had no effect on proliferation. Inhibition of the ERK pathway by PD98059 and U0126 inhibited proliferation but did not inhibit migration. Inhibition of JNK activity by SP600125 inhibited both migration and proliferation. Hence, the stimulation of migration and proliferation by PDGF occurred by both overlapping and independent pathways. The JNK pathway was involved in both migration and proliferation, whereas the p38 pathway was predominantly involved in migration and the ERK pathway predominantly involved in proliferation. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    TNF-, induction of lipolysis is mediated through activation of the extracellular signal related kinase pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes,,

    Sandra C. Souza
    Abstract Tumor necrosis factor-, (TNF-,) increases adipocyte lipolysis after 6,12 h of incubation. TNF-, has been demonstrated to activate mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases including extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) and N-terminal-c-Jun-kinase (JNK) in different cell types. To determine if the MAP kinases have a role in TNF-,-induced lipolysis, 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with the cytokine (10 ng/ml), in the presence or absence of PD98059 or U0126 (100 µM), specific inhibitors of ERK activity. We demonstrated that U0126 or PD98059 blocked TNF-,-induced ERK activity and decreased TNF-,-induced lipolysis by 65 or 76% respectively. The peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor , (PPAR,) agonists, rosiglitazone (ros), and 15-deoxy-,- 12,14 - prostaglandin J2 (PGJ2) have been demonstrated to block TNF-,-induced lipolysis. Pretreatment of adipocytes with these agents almost totally blocked TNF-,-induced ERK activation and reduced lipolysis by greater than 90%. TNF-, also stimulated JNK activity, which was not affected by PD98059 or PPAR, agonist treatment. The expression of perilipin, previously proposed to contribute to the mechanism of lipolysis, is diminished in response to TNF-, treatment. Pretreatment of adipocytes with PD98059 or ros significantly blocked the TNF-,-induced reduction of perilipin A protein level as determined by Western analysis. These data suggest that activation of the ERK pathway is an early event in the mechanism of TNF-,-induced lipolysis. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Jun N-terminal kinase pathway enhances signaling of monocytic differentiation of human leukemia cells induced by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3

    Qing Wang
    Abstract Recent studies revealed that the MEK/ERK module of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades is up-regulated in the early stages of 1,,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3)-induced monocytic differentiation of human leukemia cells HL60. In the present study, we investigated whether another MAPK module, the JNK pathway, also participates in this form of differentiation. We found that the dependence on the concentration of the inducer, the vitamin-hormone 1,25D3, in two types of human leukemia cells, HL60 and U937, and the kinetics of monocytic differentiation in HL60 cells, parallel the degree of the activation of the JNK pathway. A blockade of JNK signaling by a stable expression of dominant negative (dn) JNK1 mutant in U937 cells resulted in reduced c-jun phosphorylation, and the differentiation of these cells was markedly decreased. Similarly, inhibition of JNK1 and JNK2 activities by the selective inhibitor SP600125 led to both dose-dependent reduction of c-jun and ATF-2 phosphorylation, and of the differentiation of HL60 cells. In addition, we found that JNK activity is essential for the AP-1 DNA binding induced by 1,25D3 in HL60 and U937 cells. The results indicate that in cultured human leukemia cells, the JNK pathway participates in the induction of monocytic differentiation by 1,25D3, probably by activating the AP-1 transcription factor. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Constitutive activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway impairs vitamin D signaling in human prostate epithelial cells

    Zhentao Zhang
    We studied the effect of prolonged activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling on 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D3) action in the immortalized human prostate epithelial cell line RWPE1 and its Ki-Ras transformed clone RWPE2. 1,25(OH)2D3 -treatment caused growth arrest and induced gene expression in both cell lines but the response was blunted in RWPE2 cells. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) levels were lower in RWPE2 cells but VDR over-expression did not increase vitamin-D-mediated gene transcription in either cell line. In contrast, MAPK inhibition restored normal vitamin D transcriptional responses in RWPE2 cells and MAPK activation with constitutively active MEK1R4F reduced vitamin-D-regulated transcription in RWPE1 cells. 1,25(OH)2D3 -mediated transcription depends upon the VDR and its heterodimeric partner the retinoid X receptor (RXR) so we studied whether changes in the VDR,RXR transcription complex occur in response to MAPK activation. Mutation of putative phosphorylation sites in the activation function 1 (AF-1) domain (S32A, T82A) of RXR, restored 1,25(OH)2D3 -mediated transactivation in RWPE2 cells. Mammalian two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation assays revealed a vitamin-D-independent interaction between steroid receptor co-activator-1 (SRC-1) and RXR, that was reduced by MAPK activation and was restored in RWPE2 cells by mutating S32 and T82 in the RXR, AF-1 domain. Our data show that a common contributor to cancer development, prolonged activation of MAPK signaling, impairs 1,25(OH)2D3 -mediated transcription in prostate epithelial cells. This is due in part to the phosphorylation of critical amino acids in the RXR, AF-1 domain and impaired co-activator recruitment. J. Cell. Physiol. 224: 433,442, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Activation of P44/42 Map Kinases within Human Epidermal Neoplasia.

    Bryon Jackson
    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arises from a series of genetic changes that form a clone of keratinocytes with enhanced growth characteristics. The p44/42 Map kinase pathway is a highly conserved growth regulatory pathway that helps relay critical signals from the cell membrane to the nucleus. Evidence demonstrating activation of the p44/42 pathway in the human cutaneous SCC has not been established. This study examined if p44/42 MAP kinase is activated in lesions of keratinocytic neoplasia. Lesions from the defined stages of keratinocytic neoplasia, normal skin, actinic keratoses, squamous cell carcinoma in situ, and squamous cell carcinoma, were randomly selected from archived material and studied. Antibodies that detect human p44/42 (phosphorylated and unphosphorylated) and only phosphorylated, activated, human p44/42 were used. The intensity and prevalence of cytoplasmic and nuclear staining was evaluated in the lesional cells. The results suggest that there is a not a simple linear relationship between the amount of nuclear staining and the type of lesion. The results show that there was a significant increase in the level of nuclear phosphorylated p44/42 staining progressing from an actinic keratoses to a sqaumous cell carcinoma in situ. These findings suggest that p44/42 MAP kinases are activated in keratinocytic neoplasia. [source]

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway mediates N -(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide-induced neuronal differentiation in the ARPE-19 human retinal pigment epithelial cell line

    William Samuel
    Abstract We have shown previously that N -(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (4HPR, fenretinide), a retinoic acid derivative, induces neuronal differentiation in cultured human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells [Chen et al., J. Neurochem., 84 (2003), 972]. We asked the question whether the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is involved in the regulation of the 4HPR-induced neuronal differentiation of RPE (ARPE-19) cells. When we treated ARPE-19 cells with 4HPR, c-Raf and MEK1/2 kinase were activated resulting in activation of the downstream effector ERK1/2 and of SAPK/JNK. By blocking the upstream kinase MEK1/2 with specific inhibitor U0126 we abrogated the 4HPR-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and SAPK/JNK, indicating that the neuronal differentiation occurs through a positive cross-talk between the ERK and the SAPK/JNK pathways. Both U0126 and the suppression of ERK1/2 expression with small interfering RNA effectively blocked the 4HPR-induced neuronal differentiation of RPE cells and the expression of calretinin. The activated ERK1/2 then induced a sequential activation of p90RSK, and increase in phosphorylation of transcription factors c- fos and c- jun leading to transcriptional activation of AP-1. Taken together, our results clearly demonstrate that c-Raf/MEK1/2 signaling cascade involving ERK1/2 plays a central role in mediating the 4HPR-induced neuronal differentiation and calretinin expression in the human ARPE-19 retinal pigment epithelial cell line. [source]

    Noradrenaline enhances the expression of the neuronal monocarboxylate transporter MCT2 by translational activation via stimulation of PI3K/Akt and the mTOR/S6K pathway

    Julie Chenal
    Abstract Monocarboxylate transporter 2 (MCT2) expression is up-regulated by noradrenaline (NA) in cultured cortical neurons via a putative but undetermined translational mechanism. Western blot analysis showed that p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) was rapidly and strongly phosphorylated by NA treatment. NA also rapidly induced serine/threonine protein kinase from AKT virus (Akt) phosphorylation but to a lesser extent than p44/p42 MAPK. However, Akt activation persisted over a longer period. Similarly, NA induced a rapid and persistent phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a kinase implicated in the regulation of translation in the central nervous system. Consistent with activation of the mTOR/S6 kinase pathway, phosphorylation of the ribosomal S6 protein, a component of the translation machinery, could be observed upon treatment with NA. In parallel, it was found that the NA-induced increase in MCT2 protein was almost completely blocked by LY294002 (phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor) as well as by rapamycin (mTOR inhibitor), while mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase and p38 MAPK inhibitors had much smaller effects. Taken together, these data reveal that NA induces an increase in neuronal MCT2 protein expression by a mechanism involving stimulation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt and translational activation via the mTOR/S6 kinase pathway. Moreover, considering the role of NA in synaptic plasticity, alterations in MCT2 expression as described in this study might represent an adaptation to face energy demands associated with enhanced synaptic transmission. [source]