Kinase B (kinase + b)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Kinase B

  • protein kinase b


  • Selected Abstracts


    Site-specific detection of S -nitrosylated PKB ,/Akt1 from rat soleus muscle using CapLC-Q-TOFmicro mass spectrometry

    JOURNAL OF MASS SPECTROMETRY (INCORP BIOLOGICAL MASS SPECTROMETRY), Issue 9 2005
    Xiao-Ming Lu
    Abstract Protein Kinase B,(PKB,, or Akt1) is believed to play a crucial role in programmed cell death, cancer progression and the insulin-signaling cascade. The protein is activated by phosphorylation at multiple sites and subsequently phosphorylates and activates eNOS. Free cysteine residues of the protein may capture reactive, endogenously produced nitric oxide (NO) as S -nitrosothiols. Site-specific detection of S -nitrosylated cysteine residues, usually at low stoichiometry, has been a major challenge in proteomic research largely due to the lack of mass marker for S -nitrosothiols that are very labile under physiologic conditions. In this report we describe a sensitive and specific MS method for detection of S -nitrosothiols in PKB ,/Akt1 in rat soleus muscle. PKB ,/Akt1 was isolated by immunoprecipitation and 2D-gel electrophoresis, subjected to in-gel tryptic digestion, and cysteinyl nitrosothiols were reacted with iodoacetic acids [2-C12/C13 = 50/50] under ascorbate reduction conditions. This resulted in the production of relatively stable carboxymethylcysteine (CMC) immonium ions (m/z 134.019 and m/z 135.019) within a narrow argon collision energy (CE = 30 ± 5 V) in the high MS noise region. In addition, free and disulfide-linked cysteine residues were converted to carboxyamidomethylcysteines (CAM). Tryptic S -nitrosylated parent ion was detected with a mass accuracy of 50 mDa for the two CMC immonium ions at the triggered elution time during capillary liquid chromatography (LC) separation. A peptide containing Cys296 was discriminated from four co-eluting tryptic peptides under lock mass conditions (m/z 785.8426). S -nitrosothiol in the tryptic peptide, ITDFGLBKEGIK (B: CAM, [M + 2H]2+ = 690.86, Found: 690.83), is believed to be present at a very low level, since the threshold for the CMC immonium trigger ions was set at 3 counts/s in the MS survey. The high levels of NO that are produced under stress conditions may result in increased S -nitrosylation of Cys296 which blocks disulfide bond formation between Cys296 and Cys310 and suppresses the biological effects of PKB ,/Akt1. With the procedures developed here, this process can be studied under physiological and pathological conditions. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Acute Ethanol Inhibits Extracellular Signal,Regulated Kinase, Protein Kinase B, and Adenosine 3,:5,-Cyclic Monophosphate Response Element Binding Protein Activity in an Age- and Brain Region,Specific Manner

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 4 2005
    L Judson Chandler
    Background: As little as a single episode of exposure of the developing brain to ethanol can result in developmental neuropathology and mental retardation. Extracellular signal,regulated kinases (ERKs), protein kinase B (PKB), and adenosine 3,:5,-cyclic monophosphate response element binding protein (CREB) are messenger molecules that play important roles in neuronal plasticity and survival. This study was undertaken to examine the effects of acute ethanol on ERK, PKB, and CREB activation in the brain. Methods: Immunoblot analysis was used to determine the effects of a 1-hr exposure of ethanol on levels of phospho-ERC in primary cortical cultures and in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of postnatal day 5 (PN5), postnatal day 21 (PN21), and adult rats. Results: In cortical cultures, ethanol (100 mM) significantly reduced activity-dependent activation of phospho-ERK, phospho-PKB, and phospho-CREB by approximately 50%. In PN5 rats, ethanol (3.5 g/kg) inhibited both phospho-ERK and phospho-PKB in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus but was without effect in the cerebellum. A similar brain region,specific inhibition of phospho-ERK was observed in PN21 rats, whereas in adult rats, ethanol inhibited phospho-ERK in all three brain regions. In contrast, ethanol had no effect on phospho-PKB in either PN21 or adult rats. Without exception, ethanol inhibited phospho-CREB in an identical brain region, and age-dependent manner as was observed for phospho-ERK. Finally, administration of the NMDA antagonist MK-801 (0.5 mg/kg) to PN5 rats had no effect on phospho-ERK or phospho-PKB levels in any brain region. Conclusion: The results demonstrate that acute ethanol inhibits ERK/PKB/CREB signaling in brain. This inhibition occurs in an age- and brain region,specific manner, with inhibition of PKB restricted to a time during the brain growth-spurt period. Furthermore, the lack of effect of MK-801 suggests that inhibition of NMDA receptors is unlikely to play a major role in binge ethanol inhibition of ERK/PKB/CREB signaling in vivo. [source]


    Caffeine and theophylline block insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and PKB phosphorylation in rat skeletal muscles

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 1 2010
    A. J. Kolnes
    Abstract Aim:, Caffeine and theophylline inhibit phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) activity and insulin-stimulated protein kinase B (PKB) phosphorylation. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake involves PI3-kinase/PKB, and the aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that caffeine and theophylline inhibit insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscles. Methods:, Rat epitrochlearis muscles and soleus strips were incubated with insulin and different concentrations of caffeine and theophylline for measurement of glucose uptake, force development and PKB phosphorylation. The effect of caffeine was also investigated in muscles stimulated electrically. Results:, Caffeine and theophylline completely blocked insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in both soleus and epitrochlearis muscles at 10 mm. Furthermore, insulin-stimulated PKB Ser473 and Thr308 and GSK-3, Ser9 phosphorylation were blocked by caffeine and theophylline. Caffeine reduced and theophylline blocked insulin-stimulated glycogen synthase activation. Caffeine stimulates Ca2+ release and force development increased rapidly to 10,20% of maximal tetanic contraction. Dantrolene (25 ,m), a well-known inhibitor of Ca2+ -release, prevented caffeine-induced force development, but caffeine inhibited insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in the presence of dantrolene. Contraction, like insulin, stimulates glucose uptake via translocation of glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4). Caffeine and theophylline reduced contraction-stimulated glucose uptake by about 50%, whereas contraction-stimulated glycogen breakdown was normal. Conclusion:, Caffeine and theophylline block insulin-stimulated glucose uptake independently of Ca2+ release, and the likely mechanism is via blockade of insulin-stimulated PI3-kinase/PKB activation. Caffeine and theophylline also reduced contraction-stimulated glucose uptake, which occurs independently of PI3-kinase/PKB, and we hypothesize that caffeine and theophylline also inhibit glucose uptake in skeletal muscles via an additional and hitherto unknown molecule involved in GLUT4 translocation. [source]


    DHEA improves impaired activation of Akt and PKC ,/,-GLUT4 pathway in skeletal muscle and improves hyperglycaemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetes rats

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 3 2009
    K. Sato
    Abstract Aim:, Addition of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to a cultured skeletal muscle locally synthesizes 5,-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). It induced activation of glucose metabolism-related signalling pathway via protein kinase B (Akt) and protein kinase C zeta/lambda (PKC ,/,)-glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) proteins. However, such an effect of DHEA in vivo remains unclear. Methods:, Using streptozotocin (STZ)-induced rats with type 1 diabetes mellitus, we tested the hypothesis that a single bout of DHEA injection in the rats improves hyperglycaemia and muscle GLUT4-regulated signalling pathway. After 1 week of STZ injection (55 mg kg,1) with male Wistar rats, fasting glucose concentrations were determined in a blood sample taken from the tail vein. Blood glucose levels were then monitored for 180 min after DHEA or sesame oil (control) was injected (n = 10 for each group). Results:, Blood glucose levels decreased significantly for 30,150 min after 2 mg DHEA injection in the STZ rats. In the skeletal muscle, expression and translocation of GLUT4 protein, phosphorylation of Akt and PKC ,/,, and phosphofructokinase and hexokinase enzyme activities increased significantly by DHEA injection. However, DHEA-induced improvements in Akt and PKC ,/,-GLUT4 pathways were blocked by a DHT inhibitor. Conclusion:, These results suggest that a single bout of DHEA injection can improve hyperglycaemia and activate the glucose metabolism-related signalling pathway via Akt and PKC ,/,-GLUT4 proteins of skeletal muscles in rats. Moreover, these results show that a DHEA-induced increase in muscle glucose uptake and utilization might contribute to improvement in hyperglycaemia in type 1 diabetes mellitus. [source]


    Human skeletal muscle cell differentiation is associated with changes in myogenic markers and enhanced insulin-mediated MAPK and PKB phosphorylation

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 4 2004
    L. Al-Khalili
    Abstract Aim:, We hypothesized that myogenic differentiation of HSMC would yield a more insulin responsive phenotype. Methods:, We assessed expression of several proteins involved in insulin action or myogenesis during differentiation of primary human skeletal muscle cultures (HSMC). Results:, Differentiation increased creatine kinase activity and expression of desmin and myocyte enhancer factor (MEF)2C. No change in expression was observed for big mitogen-activated protein kinase (BMK1/ERK5), MEF2A, insulin receptor (IR), hexokinase II, and IR substrates 1 and 2, while expression of glycogen synthase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2 MAP kinase) and the insulin responsive aminopeptidase increased after differentiation. In contrast to protein kinase B (PKB)a, expression of (PKB)b increased, with differentiation. Both basal and insulin-stimulated PI 3-kinase activity increased with differentiation. Insulin-mediated phosphorylation of PKB and ERK1/2 MAP kinase increased after differentiation. Conclusion:, Components of the insulin-signalling machinery are expressed in myoblast and myotube HSMC; however, insulin responsiveness to PKB and ERK MAP kinase phosphorylation increases with differentiation. [source]


    Vascular endothelial growth factor prevents G93A-SOD1-induced motor neuron degeneration

    DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROBIOLOGY, Issue 13 2009
    J. Simon Lunn
    Abstract Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder characterized by selective loss of motor neurons (MNs). Twenty percent of familial ALS cases are associated with mutations in Cu2+/Zn2+ superoxide dismutase (SOD1). To specifically understand the cellular mechanisms underlying mutant SOD1 toxicity, we have established an in vitro model of ALS using rat primary MN cultures transfected with an adenoviral vector encoding a mutant SOD1, G93A-SOD1. Transfected cells undergo axonal degeneration and alterations in biochemical responses characteristic of cell death such as activation of caspase-3. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an angiogenic and neuroprotective growth factor that can increase axonal outgrowth, block neuronal apoptosis, and promote neurogenesis. Decreased VEGF gene expression in mice results in a phenotype similar to that seen in patients with ALS, thus linking loss of VEGF to the pathogenesis of MN degeneration. Decreased neurotrophic signals prior to and during disease progression may increase MN susceptibility to mutant SOD1-induced toxicity. In this study, we demonstrate a decrease in VEGF and VEGFR2 levels in the spinal cord of G93A-SOD1 ALS mice. Furthermore, in isolated MN cultures, VEGF alleviates the effects of G93A-SOD1 toxicity and neuroprotection involves phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) signaling. Overall, these studies validate the usefulness of VEGF as a potential therapeutic factor for the treatment of ALS and give valuable insight into the responsible signaling pathways and mechanisms involved. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol, 2009 [source]


    Exendin-4 protects pancreatic beta cells from human islet amyloid polypeptide-induced cell damage: potential involvement of AKT and mitochondria biogenesis

    DIABETES OBESITY & METABOLISM, Issue 9 2010
    R. Fan
    Aim: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) stimulates beta-cell proliferation and enhances beta-cell survival, whereas oligomerization of human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) may induce beta-cell apoptosis and reduce beta-cell mass. Type 2 diabetes is associated with increased expression of IAPP. As GLP-1-based therapy is currently developed as a novel antidiabetic therapy, we examined the potential protective action of the GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin-4 on hIAPP-induced beta-cell apoptosis. Methods: The study was performed in clonal insulinoma (INS-1E) cells. Both method of transcriptional and translational and sulphorhodamine B (SRB) assays were used to evaluate cell viability and cell mass. Western blot analysis was applied to detect protein expression. Transfection of constitutively active protein kinase B (PKB/AKT) was performed to examine the role of AKT. Mitochondrial biogenesis was quantified by mitogreen staining and RT-PCR. Results: First, we confirmed that hIAPP induced cell apoptosis and growth inhibition in INS-1E cells. These effects were partially protected by exendin-4 in association with partial recovery of the hIAPP-mediated AKT inhibition. Furthermore, AKT constitutive activation attenuated hIAPP-induced apoptosis, whereas PI3K/AKT inhibition abrogated exendin-4-mediated effects. These findings suggest that the antiapoptotic and proliferative effects of exendin-4 in hIAPP-treated INS-1E cells were partially mediated through AKT pathway. Moreover, hIAPP induced FOXO1 but inhibited pdx-1 nucleus translocation. These effects were restored by exendin-4. Finally, mitogreen staining and RT-PCR revealed enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis by exendin-4 treatment. Conclusions: Collectively, these results suggest that GLP-1 receptor agonist protects beta cells from hIAPP-induced cell death partially through the activation of AKT pathway and improved mitochondrial function. [source]


    Molecular mechanisms of insulin resistance

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 6 2005
    S. Schinner
    Abstract Currently, we observe an epidemic expansion of diabetes mellitus. In subjects with Type 2 diabetes the resistance of fat, muscle and liver to insulin is the central pathophysiological event in the development of this disease. Genetic and environmental factors play a major role in this process, although the precise pathogenesis of insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes is still largely unknown. However, recent studies have contributed to a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying this process. In this review we therefore summarize the current developments in understanding the pathophysiological process of insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes. Among the many molecules involved in the intracellular processing of the signal provided by insulin, insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-2, the protein kinase B (PKB)-, isoform and the forkhead transcription factor Foxo1a (FKHR) are of particular interest in this context as recent data have provided strong evidence that dysfunction of these proteins results in insulin resistance in-vivo. Furthermore, we have now increasing evidence that the adipose tissue not only produces free fatty acids that contribute to insulin resistance, but also acts as a relevant endocrine organ producing mediators (adipokines) that can modulate insulin signalling. The identification of the molecular pathophysiological mechanisms of insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes is essential for the development of novel and more effective therapies to better treat our patients with insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes. [source]


    Reduced FAS transcription in clones of U937 cells that have acquired resistance to Fas-induced apoptosis

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 2 2009
    Jeanette Blomberg
    Susceptibility to cell death is a prerequisite for the elimination of tumour cells by cytotoxic immune cells, chemotherapy or irradiation. Activation of the death receptor Fas is critical for the regulation of immune cell homeostasis and efficient killing of tumour cells by apoptosis. To define the molecular changes that occur during selection for insensitivity to Fas-induced apoptosis, a resistant variant of the U937 cell line was established. Individual resistant clones were isolated and characterized. The most frequently observed defect in the resistant cells was reduced Fas expression, which correlated with decreased FAS transcription. Clones with such reduced Fas expression also displayed partial cross-resistance to tumour necrosis factor-, stimulation, but the mRNA expression of tumour necrosis factor receptors was not decreased. Reintroduction of Fas conferred susceptibility to Fas but not to tumour necrosis factor-, stimulation, suggesting that several alterations could be present in the clones. The reduced Fas expression could not be explained by mutations in the FAS coding sequence or promoter region, or by silencing through methylations. Protein kinase B and extracellular signal-regulated kinase, components of signalling pathways downstream of Ras, were shown to be activated in some of the resistant clones, but none of the three RAS genes was mutated, and experiments using chemical inhibitors could not establish that the activation of these proteins was the cause of Fas resistance as described in other systems. Taken together, the data illustrate that Fas resistance can be caused by reduced Fas expression, which is a result of an unidentified mode of regulation. [source]


    Metabolic gene switching in the murine female heart parallels enhanced mitochondrial respiratory function in response to oxidative stress

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 20 2007
    M. Faadiel Essop
    The mechanisms underlying increased cardioprotection in younger female mice are unclear. We hypothesized that serine-threonine protein kinase (protein kinase B; Akt) triggers a metabolic gene switch (decreased fatty acids, increased glucose) in female hearts to enhance mitochondrial bioenergetic capacity, conferring protection against oxidative stress. Here, we employed male and female control (db/+) and obese (db/db) mice. We found diminished transcript levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha, muscle-type carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 in female control hearts versus male hearts. Moreover, females displayed improved recovery of cardiac mitochondrial respiratory function and higher ATP levels versus males in response to acute oxygen deprivation. All these changes were reversed in female db/db hearts. However, we found no significant gender-based differences in levels of Akt, suggesting that Akt-independent signaling mechanisms are responsible for the resilient mitochondrial phenotype observed in female mouse hearts. As glucose is a more energetically efficient fuel substrate when oxygen is limiting, this gene program may be a crucial component that enhances tolerance to oxygen deprivation in female hearts. [source]


    A novel N-terminal hydrophobic motif mediates constitutive degradation of serum- and glucocorticoid-induced kinase-1 by the ubiquitin,proteasome pathway

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 13 2006
    Agata M. Bogusz
    Serum- and glucocorticoid-induced protein kinase-1 (SGK-1) plays a critical role in regulation of the epithelial sodium channel, ENaC. SGK-1 also shares significant catalytic domain homology with protein kinase B (PKB/AKT-1) and is a downstream effector of antiapoptotic phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling. Steady-state levels of an active SGK-1 are tightly regulated by rapid transcriptional activation and post-translational modification including phosphorylation. We show here that endogenous SGK-1 protein is polyubiquitinated and rapidly degraded by the 26S proteasome. In contrast to other rapidly degraded kinases, neither the catalytic activity of SGK-1 nor activation site phosphorylation was required for its ubiquitin modification and degradation. Instead, SGK-1 degradation required a lysine-less six-amino-acid (amino acids 19,24) hydrophobic motif (GMVAIL) within the N-terminal domain. Deletion of amino acids 19,24 significantly increased the half-life of SGK1 and prevented its ubiquitin modification. Interestingly, this minimal region was also required for the association of SGK-1 with the endoplasmic reticulum. Ubiquitin modification and degradation of SGK-1 were increasingly inhibited by the progressive mutation of six N-terminal lysine residues surrounding the GMVAIL motif. Mutation of all six lysines to arginine did not disrupt the subcellular localization of SGK-1 despite a significant decrease in ubiquitination, implying that this modification per se was not required for targeting to the endoplasmic reticulum. These results suggest that constitutive ubiquitin-mediated degradation of SGK-1 is an important mechanism regulating its biological activity. [source]


    Role of Ca2+/calmodulin regulated signaling pathways in chemoattractant induced neutrophil effector functions

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 18 2002
    Comparison with the role of phosphotidylinositol-3 kinase
    In human neutrophils, both changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentrations, [Ca2+]i, and activation of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PtdIns3K) have been proposed to play a role in regulating cellular function induced by chemoattractants. In this study we have investigated the role of [Ca2+]i and its effector molecule calmodulin in human neutrophils. Increased [Ca2+]i alone was sufficient to induce phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 2 (ERK2), p38 mitogen activated kinase (p38 MAPK), protein kinase B (PKB) and glycogen synthase kinase-3, (GSK-3,). Inhibition of calmodulin using a calmodulin antagonist N -(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide (W7), did not effect N -formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) induced ERK, p38 MAPK or GSK-3, phosphorylation, but attenuated fMLP induced PKB phosphorylation. PCR analysis of human neutrophil cDNA demonstrated variable expression of members of the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase family. The roles of calmodulin and PtdIns3K in regulating neutrophil effector functions were further compared. Neutrophil migration was abrogated by inhibition of calmodulin, while no effect was observed when PtdIns3K was inhibited. In contrast, production of reactive oxygen species was sensitive to inhibition of both calmodulin and PtdIns3K. Finally, we demonstrated that chemoattractants are unable to modulate neutrophil survival, despite activation of PtdIns3K and elevation [Ca2+]i. Taken together, our data indicate critical roles for changes in [Ca2+]i and calmodulin activity in regulating neutrophil migration and respiratory burst and suggest that chemoattractant induced PKB phosphorylation may be mediated by a Ca2+/calmodulin sensitive pathway in human neutrophils. [source]


    Structural and catalytic properties and homology modelling of the human nucleoside diphosphate kinase C, product of the DRnm23 gene

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 7 2001
    Muriel Erent
    The human DRnm23 gene was identified by differential screening of a cDNA library obtained from chronic myeloid leukaemia-blast crisis primary cells. The over-expression of this gene inhibits differentiation and induces the apoptosis of myeloid precursor cell lines. We overproduced in bacteria a truncated form of the encoded protein lacking the first 17 N-terminal amino acids. This truncated protein was called nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase C,. NDP kinase C, had similar kinetic properties to the major human NDP kinases A and B, but was significantly more stable to denaturation by urea and heat. Analysis of denaturation by urea, using size exclusion chromatography, indicated unfolding without the dissociation of subunits, whereas renaturation occurred via a folded monomer. The stability of the protein depended primarily on subunit interactions. Homology modelling of the structure of NDP kinase C,, based on the crystal structure of NDP kinase B, indicated that NDP kinase C, had several additional stabilizing interactions. The overall structure of the two enzymes appears to be identical because NDP kinase C, readily formed mixed hexamers with NDP kinase A. It is possible that mixed hexamers can be observed in vivo. [source]


    CD28 and CTLA-4 coreceptor expression and signal transduction

    IMMUNOLOGICAL REVIEWS, Issue 1 2009
    Christopher E. Rudd
    Summary:, T-cell activation is mediated by antigen-specific signals from the TCR,/CD3 and CD4,CD8,p56lck complexes in combination with additional co-signals provided by coreceptors such as CD28, inducible costimulator (ICOS), cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4), programmed death (PD-1), and others. CD28 and ICOS provide positive signals that promote and sustain T-cell responses, while CTLA-4 and PD-1 limit responses. The balance between stimulatory and inhibitory co-signals determines the ultimate nature of T-cell responses where response to foreign pathogen is achieved without excess inflammation and autoimmunity. In this review, we outline the current knowledge of the CD28 and CTLA-4 signaling mechanisms [involving phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K), growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2), Filamin A, protein kinase C , (PKC,), and phosphatases] that control T-cell immunity. We also present recent findings on T-cell receptor-interacting molecule (TRIM) regulation of CTLA-4 surface expression, and a signaling pathway involving CTLA-4 activation of PI3K and protein kinase B (PKB)/AKT by which cell survival is ensured under conditions of anergy induction. [source]


    Interleukin-7 promotes the survival of human CD4+ effector/memory T cells by up-regulating Bcl-2 proteins and activating the JAK/STAT signalling pathway

    IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 3 2010
    Nizar Chetoui
    Summary Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is a crucial cytokine involved in T-cell survival and development but its signalling in human T cells, particularly in effector/memory T cells, is poorly documented. In this study, we found that IL-7 protects human CD4+ effector/memory T cells from apoptosis induced upon the absence of stimulation and cytokines. We show that IL-7 up-regulates not only Bcl-2 but also Bcl-xL and Mcl-1 as well. Interleukin-7-induced activation of the janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) signalling pathway is sufficient for cell survival and up-regulation of Bcl-2 proteins. In contrast to previous studies with naive T cells, we found that IL-7 is a weak activator of the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/AKT (also referred as protein kinase B) pathway and IL-7-mediated cell survival occurs independently from the PI3K/AKT pathway as well as from activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway. Considering the contribution of both IL-7 and CD4+ effector/memory T cells to the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and colitis, our study suggests that IL-7 can contribute to these diseases by promoting cell survival. A further understanding of the mechanisms of IL-7 signalling in effector/memory T cells associated with autoimmune inflammatory diseases may lead to potential new therapeutic avenues. [source]


    Protein kinase B modulates the sensitivity of human neuroblastoma cells to insulin-like growth factor receptor inhibition

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER, Issue 11 2006
    Ana S. Guerreiro
    Abstract The potential of the novel insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-IR) inhibitor NVP-AEW541 as an antiproliferative agent in human neuroblastoma was investigated. Proliferation of a panel of neuroblastoma cell lines was inhibited by NVP-AEW541 with IC50 values ranging from 0.15 to 5 ,M. Experiments using an IGF-IR neutralizing antibody confirmed that the IGF-IR was essential to support growth of neuroblastoma cell lines. The expression levels of the IGF-IR in individual neuroblastoma cell lines did not correlate with the sensitivities to NVP-AEW541, while coexpression of the IGF-IR and the insulin receptor (IR) correlated with lower sensitivity to the inhibitor in some cell lines. Intriguingly, high levels of activation of Akt/protein kinase B (PKB) and phosphorylation of the ribosomal S6 protein were observed in neuroblastoma cell lines with decreased sensitivities to NVP-AEW541. Inhibition of Akt/PKB activity restored the sensitivity of neuroblastoma cells to the IGF-IR inhibitor. Transfection of neuroblastoma cells with activated Akt or ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K) decreased the sensitivity of the cells to NVP-AEW541. IGF-I-stimulated proliferation of neuroblastoma cell lines was completely blocked by NVP-AEW541, or by a combination of an inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3-kinase and rapamycin. In addition to its antiproliferative effects, NVP-AEW541 sensitized neuroblastoma cells to cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Together, our data demonstrate that NVP-AEW541 in combination with Akt/PKB inhibitors or chemotherapeutic agents may represent a novel approach to target human neuroblastoma cell proliferation. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    PDK1 and PKB/Akt: Ideal Targets for Development of New Strategies to Structure-Based Drug Design

    IUBMB LIFE, Issue 3 2003
    Thomas Harris
    Abstract Growth factor binding events to receptor tyrosine kinases result in activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), and activated PI3K generates the membrane-bound second messengers phosphatidylinositol 3,4-diphosphate [PI(3,4)P2] and PI(3,4,5)P3, which mediate membrane translocation of the phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK1) and protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt). In addition to the kinase domain, PDK1 and PKB contain a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain that binds to the second messenger, resulting in the phosphorylation and activation of PKB by PDK1. Recent evidence indicates that constitutive activation of PKB contributes to cancer progression by promoting proliferation and increased cell survival. The indicating of PDK1 and PKB as primary targets for discovery of anticancer drugs, together with the observations that both PDK1 and PKB contain small-molecule regulatory binding sites that may be in proximity to the kinase active site, make PDK1 and PKB ideal targets for the development of new strategies to structure-based drug design. While X-ray structures have been reported for the kinase domains of PDK1 and PKB, no suitable crystals have been obtained for either PDK1 or PKB with their PH domains intact. In this regard, a novel structure-based strategy is proposed, which utilizes segmental isotopic labeling of the PH domain in combination with site-directed spin labeling of the kinase active site. Then, long-range distance restraints between the 15N-labeled backbone amide groups of the PH domain and the unpaired electron of the active site spin label can be determined from magnetic resonance studies of the enhancement effect that the paramagnetic spin label has on the nuclear relaxation rates of the amide protons. The determination of the structure and position of the PH domain with respect to the known X-ray structure of the kinase active site could be useful in the rational design of potent and selective inhibitors of PDK1 and PKB by 'linking' the free energies of binding of substrate (ATP) analogs with analogs of the inositol polar head group of the phospholipid second messenger. The combined use of X-ray crystallography, segmental isotopic and spin labeling, and magnetic resonance studies can be further extended to the study of other dynamic multidomain proteins and targets for structure-based drug design. IUBMB Life, 55: 117-126, 2003 [source]


    FGFR1/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway is a novel target for antiangiogenic effects of the cancer drug Fumagillin (TNP-470)

    JOURNAL OF CELLULAR BIOCHEMISTRY, Issue 6 2007
    Gregory J. Chen
    Abstract Fibroblast growth factor-1 (FGF1), a prototypic member of the FGF family, is a potent angiogenic factor. Although FGF-stimulated angiogenesis has been extensively studied, the molecular mechanisms regulating FGF1-induced angiogenesis are poorly understood in vivo. Fumagillin, an antiangiogenic fungal metabolite, has the ability to inhibit FGF-stimulated angiogenesis in the chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). In the current study, chicken CAMs were transfected with a signal peptide-containing version of the FGF1 gene construct (sp-FGF1). Transfected CAMs were then analyzed in the presence and absence of fumagillin treatment with respect to the mRNA expression levels and protein activity of the FGF1 receptor protein (FGFR1), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), and its immediate downstream target, AKT-1 (protein kinase B). Treatment of sp-FGF1-transfected CAMs with fumagillin showed downregulation for both PI3K and AKT-1 proteins in mRNA expression and protein activity. In contrast, no major alterations in FGFR1 mRNA expression level were observed. Similar patterns of mRNA expression for the above three proteins were observed when the CAMs were treated with recombinant FGF1 protein in place of sp-FGF1 gene transfection. Investigation using biotin-labeled fumagillin showed that only the FGF1 receptor protein containing the cytoplasmic domain demonstrated binding to fumagillin. Furthermore, we demonstrated endothelial-specificity of the proposed antiangiogenic signaling cascade using an in vitro system. Based on these findings, we conclude that the binding of fumagillin to the cytoplasmic domain of the FGF1 receptor inhibited FGF1-stimulated angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. J. Cell. Biochem. 101: 1492,1504, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Serum and glucocorticoid-regulated protein kinases: Variations on a theme

    JOURNAL OF CELLULAR BIOCHEMISTRY, Issue 6 2006
    Maude Tessier
    Abstract The phosphatidylinositol 3, kinase (PI3K)-signaling pathway plays a critical role in a variety of cellular responses such as modulation of cell survival, glucose homeostasis, cell division, and cell growth. PI3K generates important lipid second messengers,phosphatidylinositides that are phosphorylated at the 3, position of their inositol ring head-group. These membrane restricted lipids act by binding with high affinity to specific protein domains such as the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. Effectors of PI3K include molecules that harbor such domains such as phosphoinositide-dependent kinase (PDK1) and protein kinase B (PKB), also termed Akt. The mammalian genome encodes three different PKB genes (,, ,, and ,; Akt1, 2, and 3, respectively) and each is an attractive target for therapeutic intervention in diseases such as glioblastoma and breast cancer. A second family of three protein kinases, termed serum and glucocorticoid-regulated protein kinases (SGKs), is structurally related to the PKB family including regulation by PI3K but lack a PH domain. However, in addition to PH domains, a second class of 3, phosphorylated inositol phospholipid-binding domains exists that is termed Phox homology (PX) domain: this domain is found in one of the SGKs (SGK3). Here, we summarize knowledge of the three SGK isoforms and compare and contrast them to PKB with respect to their possible importance in cellular regulation and potential as therapeutic targets. J. Cell. Biochem. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Different cellular localization, translocation, and insulin-induced phosphorylation of PKB, in HepG2 cells and hepatocytes

    JOURNAL OF CELLULAR BIOCHEMISTRY, Issue 1 2002
    Noor Afshan Syed
    Abstract Protein kinase B (PKB), a serine/threonine protein kinase, prevents apoptosis and promotes cellular transformation. PKB activity is stimulated by insulin. In this report, we examined the relative amounts of expression, location, and translocation upon insulin stimulation of PKB, in normal primary hepatocytes and carcinoma cells, HepG2 cells. Non-phosphorylated PKB, was present in both types of unstimulated cells. The phosphorylated form of the enzyme was present in the nucleus of unstimulated HepG2 cells but not in normal hepatocytes. In the cytoplasm, PKB, was found in greater abundance in the hepatocytes as compared in HepG2 cells. Insulin induced the translocation of phosphorylated PKB, from the nucleus to the nuclear membrane in HepG2 cells. In contrast, insulin caused translocation and phosphorylation of PKB, from the cytosol to the plasma membrane in normal hepatocytes. In addition, there is a higher expression of PKB, in the HepG2 cells as compared to normal primary hepatocytes. These findings provide an important distinction between hepatocellular HepG2 cells and normal liver cells and suggest that the presence of constitutively active nuclear PKB in the transformed cells might be an important contributor in cell transformation and immortality of hepatoma cells. J. Cell. Biochem. 86: 118,127, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Robust stimulation of TrkB induces delayed increases in BDNF and Arc mRNA expressions in cultured rat cortical neurons via distinct mechanisms

    JOURNAL OF NEUROCHEMISTRY, Issue 2 2007
    Makoto Yasuda
    Abstract In cultures of rat cortical neurons, we found that stimulation of tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB) with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) induced a biphasic expression of BDNF exon IV,IX mRNA, which became obvious 1,3 h (primary induction) and 24,72 h (delayed induction) after the stimulation, and characterized the delayed induction in relation to the mRNA expression of activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc). Withdrawal of BDNF from the medium after stimulation for 3 h allowed the delayed induction, which was caused at the transcriptional level and dependent upon the initial contact between exogenously added BDNF and TrkB, the effect of which was time- and dose-dependent. The primary induction was controlled by the extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK/MAPK) whereas the secondary induction by the calcium (Ca2+) signaling pathway. The enhanced Arc or Zif268 mRNA expression was controlled by activation of the ERK/MAPK pathway, both of which were repressed by blocking the binding of endogenously synthesized BDNF to TrkB. Thus, robust stimulation of TrkB autonomously induces delayed BDNF mRNA expression in an activity-dependent manner in rat cortical neurons, resulting in the stimulation of Arc mRNA expression through endogenously synthesized BDNF, the process being orchestrated by the Ca2+ and ERK/MAPK signaling pathways. [source]


    Serotonin and neuronal growth factors , a convergence of signaling pathways

    JOURNAL OF NEUROCHEMISTRY, Issue 5 2007
    Daniel S. Cowen
    Abstract Monoamines, including serotonin (5-HT), have traditionally been associated with short-term signaling pathways in neurons, such as the modulation of cAMP and Ca2+ levels. In contrast, neuronal growth factors, such as neurotrophins, have been traditionally associated with signaling pathways, such as those for activation of extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt (protein kinase B), which are known to induce long-term protective changes. It has therefore been unclear how antidepressants that increase serotonin (5-HT), induce such changes as hippocampal neuroprotection and neurogenesis. It has been hypothesized, that the actions of 5-HT may be mediated indirectly through increased synthesis of peptide growth factors. However, there is increasing evidence that some subtypes of 5-HT receptors can directly couple to activation of the ERK and Akt pathways. Such coupling suggests a more direct potential role for 5-HT in mediating the long-term actions induced by antidepressants. [source]


    Post-translational regulation of EAAT2 function by co-expressed ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-2 is impacted by SGK kinases

    JOURNAL OF NEUROCHEMISTRY, Issue 4 2006
    Christoph Boehmer
    Abstract The human excitatory amino acid transporter (EAAT)2 is the major glutamate carrier in the mammalian CNS. Defective expression of the transporter results in neuroexcitotoxicity that may contribute to neuronal disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The serum and glucocorticoid inducible kinase (SGK) 1 is expressed in the brain and is known to interact with the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-2 to modulate membrane transporters and ion channels. The present study aimed to investigate whether SGK isoforms and the related kinase, protein kinase B (PKB), regulate EAAT2. Expression studies in Xenopus oocytes demonstrated that glutamate-induced inward current (IGLU) was stimulated by co-expression of SGK1, SGK2, SGK3 or PKB. IGLU is virtually abolished by Nedd4-2, an effect abrogated by additional co-expression of either kinase. The kinases diminish the effect through Nedd4-2 phosphorylation without altering Nedd4-2 protein abundance. SGKs increase the transporter maximal velocity without significantly affecting substrate affinity. Similar to glutamate-induced currents, [3H] glutamate uptake and cell surface abundance of the transporter were increased by the SGK isoforms and down-regulated by the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-2. In conclusion, all three SGK isoforms and PKB increase EAAT2 activity and plasma membrane expression and thus, may participate in the regulation of neuroexcitability. [source]


    Alzheimer-like changes in protein kinase B and glycogen synthase kinase-3 in rat frontal cortex and hippocampus after damage to the insulin signalling pathway

    JOURNAL OF NEUROCHEMISTRY, Issue 4 2006
    Melita Salkovic-Petrisic
    Abstract The insulin-resistant brain state is related to late-onset sporadic Alzheimer's disease, and alterations in the insulin receptor (IR) and its downstream phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase signalling pathway have been found in human brain. These findings have not been confirmed in an experimental model related to sporadic Alzheimer's disease, for example rats showing a neuronal IR deficit subsequent to intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) treatment with streptozotocin (STZ). In this study, western blot analysis performed 1 month after i.c.v. injection of STZ showed an increase of 63% in the level of phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3,/, (pGSK-3,/,) protein in the rat hippocampus, whereas the levels of the unphosphorylated form (GSK-3,/,) and protein kinase B (Akt/PKB) remained unchanged. Three months after STZ treatment, pGSK-3,/, and Akt/PKB levels tended to decrease (by 8 and 9% respectively). The changes were region specific, as a different pattern was found in frontal cortex. Structural alterations were also found, characterized by ,-amyloid peptide-like aggregates in brain capillaries of rats treated with STZ. Similar neurochemical changes and cognitive deficits were recorded in rats treated with i.c.v. 5-thio- d -glucose, a blocker of glucose transporter (GLUT)2, a transporter that is probably involved in brain glucose sensing. The IR signalling cascade alteration and its consequences in rats treated with STZ are similar to those found in humans with sporadic Alzheimer's disease, and our results suggest a role for GLUT2 in Alzheimer's pathophysiology. [source]


    Insulin inhibits extracellular regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation in a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3) kinase-dependent manner in Neuro2a cells

    JOURNAL OF NEUROCHEMISTRY, Issue 1 2003
    L. P. Van Der Heide
    Abstract Insulin signalling is well studied in peripheral tissue, but not in neuronal tissue. To gain more insight into neuronal insulin signalling we examined protein kinase B (PKB) and extracellular regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) regulation in serum-deprived Neuro2a cells. Insulin phosphorylated PKB in a dose-dependent manner but reduced phosphorylation of ERK1/2. Both processes were phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) dependent. Interestingly, blockade of PI3K in combination with insulin induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2. The phosphorylation of ERK1/2 could be blocked with a specific inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein/ERK kinase (MEK), suggesting that it was mediated through the highly conserved Ras,Raf,MEK,ERK1/2 pathway. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of insulin resulted in a desensitized PI3K,PKB route. The insulin-induced inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation was also diminished when the PI3K,PKB route was desensitized. Blockade of PI3K in combination with insulin, however, still resulted in an unaltered MEK-dependent phosphorylation of ERK1/2. We conclude that PI3K is an important integrator of insulin signalling in Neuro2a cells as it regulates activation of PKB and inhibition of ERK1/2, and is sensitive to the duration of the insulin stimulus. [source]


    Long-Term Ethanol Exposure Impairs Neuronal Differentiation of Human Neuroblastoma Cells Involving Neurotrophin-Mediated Intracellular Signaling and in Particular Protein Kinase C

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 3 2009
    Julian Hellmann
    Background:, Revealing the molecular changes in chronic ethanol-impaired neuronal differentiation may be of great importance for understanding ethanol-related pathology in embryonic development but also in the adult brain. In this study, both acute and long-term effects of ethanol on neuronal differentiation of human neuroblastoma cells were investigated. We focused on several aspects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling because BDNF activates the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) cascade, promoting neuronal differentiation including neurite outgrowth. Methods:, The effects of ethanol exposure on morphological differentiation, cellular density, neuronal marker proteins, basal ERK activity, and ERK responsiveness to BDNF were measured over 2 to 4 weeks. qRT-PCR and Western blotting were performed to investigate the expression of neurotrophin receptor tyrosin kinase B (TrkB), members of the ERK-cascade, protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms and Raf-Kinase-Inhibitor-Protein (RKIP). Results:, Chronic ethanol interfered with the development of a neuronal network consisting of cell clusters and neuritic bundles. Furthermore, neuronal and synaptic markers were reduced, indicating impaired neuronal differentiation. BDNF-mediated activation of the ERK cascade was found to be continuously impaired by ethanol. This could not be explained by expressional changes monitored for TrkB, Raf-1, MEK, and ERK. However, BDNF also activates PKC signaling which involves RKIP, which finally leads to ERK activation as well. Therefore, we hypothesized that ethanol impairs this branch of BDNF signaling. Indeed, both PKC and RKIP were significantly down-regulated. Conclusions:, Chronic ethanol exposure impaired neuronal differentiation of neuroblastoma cells and BDNF signaling, particularly the PKC-dependent branch. RKIP, acting as a signaling switch at the merge of the PKC cascade and the Raf/MEK/ERK cascade, was associated with neuronal differentiation and significantly reduced in ethanol treatment. Moreover, PKC expression itself was even more strongly reduced. In contrast, members of the Raf-1/MEK/ERK cascade were less affected and the observed changes were not associated with impaired differentiation. Thus, reduced RKIP and PKC levels and subsequently reduced positive feedback on ERK activation provide an explanation for the striking effects of long-term ethanol exposure on BDNF signal transduction and neuronal differentiation, respectively. [source]


    Acute Ethanol Inhibits Extracellular Signal,Regulated Kinase, Protein Kinase B, and Adenosine 3,:5,-Cyclic Monophosphate Response Element Binding Protein Activity in an Age- and Brain Region,Specific Manner

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 4 2005
    L Judson Chandler
    Background: As little as a single episode of exposure of the developing brain to ethanol can result in developmental neuropathology and mental retardation. Extracellular signal,regulated kinases (ERKs), protein kinase B (PKB), and adenosine 3,:5,-cyclic monophosphate response element binding protein (CREB) are messenger molecules that play important roles in neuronal plasticity and survival. This study was undertaken to examine the effects of acute ethanol on ERK, PKB, and CREB activation in the brain. Methods: Immunoblot analysis was used to determine the effects of a 1-hr exposure of ethanol on levels of phospho-ERC in primary cortical cultures and in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of postnatal day 5 (PN5), postnatal day 21 (PN21), and adult rats. Results: In cortical cultures, ethanol (100 mM) significantly reduced activity-dependent activation of phospho-ERK, phospho-PKB, and phospho-CREB by approximately 50%. In PN5 rats, ethanol (3.5 g/kg) inhibited both phospho-ERK and phospho-PKB in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus but was without effect in the cerebellum. A similar brain region,specific inhibition of phospho-ERK was observed in PN21 rats, whereas in adult rats, ethanol inhibited phospho-ERK in all three brain regions. In contrast, ethanol had no effect on phospho-PKB in either PN21 or adult rats. Without exception, ethanol inhibited phospho-CREB in an identical brain region, and age-dependent manner as was observed for phospho-ERK. Finally, administration of the NMDA antagonist MK-801 (0.5 mg/kg) to PN5 rats had no effect on phospho-ERK or phospho-PKB levels in any brain region. Conclusion: The results demonstrate that acute ethanol inhibits ERK/PKB/CREB signaling in brain. This inhibition occurs in an age- and brain region,specific manner, with inhibition of PKB restricted to a time during the brain growth-spurt period. Furthermore, the lack of effect of MK-801 suggests that inhibition of NMDA receptors is unlikely to play a major role in binge ethanol inhibition of ERK/PKB/CREB signaling in vivo. [source]


    Zoledronate inhibits endothelial cell adhesion, migration and survival through the suppression of multiple, prenylation-dependent signaling pathways

    JOURNAL OF THROMBOSIS AND HAEMOSTASIS, Issue 1 2007
    M. HASMIM
    Summary.,Background: Recent evidence indicates that zoledronate, a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate used to treat conditions of increased bone resorption, may have anti-angiogenic activity. The endothelial cells signaling events modulated by zoledronate remain largely elusive. Objectives: The aim of this work was to identify signaling events suppressed by zoledronate in endothelial cells and responsible for some of its biological effects. Methods: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were exposed to zoledronate, isoprenoid analogs (i.e. farnesol and geranylgeraniol) and various inhibitors of signaling, and the effect on adhesion, survival, migration, actin cytoskeleton and signaling events characterized. Results: Zoledronate reduced Ras prenylation, Ras and RhoA translocation to the membrane, and sustained ERK1/2 phosphorylation and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) induced JNK phosphorylation. Isoprenoid analogs attenuated zoledronate effects on HUVEC adhesion, actin stress fibers and focal adhesions, migration and survival. Isoprenoid analogs also restored Ras prenylation, RhoA translocation to the membrane, sustained FAK and ERK1/2 phosphorylation and prevented suppression of protein kinase B (PKB) and JNK phosphorylation in HUVEC exposed to TNF in the presence of zoledronate. Pharmacological inhibition of Rock, a RhoA target mediating actin fiber formation, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, an activator of PKB, MEK1/2, an activator of ERK1/2, and JNK, recapitulated individual zoledronate effects, consistent with the involvement of these molecules and pathways and their inhibition in the zoledronate effects. Conclusions: This work has demonstrated that zoledronate inhibits HUVEC adhesion, survival, migration and actin stress fiber formation by interfering with protein prenylation and has identified ERK1/2, JNK, Rock, FAK and PKB as kinases affected by zoledronate in a prenylation-dependent manner. [source]


    Hydroxytyrosol induces antioxidant/detoxificant enzymes and Nrf2 translocation via extracellular regulated kinases and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B pathways in HepG2 cells

    MOLECULAR NUTRITION & FOOD RESEARCH (FORMERLY NAHRUNG/FOOD), Issue 7 2010
    María Angeles Martín
    Abstract Hydroxytyrosol (HTy) is a natural polyphenol abundant in olive oil, which possesses multiple biological actions. Particularly, HTy has cytoprotective activity against oxidative-stress-induced cell damage, but the underlying mechanisms of action remain unclear. Here, we have investigated the molecular mechanism involved in the protection exerted by HTy on tert -butyl hydroperoxide-induced damage in human HepG2 liver cells. Treatment of HepG2 cells with HTy increased the expression and the activity of glutathione-related enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione S -transferase. HTy also induced the nuclear transcription factor erythroid 2p45-related factor (Nrf2), a transcription factor implicated in the expression of several antioxidant/detoxificant enzymes. Moreover, two important signalling proteins involved in Nrf2 translocation, the protein kinase B and the extracellular regulated kinases, were also activated by HTy. Further studies with specific inhibitors confirmed that both molecular pathways are critical for the nuclear translocation of Nrf2, the increased enzyme expression and activity and the beneficial effect against oxidative stress induced by HTy. In conclusion, together with the inherent radical scavenging activity of HTy, our results provide an additional mechanism of action to prevent oxidative stress damage through the modulation of signalling pathways involved in antioxidant/detoxifying enzymes regulation. [source]


    Several signaling pathways are involved in the control of cattle oocyte maturation

    MOLECULAR REPRODUCTION & DEVELOPMENT, Issue 4 2004
    Céline Vigneron
    Abstract The main limit of in vitro production of domestic mammal embryos comes from the low capacity of in vitro matured oocytes to develop after fertilization. As soon as they are separated from follicular environment, oocytes spontaneously resume meiosis without completion of their terminal differentiation. Roscovitine (ROS), an inhibitor of M-phase promoting factor (MPF) kinase activity reversibly blocks the meiotic resumption in vitro. However, in cattle maturing oocytes several cellular events such as protein synthesis and phosphorylation, chromatin condensation and nuclear envelope folding escape ROS inhibition suggesting the alternative pathways in oocyte maturation. We compared the level of synthesis and phosphorylation of several protein kinases during bovine cumulus oocyte complex (COC) maturation in vitro in the presence or not of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and ROS. We showed that during the EGF-stimulated maturation, ROS neither affected the decrease of EGF receptor (EGFR) nor did inhibit totally its phosphorylation in cumulus cells and also did not totally eliminate tyrosine phosphorylation in oocytes. However, ROS did inhibit the Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3) activity when oocytes mature without EGF. Accumulation of Akt/PKB (protein kinase B), JNK1/2 (jun N-terminal kinases) and Aurora-A in oocytes during maturation was not affected by ROS. However, the phosphorylation of Akt but not JNKs was diminished in ROS-treated oocytes. Thus, PI3 kinase/Akt, JNK1/2 and Aurora-A are likely to be involved in the regulation of bovine oocyte maturation and some of these pathways seem to be independent to MPF activity and meiotic resumption. This complex regulation may explain the partial meiotic arrest of ROS-treated oocytes and the accelerated maturation observed after such treatment. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 69: 466,474, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]