Kinase Inhibition (kinase + inhibition)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibition radiosensitizes and induces apoptosis in malignant glioma and childhood ependymoma xenografts

Birgit Geoerger
Abstract Malignant gliomas and childhood ependymomas have a high rate of treatment failure. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation has been implicated in the tumorigenesis and radioresistance of many cancers, including brain tumors. Therefore, combining EGFR targeting with irradiation is a potentially attractive therapeutic option. We evaluated the tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib for its antitumor activity and potential to radio-sensitize in vivo in two xenograft models: an EGFR amplified glioma and an EGFR expressing ependymoma, both derived from primary tumors. When administered at 100 mg/kg for 5 consecutive days, gefitinib-induced partial tumor regression in all treated EGFR amplified IGRG88 glioma xenografts. The addition of 1 Gy of irradiation prior to gefitinib administration resulted in 5 complete and 4 partial regressions for the 9 treated tumors as well as a significant tumor growth delay of 33 days for the combined treatment compared to 19 days for each therapy alone, suggesting additive antitumor activity. Tumor regression was associated with inhibition of AKT and MAPK pathways by gefitinib. In contrast, the ependymoma IGREP83 was sensitive to irradiation, but remained resistant to gefitinib. Combined treatment was associated with inhibition of radiation-induced MAPK phosphorylation and significant induction of apoptotic cell death though radiation-induced AKT phosphorylation was maintained. Depending on the scheduling of both therapies, a trend towards superior antitumor activity was observed with combined treatment. Thus, EGFR targeting through tyrosine kinase inhibition appears to be a promising new approach in the treatment of EGFR-driven glioma, particularly in combination with radiation therapy. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Inhibition of creatine kinase activity by 3-butyl-1-phenyl-2-(phenyltelluro)oct-en-1-one in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum of young rats

Rodrigo Binkowski de Andrade
Abstract In the present study, we investigated the potential in vitro toxicity of the tellurium compound 3-butyl-1-phenyl-2-(phenyltelluro)oct-en-1-one on creatine kinase activity in cerebral cortex and cerebellum of 30-day-old Wistar rats. First, enriched mitochondrial and cytosolic fractions from the two tissues were pre-incubated for 30,min in the presence or absence of 1, 5 or 20,m of organotellurium and the creatine kinase activity was measured. The organochalcogen reduced creatine kinase activity in a concentration-dependent pattern in the two tissues studied. Furthermore, the enzyme activity was performed after pre-incubation for 30, 60 or 90,min in the presence of 5,m of the organotellurium. The compound inhibited creatine kinase activity in a time-dependent way in the enriched mitochondrial fraction of both tissues, but not in the cytosolic fraction, indicating different mechanisms for the organochalcogen in the mitochondrial and in the cytosolic creatine kinase. Pre-incubation of tellurium compound with reduced glutathione suggests that creatine kinase activity inhibition might be caused by direct interaction with thiol groups or by oxidative stress. Our findings suggest that creatine kinase inhibition may be one of the mechanisms by which this organotellurium could cause toxicity to the rat brain. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Histamine-induced Ca2+ entry in human astrocytoma U373 MG cells: Evidence for involvement of store-operated channels

Margarita Barajas
Abstract Glial and glia-derived cells express a variety of receptors for neurotransmitters and hormones, the majority of which evoke both Ca2+ release from intracellular stores and Ca2+ entry across the plasma membrane. We investigated the links between histamine H1 receptor activation, Ca2+ release from intracellular stores and Ca2+ influx in human astrocytoma U373 MG cells. Histamine, through a H1 receptor-mediated effect, evoked an increase in cytoplasmic free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) that occurred in two phases: an initial, transient, increase owing to Ca2+ mobilization from intracellular pools, and a second, sustained increase dependent on both Ca2+ influx and continuous receptor occupancy. The characteristics of histamine-induced increases in [Ca2+]i were similar to the capacitative entry evoked by emptying of the Ca2+ stores with thapsigargine, and different from that observed when Ca2+ influx was activated with OAG (1-oleoyl-2-acetyl- sn -glycerol), a diacylglycerol (DAG) analog. OAG application or increased endogenous DAG, resulting from DAG kinase inhibition, reduced the histamine-induced response. Furthermore, activation of the DAG target, protein kinase C (PKC), by TPA (12-O-tetradecanoyl 4,-phorbol 13,-acetate) resulted in inhibition of the histamine-induced Ca2+ response, an action prevented by PKC inhibitors. By using reverse transcriptase,polymerase chain reaction analysis, mRNAs for transient receptor potential channels (TRPCs) 1, 4, and 6 as well as for STIM1 (stromal-interacting molecule) and Orai1 were found to be expressed in the U373 MG cells, and confocal microscopy using specific antibodies revealed the presence of the corresponding proteins. Therefore, TRPCs may be candidate proteins forming store-operated channels in the U373 MG cell line. Further, our results confirm the involvement of PKC in the regulation of H1 receptor-induced responses and point out to the existence of a feedback mechanism acting via PKC to limit the increase in [Ca2+]i. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Rho kinase activates ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) proteins and mediates their function in cortical neuron growth, morphology and motility in vitro

Matilda A. Haas
Abstract The ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) family of proteins contribute to cytoskeletal processes underlying many vital cellular functions. Their previously elucidated roles in non-neuronal cells are an indication of their potential importance in CNS neurons. The specific mechanisms of their activation are unknown, but are likely to depend on factors such as the cell type and biological context. For ERM proteins to become active they must be phosphorylated at a specific C-terminal threonine residue. In non-neuronal cells, several kinases, including the Rho GTPase family member Rho kinase, have been identified as capable of phosphorylating the C-terminal threonine. In these experiments we have investigated specifically the potential role of Rho kinase mediated ERM activation in cortical neurons, utilizing a new pharmacologic inhibitor of Rho kinase and quantitative analysis of aspects of neuronal functions potentially mediated by ERM proteins. Rho kinase inhibition significantly suppressed aspects of neuronal development including neurite initiation and outgrowth, as well as growth cone morphology, with a concomitant loss of phosphorylated ERM immunolabeling in areas associated with neuronal growth. The ability of the Rho kinase inhibitor to decrease the amount of pERM protein was shown by immunoblotting. Post-injury responses were negatively affected by Rho kinase inhibition, namely by a significant decrease in the number of regenerative neurites. We investigated a novel role for ERM proteins in neuron migration using a post-injury motility assay, where Rho kinase inhibition resulted in significant and drastic reduction in neuron motility and phosphorylated ERM immunolabeling. Thus, Rho kinase is an important activator of ERMs in mediating specific neuronal functions. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Synthesis and in-vitro antitumour activity of new naphthyridine derivatives on human pancreatic cancer cells

Irene Banti
Abstract Objectives The aim of the study was to evaluate the antitumour effect in vitro of newly synthesized 7-substituted 2,3-dihydro-1,8-naphthyridines. Methods Characterization tools included cell viability assay, caspase 3/7 induction, DNA fragmentation, fibroblast growth factor type 1 receptor kinase inhibition, and in-vitro antiangiogenic analysis. Key findings Treatment of MIA PaCa-2 human pancreatic cancer cells with test compounds showed time- and concentration-dependent cytotoxicity with IC50 values in the micromolar range. Compounds with an aminoalkyl or a diaminoalkyl side chain at the 7-position exhibited remarkable cytotoxicity, whereas the presence of a methyl group or a cyclic amine in the same position led to a significant decrease in their biological activity. Cytotoxicity screening demonstrated that the most active was compound 11 (mean 50% inhibition of cell proliferation (IC50) 11 ,M). This compound had an in-vitro antitumour efficacy superior to 5-fluorouracil (the lowest cell viability value after treatment (Emax) 0.2% and 19%, respectively) and proved to be less toxic than 5-fluorouracil against non-cancerous human oral epithelial cells. In addition, compound 11 induced apoptosis in MIA PaCa-2 cells and it was able to promote antiangiogenic effects in vitro. Finally, its cytotoxicity was enhanced in pancreatic cancer cells stimulated with fibroblast growth factor, while no substantial effect was observed on human bronchial smooth muscle cells stimulated with the same growth factor. Conclusions These findings suggest that 1,8-naphthyridine derivatives are a promising class of compounds in cancer research. In particular, the antitumour activity of compound 11 is worth further investigation. [source]

META060 inhibits osteoclastogenesis and matrix metalloproteinases in vitro and reduces bone and cartilage degradation in a mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis

Veera Reddy Konda
Objective The multikinase inhibitor META060 has been shown to inhibit NF-,B activation and expression of markers of inflammation. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of META060 on biomarkers associated with bone and cartilage degradation in vitro and its antiinflammatory efficacy in vivo in both acute and chronic inflammation models. Methods Glycogen synthase kinase 3, (GSK3,),dependent ,-catenin phosphorylation was evaluated in RAW 264.7 macrophages to assess kinase inhibition. The inhibition of osteoclastogenesis and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity was evaluated in RANKL-treated RAW 264.7 cells. The inhibition of interleukin-1, (IL-1,),mediated markers of inflammation was analyzed in human rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts (RASFs). Mice with carrageenan-induced acute inflammation and collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) were used to assess efficacy. Results META060 inhibited the activity of kinases (spleen tyrosine kinase [Syk], Bruton's tyrosine kinase [Btk], phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase [PI 3-kinase], and GSK3) associated with RA and inhibited ,-catenin phosphorylation. META060 inhibited osteoclastogenesis, as indicated by decreased transformation of RAW 264.7 cells to osteoclasts and reduced TRAP activity, and inhibited IL-1,,activated prostaglandin E2, matrix metalloproteinase 3, IL-6, IL-8, and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 in RASFs. In mice with acute inflammation, oral administration of META060 reduced paw swelling similar to the effect of aspirin. In mice with CIA, META060 significantly reduced the arthritis index and decreased bone, joint, and cartilage degradation. Serum IL-6 concentrations in these mice were inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion Our findings indicate that META060 reduces swelling in a model of acute inflammation and inhibits bone and cartilage destruction in a model of chronic inflammation. Its efficacy is associated with the inhibition of multiple protein kinases, including Syk, Btk, PI 3-kinase, and GSK3. These results warrant further clinical testing of META060 for its therapeutic potential in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. [source]

Regulation of cardiac Na,Ca exchange activity by selective tyrosine kinase inhibition

Robert D Harvey
British Journal of Pharmacology (2004) 143, 929,930. doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0706009 [source]

Are MAP Kinases Drug Targets?

CHEMMEDCHEM, Issue 8 2007
but Difficult Ones
Abstract Pharmaceutical companies are facing an increasing interest in new target identification and validation. In particular, extensive efforts are being made in the field of protein kinase inhibitors research and development, and the past ten years of effort in this field have altered our perception of the potential of kinases as drug targets. Therefore, in the drug discovery process, the selection of relevant, susceptible protein kinase targets combined with searches for leads and candidates have become a crucial approach. The success of recent launches of protein kinase inhibitors (Gleevec, Imatinib, Sutent, Iressa, Nexavar, Sprycel) gave another push to this field. Numerous other kinase inhibitors are currently undergoing clinical trials or clinical development. Some questions are nevertheless unanswered, mostly related to the great number of known kinases in the human genome, to their similarity with each other, to the existence of functionally redundant kinases for specific pathways, and also because the connection between particular pathways and diseases is not always clear. The review is leading the reader through a panoramic view of protein kinase inhibition with a major focus on MAPK, successful examples and clinical candidates. [source]


Jun Ren
SUMMARY 1Inhibition of creatine kinase is known to suppress cardiac contractile reserve in intact hearts, although the underlying mechanism has not been elucidated. 2The present study was designed to examine whether cardiac depression induced by creatine kinase inhibition was due to action at the level of the essential contractile element, namely cardiomyocytes. Adult rat cardiomyocytes were perfused with the creatine kinase inhibitor iodoacetamide (90 mol/L) for 90 min. Mechanical and intracellular Ca2+ properties were evaluated using edge-detection and fluorescence microscopy, respectively. Myocytes were superfused with normal (1.3 mmol/L) or high (3.3 mmol/L) extracellular Ca2+ contractile buffer. Mechanical function was examined, including peak shortening (PS), maximal velocity of shortening/relengthening (dL/dt), time to 90% PS (TPS90), time to 90% relengthening (TR90) and integration of shortening/relengthening (normalized to PS). Intracellular Ca2+ transients were evaluated using the following indices: resting and rise of fura-2 fluorescence intensity (,FFI) and intracellular Ca2+ decay time constant. 3The results indicate that elevated extracellular Ca2+ stimulated cardiomyocyte positive inotrope, manifested as increased PS, dL/dt, area of shortening, resting FFI and ,FFI associated with a shortened TR90 and intracellular Ca2+ decay time constant. High extracellular Ca2+ did not affect TPS90 and area of relengthening. Iodoacetamide ablated high Ca2+ -induced increases in PS, dL/dt, area of shortening, resting FFI, ,FFI and shortened TR90 and intracellular Ca2+ decay time constant. Iodoacetamide itself significantly enhanced the area of relengthening and TR90 without affecting other indices. 4Collectively, these data demonstrate that inhibition of creatine kinase blunts high extracellular Ca2+ -induced increases in cardiomyocyte contractile response (i.e. cardiac contractile reserve). [source]