Kinase C Pathway (kinase + c_pathway)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Kinase C Pathway

  • protein kinase c pathway


  • Selected Abstracts


    Inhibitory Effects of Ethanol on Rat Mesangial Cell Proliferation via Protein Kinase C Pathway

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 3 2002
    Kayoko Segawa
    A large body of evidence has shown that ethanol inhibits the cell growth and cell proliferation in a variety of cell types. However, it has not been studied whether ethanol inhibits the proliferation of mesangial cells (MC) in the kidney. We examined the effects of ethanol on cell proliferation in cultured rat MC. Treatment with ethanol (10,200 mM) for 48 hr inhibited [3H]thymidine incorporation into MC in a concentration-dependent manner. The same concentrations of ethanol also inhibited the increase in cell number of MC. GF109203X and chelerythrine chloride, inhibitors for protein kinase C, eliminated the inhibitory effects of ethanol; and protein kinase C activator, PMA, mimicked the effects of ethanol. In contrast, neither the protein kinase A inhibitor H-89 nor the protein kinase G inhibitor KT5823 had any effect. These findings suggest that ethanol has inhibitory effects on the proliferation of MC, probably via activation of the protein kinase C pathway. [source]


    Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression and Prostaglandin E2 Production in Response to Acidic pH Through OGR1 in a Human Osteoblastic Cell Line,,

    JOURNAL OF BONE AND MINERAL RESEARCH, Issue 7 2008
    Hideaki Tomura
    Abstract Acidosis has been shown to induce depletion of bone calcium from the body. This calcium release process is thought to be partially cell mediated. In an organ culture of bone, acidic pH has been shown to induce cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) induction and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production, resulting in stimulation of bone calcium release. However, the molecular mechanisms whereby osteoblasts sense acidic circumstances and thereby induce COX-2 induction and PGE2 production remain unknown. In this study, we used a human osteoblastic cell line (NHOst) to characterize cellular activities, including inositol phosphate production, intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), PGE2 production, and COX-2 mRNA and protein expression, in response to extracellular acidification. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) specific to the OGR1 receptor and specific inhibitors for intracellular signaling pathways were used to characterize acidification-induced cellular activities. We found that extracellular acidic pH induced a transient increase in [Ca2+]i and inositol phosphate production in the cells. Acidification also induced COX-2 induction, resulting in PGE2 production. These proton-induced actions were markedly inhibited by siRNA targeted for the OGR1 receptor and the inhibitors for Gq/11 protein, phospholipase C, and protein kinase C. We conclude that the OGR1/Gq/11/phospholipase C/protein kinase C pathway regulates osteoblastic COX-2 induction and subsequent PGE2 production in response to acidic circumstances. [source]


    Inhibitory Effects of Ethanol on Rat Mesangial Cell Proliferation via Protein Kinase C Pathway

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 3 2002
    Kayoko Segawa
    A large body of evidence has shown that ethanol inhibits the cell growth and cell proliferation in a variety of cell types. However, it has not been studied whether ethanol inhibits the proliferation of mesangial cells (MC) in the kidney. We examined the effects of ethanol on cell proliferation in cultured rat MC. Treatment with ethanol (10,200 mM) for 48 hr inhibited [3H]thymidine incorporation into MC in a concentration-dependent manner. The same concentrations of ethanol also inhibited the increase in cell number of MC. GF109203X and chelerythrine chloride, inhibitors for protein kinase C, eliminated the inhibitory effects of ethanol; and protein kinase C activator, PMA, mimicked the effects of ethanol. In contrast, neither the protein kinase A inhibitor H-89 nor the protein kinase G inhibitor KT5823 had any effect. These findings suggest that ethanol has inhibitory effects on the proliferation of MC, probably via activation of the protein kinase C pathway. [source]


    The constitutive and inducible expression of Nurr1, a key regulator of dopaminergic neuronal differentiation, in human neural and non-neural cell lines

    NEUROPATHOLOGY, Issue 4 2002
    Jun-ichi Satoh
    Nur-related factor 1 (Nurr1), nerve growth factor-induced gene B (NGFI-B) and neuron-derived orphan receptor-1 (NOR-1) constitute the orphan nuclear receptor subfamily of transcription factors. Previous studies showed that midbrain dopaminergic neuronal precursor cells failed to differentiate in Nurr1-deficient mice. To investigate a role of Nurr1 in human neuronal function, Nurr1 mRNA expression was studied in human neural cell lines by RT-PCR and northern blot analysis. Nurr1, NGFI-B and NOR-1 mRNA were coexpressed in all human neural and non-neural cell lines under the serum-containing culture condition, except for SK-N-SH neuroblastoma, in which Nurr1 mRNA was undetectable. The levels of Nurr1, NGFI-B and NOR-1 mRNA were elevated markedly in NTera2 teratocarcinoma-derived neurons (NTera2-N), a model of differentiated human neurons, following a 1.5 or 3 h-exposure to 1 mm dibutyryl cyclic AMP or 100 nm phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. NGFI-B mRNA levels were also elevated in NTera2-N cells by exposure to 100 ng/mL brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). To identify Nurr1-target genes, the mRNA expression of 27 genes potentially involved in dopaminergic neuronal differentiation and survival, including BDNF, glia-derived neurotrophic factor, their receptors, tyrosine hydroxylase and ,-synuclein, were studied in HEK293 cells following overexpression of Nurr1. None of these genes examined, however, showed significant changes. These results indicate that Nurr1, NGFI-B and NOR-1 mRNA are expressed constitutively in various human neural and non-neural cell lines under the serum-containing culture condition, and their levels are up-regulated in human neurons by activation of protein kinase A or protein kinase C pathway, although putative coactivators expressed in dopaminergic neuronal precursor cells might be required for efficient transcriptional activation of Nurr1-target genes. [source]


    Phase II study of bryostatin 1 and vincristine for aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma relapsing after an autologous stem cell transplant,

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HEMATOLOGY, Issue 8 2009
    Paul M. Barr
    Bryostatin 1, isolated from a marine bryozoan, enhances the efficacy of cytotoxic agents through modulation of the protein kinase C pathway and is active in combination with vincristine for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Further, the apoptotic frequency of peripheral blood T lymphocytes as determined by flow cytometry may predict which patients will respond to this combination. We tested the efficacy and safety of bryostatin 1 50 ,g/m2 given over 24 hr and vincristine 1.4 mg/m2 on days 1 and 15 every 28 days in aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) relapsing after autologous stem cell transplantation. End points included tumor response, toxicity, and survival. Responses were correlated with an increase in apoptotic frequency of CD5+ cells by flow cytometry using annexin V staining. Fourteen patients were enrolled with 13 being evaluable for a response. The overall response rate was 31% with two patients achieving a complete response. The most common toxicities were Grade 3 lymphopenia (seven patients), Grade 3 to 4 neutropenia (two patients), and Grade 3 hypophosphatemia (two patients). Median progression-free and overall survivals for all patients were 5.7 and 21.4 months, respectively. One patient demonstrated an increase in T-cell apoptotic frequency, also achieving a complete response. Bryostatin 1 and vincristine have efficacy in select patients with aggressive NHL. Future investigations of agents targeting the protein kinase C pathway may benefit from early response assessment using flow cytometry to evaluate T-cell apoptosis. Am. J. Hematol., 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Emodin Inhibits Voltage-Dependent Potassium Current in Guinea Pig Gallbladder Smooth Muscle

    BASIC AND CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY & TOXICOLOGY, Issue 3 2009
    Zhi-Xuan Wu
    We studied the effects of emodin on the contraction of gallbladder smooth muscle and voltage-dependent K+ current in gallbladder smooth muscle cells. Gallbladder muscle strips were obtained from adult guinea pigs and the resting tension was recorded. Gallbladder smooth muscle cells were isolated by enzymatic digestion, and K+ current was recorded by the whole-cell patch clamp method. Emodin increased the resting tension of gallbladder smooth muscle strips and inhibited voltage-dependent K+ current in a dose-dependent manner. When 10 M emodin was applied to gallbladder smooth muscle cells for 3,6 min., the amplitude of voltage-dependent K+ current was decreased by 31.5 0.5% at +40 mV, and this inhibitory effect mostly recovered after washout. The steady-state inactivation curves were shifted in a hyperpolarizing direction by emodin. In the presence of the protein kinase C inhibitors staurosporine and chelerythrine, the effect of emodin on voltage-dependent K+ current was significantly attenuated. In conclusion, emodin promotes gallbladder contraction, mainly by inhibiting voltage-dependent K+ current via the protein kinase C pathway. These findings provide theoretical foundation for the application of emodin in gallbladder motility disorders. [source]


    Differential In Vitro Secretion of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) and [Hydroxyproline9]GnRH from the Rat Hypothalamus During Postnatal Development

    JOURNAL OF NEUROENDOCRINOLOGY, Issue 9 2000
    L. Rochdi
    Abstract The differential secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and [hydroxyproline9]GnRH (HypGnRH) has been recently reported from the adult rat hypothalamus. We report here in vitro cosecretion of HypGnRH and GnRH by the hypothalamus of 2,45 day-old-rats and provide evidence that they are differentially regulated throughout development. The secretion of both forms of GnRH was increased in a dependent manner during depolarization by high K+ solutions, and was stimulated by forskolin and 12- O -tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), activators of adenylate cyclase and protein kinase C pathways, respectively. The proportion of HypGnRH in the release of GnRH-like peptides remained stable and high (33,40%) under basal and K+ -induced conditions until days 13 and 21, respectively. By contrast, the proportion of HypGnRH in the total GnRH-like content of the developing hypothalamus continuously decreased (from 37% to 14%). Similarly, the proportion of HypGnRH: total GnRH-like material released remained stable in TPA- (30%) and forskolin- (50%) induced secretion until postnatal day 8. Evaluation of release over tissue store ratios revealed a 1.3-to 2.8-fold higher release of HypGnRH compared to GnRH according to the different secretions and postnatal periods examined. The preferential recruitment of HypGnRH was maintained under basal and K+ conditions during postnatal development, but it disappeared under TPA stimulation from day 13 onwards. After forskolin stimulation, the preferential mobilization of HypGnRH was markedly reduced from day 2 to day 13 but recovered its high perinatal level during puberty. Taken together, our results support the hypothesis that HypGnRH may play a specific role in development. In addition, a specific function of this peptide taking place during puberty through the activation of the adenylate cyclase pathway is suggested. [source]


    Possible role of the protein kinase C/CPI-17 pathway in the augmented contraction of human myometrium after gestation

    BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY, Issue 7 2003
    Hiroshi Ozaki
    Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) by phorbol 12,13-dibutylate (PDBu, 1 ,M) induced sustained contractions with no increase in [Ca2+]i in nonpregnant and pregnant human myometria. The contractile effects of PDBu in pregnant myometrium were much greater than those in nonpregnant myometrium, and the contractions in pregnant myometrium were accompanied by an increase in myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation at Ser19. The contraction induced by PDBu in pregnant myometrium was inhibited by the inhibitors of conventional PKC isoforms, bisindolylmaleimides and indolocarbazole, such as Go6976, Go6983, and Go6850 (1 ,M). LY333531 (1 ,M), a specific inhibitor of PKC,, also inhibited the PDBu-induced contraction in the pregnant myometrium. In the pregnant myometrium permeabilized with , -toxin, PDBu increased the contractions induced at fixed Ca2+ concentration (0.3 ,M) both in nonpregnant and pregnant myometria, indicating Ca2+ sensitization of contractile elements. Western immunoblot analysis indicated that pregnant myometrium contained PKC isozymes such as conventional PKC (,, ,, ,), novel PKC (,, ,, ,), and atypical PKC (, but not , and ,). RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR analysis indicated that, among the conventional PKC, the levels of mRNA of , isoform in pregnant human myometrium were greater than those in nonpregnant myometrium. CPI-17 is a substrate for PKC, and the phosphorylated CPI-17 is considered to inhibit myosin phosphatase. The levels of CPI-17 mRNA and protein expression were also greater in the pregnant myometrium. These results suggest that the PKC-mediated contractile mechanism is augmented in human myometrium after gestation, and that this augmentation may be attributable to the increased activity of the , PKC isoform and CPI-17. British Journal of Pharmacology (2003) 140, 1303,1312. doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0705552 [source]


    Protein kinase D2 potentiates MEK/ERK/RSK signaling, c-Fos accumulation and DNA synthesis induced by bombesin in Swiss 3T3 cells

    JOURNAL OF CELLULAR PHYSIOLOGY, Issue 3 2007
    James Sinnett-Smith
    Protein kinase D (PKD) plays an important role in mediating cellular DNA synthesis in response to G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) agonists but the function of other isoforms of the PKD family has been much less explored. Here, we examined whether PKD2 overexpression in Swiss 3T3 cells facilitates DNA synthesis and the activation of the extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK) pathway in response to the mitogenic GPCR agonist bombesin. We show that PKD2 overexpression markedly potentiated the ability of this agonist to induce DNA synthesis. Addition of bombesin to Swiss 3T3 cells overexpressing PKD2 also induced a striking increase in the duration of MEK/ERK/RSK activation as compared with cultures of control cells. In contrast, neither DNA synthesis nor the duration of ERK activation in response to epidermal growth factor, which acts via protein kinase C/PKD2-independent pathways, was increased. Furthermore, bombesin promoted a striking accumulation of c-Fos protein in cells overexpressing PKD2. Our study demonstrates that PKD2, like PKD, facilitates mitogenesis and supports the hypothesis that an increase in the duration of the ERK signaling leading to accumulation of immediate gene products is one of the mechanisms by which isoforms of the PKD family enhance re-initiation of DNA synthesis by Gq-coupled receptor activation. J. Cell. Physiol. 211: 781,790, 2007. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]