Kidney Tissue (kidney + tissue)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences


Selected Abstracts


70 vs 120 W thulium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet 2 µm continuous-wave laser for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a systematic ex-vivo evaluation

BJU INTERNATIONAL, Issue 3 2010
Thorsten Bach
Study Type , Aetiology (case series) Level of Evidence 4 OBJECTIVE To evaluate the ablative and haemostatic properties of the recently introduced 120-W thulium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet (Tm-YAG) laser and to assess these results against those of the previously introduced 70-W Tm-YAG laser. MATERIALS AND METHODS The ex-vivo model of the isolated blood-perfused porcine kidney was used to determine the ablation capacity, haemostatic properties and coagulation depth of a 2 µm continuous-wave Tm-YAG laser. The energy was delivered using a 550-µm and an 800-µm bare-ended fibre. The results of the recently introduced 120-W Tm-YAG were compared to the established 70-W device. Kidney tissue was embedded for histological evaluation. After staining (haematoxylin and eosin, H&E; and NADH) of the specimen, the coagulation zone and depth of the necrotic tissue layer were measured. RESULTS With increased power output, the mean (sd) rate of vaporization of tissue increased, from 9.80 (3.03) g/10 min at 70 W to 16.41 (5.2) g/10 min at 120 W using the 550 µm fibre. The total amount of ablated tissue using the 800 µm fibre was lower than with the 550 µm fibre. With increasing power output the bleeding rate remained stable in either group. Tissue penetration remained shallow, even with increasing power output. In contrast to H&E staining, where the coagulation zone was measured, NADH staining showed an inner zone of necrotic tissue, again with no difference between the 70- and the 120-W Tm-YAG. CONCLUSION The 120-W Tm-YAG offers significantly higher ablation rates than the 70-W device, and despite the increased rate of ablation with the 120-W Tm-YAG, the bleeding rate and depth of tissue penetration were comparable to those using the 70-W device. [source]


Effect of in vitro and in vivo organotin exposures on the immune functions of murray cod (Maccullochella peelii peelii)

ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY & CHEMISTRY, Issue 8 2007
Andrew J. Harford
Abstract Murray cod (Maccullochella peelii peelii) is an iconic native Australian freshwater fish and an ideal species for ecotoxicological testing of environmental pollutants. The species is indigenous to the Murray-Darling basin, which is the largest river system in Australia but also the ultimate sink for many environmental pollutants. The organotins tributyltin (TBT) and dibutyltin (DBT) are common pollutants of both freshwater and marine environments and are also known for their immunotoxicity in both mammals and aquatic organisms. In this study, TBT and DBT were used as exemplar immunotoxins to assess the efficiency of immune function assays (i.e., mitogen-stimulated lymphoproliferation, phagocytosis in head kidney tissue, and serum lysozyme activity) and to compare the sensitivity of Murray cod to other fish species. The organotins were lethal to Murray cod at concentrations previously reported as sublethal in rainbow trout (i.e., intraperitoneal [i.p.] lethal dose to 75% of the Murray cod [LD75] = 2.5 mg/kg DBT and i.p. lethal dose to 100% of the Murray cod [LD100] = 12.5 mg/kg TBT and DBT). In vivo TBT exposure at 0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg stimulated the phagocytic function of Murray cod (F = 6.89, df = 18, p = 0.004), while the highest concentration of 2.5 mg/kg TBT decreased lymphocyte numbers (F = 7.92, df = 18, p = 0.02) and mitogenesis (F = 3.66, df = 18, p = 0.035). Dibutyltin was the more potent immunosuppressant in Murray cod, causing significant reductions in phagocytic activity (F = 5.34, df = 16, p = 0.013) and lymphocyte numbers (F = 10.63, df = 16, p = 0.001). [source]


Isolation and potential existence of side population cells in adult human kidney

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF UROLOGY, Issue 3 2008
Toshihiko Inowa
Abstract: The existence of adult stem-like cells such as side population (SP) cells is reported in various kinds of animal tissues, and we recently reported that mice kidney SP cells differentiate into multilineage. However, there has thus far been no report about human kidney SP cells. In the present study, we examined the existence of SP cells in human kidney tissue by using Hoechst 33342 staining and fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis. We used porcine kidney tissue to optimize the analysis conditions for human tissue, and found that the SP population in human kidney was 1.3%. The existence of SP cells in human kidney suggests that the cells could be good targets for clinical renal regenerative medicine. [source]


Effect of oral administration of arabic gum on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats

JOURNAL OF BIOCHEMICAL AND MOLECULAR TOXICOLOGY, Issue 3 2003
Abdulhakeem A. Al-Majed
Abstract It has been recently postulated from our laboratory that Arabic gum (AG) offers a protective effect in the kidney of rats against nephrotoxicity induced by gentamicin via inhibiting lipid peroxidation. It has also recently shown a powerful antioxidant effect through scavenging superoxide anions. In this study we utilized a rat model of cisplatin (CP)-induced nephrotoxicity to determine its peak time following (1, 2, 5, and 7 days) of a single CP (7.5 mg/kg, i.p.) injection. Also, a possible protective effect of cotreatment with AG (7.5 g/kg/day p.o.) on CP-induced nephrotoxicity was investigated. Biochemical as well as histological assessments were carried out. CP-induced nephrotoxicity was manifested by significant elevations of the functional parameters blood urea, serum creatinine, and kidney/body weight ratio. Maximum toxic effects of CP were observed 5 days after its injection, while it started after day 1 in the biochemical parameters, such as glutathione depletion in the kidney tissue with concomitant increases in lipid peroxides and platinum content. Additionally, severe necrosis and desquamation of tubular epithelial cells in renal cortex as well as interstitial nephritis were observed after 5 days in CP-treated animals. Five days after AG cotreatment with CP did not protect the kidney from the damaging effects of CP. However, it significantly reduced CP-induced lipid peroxidation. These findings suggest that lipid peroxidation is not the main cause of CP-induced nephrotoxicity but it is rather more dependent on other factors such as platinum disposition in renal interstitial tubules. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 17:146,153, 2003; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/jbt.10072 [source]


Human cardiomyocytes express high level of Na+/glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1)

JOURNAL OF CELLULAR BIOCHEMISTRY, Issue 2 2003
Lubing Zhou
Abstract We have quantitatively measured gene expression for the sodium-dependent glucose cotransporters 1 and 2 (SGLT1 and SGLT2) in 23 human tissues using the method of real time PCR. As predicted, our results revealed that the expression of SGLT1 was very high in the small intestine (1.2E,+,6 molecules/,g total RNA) relative to that in the kidney (3E,+,4 molecules/,g total RNA). Surprisingly, we observed that the expression of SGLT1 in human heart was unexpectedly high (3.4E,+,5 molecules/,g total RNA), approximately 10-fold higher than that observed in kidney tissue. DNA sequencing confirmed that the PCR amplified fragment was indeed the human SGLT1 gene. Moreover, in situ hybridization studies using a digoxigenin (DIG)-labeled antisense cRNA probe corresponding to human SGLT1 cDNA confirm that human cardiomyocytes express SGLT1 mRNA. In contrast, the expression of SGLT2 in human tissues appears to be ubiquitous, with levels ranging from 6.7E,+,4 molecules/,g total RNA (in skeletal muscle) to 3.2E,+,6 molecules/,g total RNA (in kidney), levels 10,100-fold higher than the expression of SGLT1 in the same tissues. Our finding that human cardiomyocytes express high levels of SGLT1 RNA suggests that SGLT1 may have a functional role in cardiac glucose transport. Since several SGLT inhibitors are currently in development as potential anti-diabetic agents, it may be important to assess the functional consequences of inhibition of SGLT1 in the heart. J. Cell. Biochem. 90: 339,346, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Characterization of susceptibility and carrier status of burbot, Lota lota (L.), to IHNV, IPNV, Flavobacterium psychrophilum, Aeromonas salmonicida and Renibacterium salmoninarum

JOURNAL OF FISH DISEASES, Issue 7 2010
M P Polinski
Abstract In this study, susceptibility and potential carrier status of burbot, Lota lota, were assessed for five important fish pathogens. Burbot demonstrated susceptibility and elevated mortality following challenge with infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) by immersion and to Aeromonas salmonicida by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. IHNV persisted in fish for at least 28 days, whereas A. salmonicida was not re-isolated beyond 17 days post-challenge. In contrast, burbot appeared refractory to Flavobacterium psychrophilum following intramuscular (i.m.) injection and to infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) by immersion. However, i.p injection of IPNV resulted in re-isolation of virus from fish for the duration of the 28 day challenge. Renibacterium salmoninarum appeared to induce an asymptomatic carrier state in burbot following i.p. injection, but overt manifestation of disease was not apparent. Viable bacteria persisted in fish for at least 41 days, and bacterial DNA isolated by diagnostic polymerase chain reaction was detected from burbot kidney tissue 90 days after initial exposure. This study is the first to investigate susceptibility of burbot to selected fish pathogens, and this information will aid in efforts to culture and manage this species. [source]


Gene expression profile of transgenic mouse kidney reveals pathogenesis of hepatitis B virus associated nephropathy,

JOURNAL OF MEDICAL VIROLOGY, Issue 5 2006
J. Ren
Abstract Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated nephritis has been reported worldwide. Immune complex deposition has been accepted as its pathogenesis, although the association between the presence of local HBV DNA and viral antigen and the development of nephritis remains controversial. To understand better the roles played by HBV protein expression in the kidney, the global gene expression profile was studied in the kidney tissue of a lineage of HBV transgenic mouse (#59). The mice expressed HBsAg in serum, and HBsAg and HBcAg in liver and kidney, but without virus replication. Full-length HBV genome (adr subtype, C genotype) isolated from a chronic HBV carrier was used to establish the transgenic mice #59. Similarly manipulated mice that did not express HBV viral antigens served as controls. Southern blotting, hybridization with HBV probe, and immuno-histochemical staining were used to study HBV gene expression. mRNA extracted from the kidney tissue was analyzed using Affymetrix microarrays. HBsAg and HBcAg were located mainly in the cytoplasm of tubular epithelium. Altogether 520 genes were "up-regulated" more than twofold and 76 genes "down-regulated" more than twofold in the kidney. The complement activation, blood coagulation, and acute-phase response genes were markedly "up-regulated". Compared to the controls, the level of serum C3 protein was decreased in #59 mice, while the level of C3 protein from kidney extract was increased. Results indicate that expression of HBsAg and HBcAg in tubular epithelial cells of the kidney per se can up-regulate complement-mediated inflammatory gene pathways, in addition to immune complex formation. J. Med. Virol. 78:551,560, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Acute Toxicity and Sublethal Effects of Nitrite on Selected Hematological Parameters and Tissues in Dark-banded Rockfish, Sebastes inermis

JOURNAL OF THE WORLD AQUACULTURE SOCIETY, Issue 2 2007
In-Seok Park
Acute toxicity and sublethal effects of nitrite in dark-banded rockfish, Sebastes inermis (83.3 ± 7.2 g), were studied under static conditions for a period of 96 h. The acute toxicity of nitrite evaluated for the 96-h lethal concentration (LC50) was 700 mg/L. The sublethal effects on selected hematological parameters of S. inermis, such as total erythrocyte count (TEC), hemoglobin, plasma glucose, and serum protein content, were measured after 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of exposure to 0, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 700 mg/L of nitrite. Sublethal nitrite caused progressive reduction in the TEC, hemoglobin, and serum protein content in fish depending on the nitrite concentration and exposure period. The 96-h exposure resulted in a 14,42% reduction in TEC and 25,33% reduction in hemoglobin content for 100,700 mg/L of nitrite compared to the control. A dose-related reduction in plasma glucose (25.7,34.2%) was observed for concentrations of 200,700 mg/L of nitrite during 48 h of exposure, followed by an increase through 96 h. A significant reduction in serum protein (7.3,12.6%) was observed for 200,700 mg/L of nitrite after 96 h of exposure. Abnormal histological changes in skin, gill, liver, and kidney tissue were observed in fish exposed to 700 mg/L of nitrite after 96 h of exposure compared to the control. Although no mortality of S. inermis occurred at 500 mg/L of nitrite, all hematological parameters adversely responded to a nitrite dose of 200 mg/L for 96 h. These results showed that although acute toxicity concentration of nitrite in S. inermis is higher than 700 mg/L, sublethal concentrations of nitrite also negatively affect hematological parameters. [source]


Multiorgan transplantation with a new organ-chip technique in mice: Preliminary histological data

MICROSURGERY, Issue 5 2003
Endre Brath M.D.
A simple model was developed for multiorgan liver-kidney-spleen-intestine transplantation on 108 inbred mice. Donor operations included hepatectomy, nephrectomy, splenectomy, and jejunum segment resection. Following removal of the organ, small slices or abdominal organ "chips" were prepared. During multiorgan recipient operations, chips from each of these organs were transplanted into the omentum; in the control single-organ groups, only 1 organ was transplanted. All animals survived. Biopsies were taken for histology after 6 weeks. All organs were found to have developed a blood supply. In the liver chips, hypertrophied cells could be detected. In the margin of the kidney tissue, both the glomeruli and tubules were preserved. Lymphoid zone and red pulp were intact in spleen chips. All layers of the intestinal chips were identifiable and contained intraluminal mucinous substances. This model is a simple surgical intervention with the possibility of the investigation of 4 organs. Kísérletünk célja új, multiorgan máj-vese-lép-vékonybél chip-transzplantációs modell kidolgozása volt egerekben. Kísérletünkhöz 108 beltenyésztett egeret használtunk. Donor m,tétek: hepatectomia, nephrectomia, splenectomia, és jejunum segment resectio. Az eltávolított szervekb,l kis szeleteket, "chip"-eket alakítottunk ki. A multiorgan recipiens m,tétek: minden szervb,l darabokat transzplantáltunk a csepleszbe, míg kontrollba csak egy szerv került. Minden állat túlélt: 6 hét múlva szövettani mintavétel történt. A chip-vérellátás jól követhet, volt. A máj "chip"-ekben hipertrophiás sejteket találtunk. A vese darabok széli részén a glomerolusok és tubulusok meg,rízték szerkezetüket. Jól körülírt lép fészkeket detektáltunk lympoid zónával és vörös pulpával. A bél falának minden rétegét, és mucin termelést sikerült azonosítani. A modell technikailag egyszer,en kivitelezhetü, el,nye, hogy egyszerre 4 szerv vizsgálatára van lehet,ség. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. MICROSURGERY 23:466,469 2003 [source]


Isolation, propagation and characterization of primary tubule cell culture from human kidney (Methods in Renal Research)

NEPHROLOGY, Issue 2 2007
WEIER QI
SUMMARY: Proximal tubule cells (PTC) are the major cell type in the cortical tubulointerstitium. Because PTC play a central role in tubulointerstitial pathophysiology, it is essential to prepare pure PTC from kidney tissue to explore the mechanisms of tubulointerstitial pathology. The authors have successfully refined and characterized primary cultures of human PTC using Percoll density gradient centrifugation as a key PTC enrichment step. The cells obtained by this method retain morphological and functional properties of PTC and are minimally contaminated by other renal cells. In particular, the primary isolates have characteristics of epithelial cells with uniform polarized morphology, tight junction and well-formed apical microvilli. Cytokeratin is uniformly and strongly expressed in the isolates. Brush border enzyme activities and PTC transport properties are retained in the isolates. This method therefore provides an excellent in vitro model for the physiologic study of the human proximal tubule. [source]


Betulinic acid protects against ischemia/reperfusion-induced renal damage and inhibits leukocyte apoptosis

PHYTOTHERAPY RESEARCH, Issue 3 2010
Emel Ek, lu-Demiralp
Abstract The possible protective effect of betulinic acid on renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury was studied. Wistar Albino rats were unilaterally nephrectomized and subjected to 45 min of renal pedicle occlusion followed by 6 h of reperfusion. Betulinic acid (250 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline was administered at 30 min prior to ischemia and immediately before the reperfusion. Creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and TNF-, as well as the oxidative burst of neutrophil and leukocyte apoptosis were assayed in blood samples. Malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) levels, Na+, K+ -ATPase and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities were determined in kidney tissue which was also analysed microscopically. I/R caused significant increases in blood creatinine, BUN, LDH and TNF-,. In the kidney samples of the I/R group, MDA levels and MPO activity were increased significantly, however, GSH levels and Na+, K+ -ATPase activity were decreased. Betulinic acid ameliorated the oxidative burst response to both formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) stimuli, normalized the apoptotic response and most of the biochemical indices as well as histopathological alterations induced by I/R. In conclusion, these data suggest that betulinic acid attenuates I/R-induced oxidant responses, improved microscopic damage and renal function by regulating the apoptotic function of leukocytes and inhibiting neutrophil infiltration. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Thymoquinone supplementation attenuates hypertension and renal damage in nitric oxide deficient hypertensive rats

PHYTOTHERAPY RESEARCH, Issue 5 2007
Mahmoud M. Khattab
Abstract The present study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effect of thymoquinone (TQ), the main constituent of the volatile oil from Nigellasativa seeds, in rats after chronic inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis with N, -nitro- l -arginine methyl esters (l -NAME). Rats were divided randomly into different treatment groups: control, l -NAME, TQ and l -NAME + TQ. Hypertension was induced by 4 weeks administration of l -NAME (50 mg/kg/day p.o.). TQ was administered alone or in combination with l -NAME and continued for 4 weeks. The animals were killed, and the serum and kidney tissues were isolated for the determination of creatinine and glutathione (GSH), respectively. Rats receiving l -NAME showed a progressive increase in systolic blood pressure compared with control rats. Concomitant treatment with TQ (0.5 and 1 mg/kg/day p.o.) reduced the increase in systolic blood pressure induced by l -NAME in a dose dependent manner. Kidney injury was demonstrated by a significant increase in serum creatinine and a decrease in GSH in kidney tissue from l -NAME treated rats. Treatment of rats with TQ decreased the elevated creatinine and increased GSH to normal levels. TQ inhibited the in vitro production of superoxide radical in enzymatic and non-enzymatic systems. In conclusion, TQ is effective in protecting rats against l -NAME-induced hypertension and renal damage possibly via antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


The effects of chard,(Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla) extract on the kidney tissue, serum urea and Creatinine levels of diabetic rats

PHYTOTHERAPY RESEARCH, Issue 8 2002
R. Yanarda
Abstract The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of chard (Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla) extract on serum urea and creatinine concentrations and on kidney tissue in normal and streptozotocin-diabetic rats. The extract was administered to rats at a dose of 2,g/kg every day for 28 days, 14 days after animals were made diabetic. On day 42, kidney tissue and blood samples were examined. Significant degenerative changes in kidney tissue of diabetic rats were observed, but in the group given chard extract, the morphology of kidney tissue was found to be nearly the same as the controls. Serum urea and creatinine levels significantly increased in the diabetic groups, but the chard extracts significantly reduced serum urea and creatinine levels. It is concluded that the extract of this plant may reduce serum urea and creatinine levels and confer a protective effect on the kidney of diabetic rats. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Osmoregulatory changes in wedge sole (Dicologoglossa cuneata Moreau, 1881) after acclimation to different environmental salinities

AQUACULTURE RESEARCH, Issue 7 2009
Marcelino Herrera
Abstract The osmoregulatory responses of 20 days of acclimation to environmental salinities of 5,, 15,, 25,, 35, and 55, were assessed in juveniles of wedge sole (Dicologoglossa cuneata Moreau, 1881). This sole shows a good capacity to adapt to this range of environmental salinities. A direct linear relationship between environmental salinity and plasma osmolality was observed, with a calculated isosmotic point of 10.4, (284 mOsm kg,1). Na+, K+ -ATPase activity in the gills followed a ,U-shaped' relationship with environmental salinity, and a direct linear relationship in kidney tissue. Plasma cortisol levels were elevated in fish held in extreme salinities, and glucose levels were higher only in the group maintained at the highest environmental salinity. In the liver, a decrease in glycogen, lactate and amino acid contents was observed in specimens acclimated to extreme salinities (5, and 55,), suggesting mobilization of liver metabolites. Metabolite levels in white muscle showed a pattern similar to the liver, with lower values in specimens acclimated to extreme salinities. We conclude that wedge sole is strongly euryhaline, but acclimation to extreme salinities comes with an energetic cost. [source]


Phytate prevents tissue calcifications in female rats

BIOFACTORS, Issue 3 2000
F. Grases
The AIN-76 A, a purified rodent diet, has a propensity to cause kidney calcifications in female rats which is not observed with non-purified rodent diets, suggesting a nutritional factor that avoids these calcifications. One candidate is phytate, which inhibits crystallisation of calcium salts and is practically absent in purified diets. Therefore, the effects on calcification of kidney tissue of phytate addition to the AIN-76 A diet using female Wistar rats were studied. The rats were assigned to three groups: AIN-76 A, AIN-76 A + 1% phytate and standard nonpurified chow. Urinary phytate of the AIN-76 A fed group was undetectable. Urinary phytate of AIN-76 A + 1% phytate and standard fed groups did not differ and was significantly higher than in the AIN-76 A group. The concentrations of calcium and phosporus in kidneys were greater in the AIN-76 A group than in AIN-76 A + 1% phytate and standard groups. Only rats of the AIN-76 A group displayed mineral deposits at the corticomedullary junction. These findings demonstrated that the absence of phytate in the AIN-76 A diet is one of the causes of renal calcification in female rats. [source]


Protective effects of antioxidant combination against D-galactosamine-induced kidney injury in rats

CELL BIOCHEMISTRY AND FUNCTION, Issue 2 2010
Tunc Catal
Abstract The protective effects of an antioxidant combination in kidney injury induced by the injection of D-galactosamine (D-GaIN) were examined in the present study. Sprague Dawley female rats were used and divided into four groups as follows: (1) animals injected physiological saline solution, intraperitoneally, (2) animals treated with the combination of ascorbic acid (100,mg,kg,1,day,1), , -carotene (15,mg,kg,1,day,1), , -tocopherol (100,mg,kg,1,day,1), and sodium selenate (0.2,mg,kg,1,day,1) for three days orally, (3) rats injected D-GaIN (500,mg,kg,1) intraperitoneally as a single dose, and (4) animals treated with the antioxidant combination for three days, then injected D-GaIN. The tissue and blood samples of animals were collected for morphological and biochemical evaluations. Histopathological injury in kidney tissues was observed together with a significant increase in tissue lipid peroxidation (LPO) level, myeloperoxidase (MPO), lactate dehydrogenase, catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, and serum creatinine and urea levels, and a significant decrease in glutathione level and glutathione peroxidase activity in D-GaIN injected rats. However, a decrease in the degenerative changes was detected in the kidney tissue of D-GaIN,+,antioxidant group, and biochemical results showed reversed effects. In conclusion, it seems reasonable to conclude that the treatment of the antioxidant combination has a protective effect on D-GaIN-induced kidney injury of rats. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Shift of C3 deposition from localization in the glomerulus into the tubulo-interstitial compartment in the absence of secreted IgM in immune complex glomerulonephritis

CLINICAL & EXPERIMENTAL IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 1 2008
C. Vaculik
Summary The role of secretory IgM in protecting kidney tissue from immune complex glomerulonephritis induced by 4 mg horse spleen apoferritin and 0·05 mg lipopolysaccharide has been investigated in mutant mice in which B cells do not secrete IgM, but are capable of expressing surface IgM and IgD and secreting other Ig isotypes. Glomerular size, number of glomeruli per cross-section, glomerular cellularity and urine content of protein and creatinine was comparable in treated secreted IgM (sIgM)-deficient and wild-type mice. Assessment of urinary proteins by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed a 30 kDa low molecular weight protein in treated sIgM-deficient animals only, reflecting dysfunction of proximal tubules. A shift of bound C3 from glomeruli to the tubulo-interstitial compartment in sIgM-deficient mice also suggests tubulo-interstitial damage. In contrast, local C3 synthesis within the kidney tissue did not differ between the two treated groups. Apoptosis physiologically present to maintain kidney cell homeostasis was increased slightly in treated wild-type mice. These results indicate that secretory IgM can protect the tubulo-interstitial compartment from immune complex-induced damage without having an effect on the glomerulus. [source]


Safety evaluation of individual non-fried and fried sunflower oil, paraffin oil, jojoba oil and their binary mixtures on rat health

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Issue 10 2008
Radwan S. Farag
Summary Sunflower, jojoba, paraffin oils and binary oil mixtures of sunflower, jojoba and sunflower,paraffin oils were continuously heated at 180 °C for 12 h. Aliquots of potato chips were fried in the aforementioned oil samples. Organoleptic tests were performed on fried chips and safety limits of the oil samples were measured by certain biochemical tests. Histopathological examinations of rat liver and kidney tissues were microscopically done. Organoleptic results for fried potato chips indicate that all types of chips obtained from heated oils were categorised good. Histopathological examinations indicate changes in rat tissues of liver and kidney paralleled the biochemical data. In general, the results suggest that paraffin oil alone and in mixtures with sunflower oil have to ban its use in frying processes. [source]


Effect of dietary ,-tocopherol + ascorbic acid, selenium, and iron on oxidative stress in sub-yearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Walbaum)

JOURNAL OF ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY AND NUTRITION, Issue 1 2009
T. L. Welker
Summary A three-variable central composite design coupled with surface-response analysis was used to examine the effects of dietary ,-tocopherol + ascorbic acid (TOCAA), selenium (Se), and iron (Fe) on indices of oxidative stress in juvenile spring Chinook salmon. Each dietary factor was tested at five levels for a total of fifteen dietary combinations (diets). Oxidative damage in liver and kidney (lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls) and erythrocytes (erythrocyte resistance to peroxidative lysis, ERPL) was determined after feeding experimental diets for 16 (early December) and 28 (early March) weeks. Only TOCAA influenced oxidative stress in this study, with most measures of oxidative damage decreasing (liver lipid peroxidation in December and March; ERPL in December; liver protein carbonyl in March) with increasing levels of TOCAA. We also observed a TOCAA-stimulated increase in susceptibility of erythrocytes to peroxidative lysis in March at the highest levels of TOCAA. The data suggest that under most circumstances a progressive decrease in oxidative stress occurs as dietary TOCAA increases, but higher TOCAA concentrations can stimulate oxidative damage in some situations. Higher levels of TOCAA in the diet were required in March than in December to achieve comparable levels of protection against oxidative damage, which may have been due to physiological changes associated with the parr-smolt transformation. Erythrocytes appeared to be more sensitive to variation in dietary levels of TOCAA than liver and kidney tissues. Using the March ERPL assay results as a baseline, a TOCAA level of approximately 350,600 mg/kg diet would provide adequate protection against lipid peroxidation under most circumstances in juvenile Chinook salmon. [source]


Purification of Matrix Gla Protein From a Marine Teleost Fish, Argyrosomus regius: Calcified Cartilage and Not Bone as the Primary Site of MGP Accumulation in Fish,

JOURNAL OF BONE AND MINERAL RESEARCH, Issue 2 2003
DC Simes
Abstract Matrix Gla protein (MGP) belongs to the family of vitamin K-dependent, Gla-containing proteins, and in mammals, birds, and Xenopus, its mRNA was previously detected in extracts of bone, cartilage, and soft tissues (mainly heart and kidney), whereas the protein was found to accumulate mainly in bone. However, at that time, it was not evaluated if this accumulation originated from protein synthesized in cartilage or in bone cells because both coexist in skeletal structures of higher vertebrates and Xenopus. Later reports showed that MGP also accumulated in costal calcified cartilage as well as at sites of heart valves and arterial calcification. Interestingly, MGP was also found to accumulate in vertebra of shark, a cartilaginous fish. However, to date, no information is available on sites of MGP expression or accumulation in teleost fishes, the ancestors of terrestrial vertebrates, who have in their skeleton mineralized structures with both bone and calcified cartilage. To analyze MGP structure and function in bony fish, MGP was acid-extracted from the mineralized matrix of either bone tissue (vertebra) or calcified cartilage (branchial arches) from the bony fish, Argyrosomus regius,, separated from the mineral phase by dialysis, and purified by Sephacryl S-100 chromatography. No MGP was recovered from bone tissue, whereas a protein peak corresponding to the MGP position in this type of gel filtration was obtained from an extract of branchial arches, rich in calcified cartilage. MGP was identified by N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis, and the resulting protein sequence was used to design specific oligonucleotides suitable to amplify the corresponding DNA by a mixture of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and 5,rapid amplification of cDNA (RACE)-PCR. In parallel, ArBGP (bone Gla protein, osteocalcin) was also identified in the same fish, and its complementary DNA cloned by an identical procedure. Tissue distribution/accumulation was analyzed by Northern blot, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry. In mineralized tissues, the MGP gene was predominantly expressed in cartilage from branchial arches, with no expression detected in the different types of bone analyzed, whereas BGP mRNA was located in bone tissue as expected. Accordingly, the MGP protein was found to accumulate, by immunohistochemical analysis, mainly in the extracellular matrix of calcified cartilage. In soft tissues, MGP mRNA was mainly expressed in heart but in situ hybridization, indicated that cells expressing the MGP gene were located in the bulbus arteriosus and aortic wall, rich in smooth muscle and endothelial cells, whereas no expression was detected in the striated muscle myocardial fibers of the ventricle. These results show that in marine teleost fish, as in mammals, the MGP gene is expressed in cartilage, heart, and kidney tissues, but in contrast with results obtained in Xenopus and higher vertebrates, the protein does not accumulate in vertebra of non-osteocytic teleost fish, but only in calcified cartilage. In addition, our results also indicate that the presence of MGP mRNA in heart tissue is due, at least in fish, to the expression of the MGP gene in only two specific cell types, smooth muscle and endothelial cells, whereas no expression was found in the striated muscle fibers of the ventricle. In light of these results and recent information on expression of MGP gene in these same cell types in mammalian aorta, it is likely that the levels of MGP mRNA previously detected in Xenopus, birds, and mammalian heart tissue may be restricted toregions rich in smooth muscle and endothelial cells. Our results also emphasize the need to re-evaluate which cell types are involved in MGP gene expression in other soft tissues and bring further evidence that fish are a valuable model system to study MGP gene expression and regulation. [source]


Comparative challenge model of Flavobacterium columnare using abraded and unabraded channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque)

JOURNAL OF FISH DISEASES, Issue 8 2003
J A Bader
Abstract The early entry of the fish pathogen Flavobacterium columnare and enhancement by abrasion was studied in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque), using the polymerase chain reaction and a species-specific primer set for a bacterial 16S rRNA gene product. Evaluations were conducted following an abrasion bath immersion challenge with F. columnare. Abrasion, a practice which has historically been used prior to bacterial challenge, had significant effects on the early entry of the pathogen and on cumulative percent survival (CPS). The FvpF1,FvpR1 primer set was useful in detecting the early entry of F. columnare in mucus, skin, gill, blood, liver and trunk kidney tissues in both abraded and unabraded fish following immersion challenge at 29 ± 2 °C. Bacteria were detected earlier in all tissues in abraded fish, except in the trunk kidney. These differences were not significant, except in the case of blood. Mucus, skin and gill tissues were positive for F. columnare earliest regardless of treatment (after 5 min in abraded fish and after 15 min in unabraded fish). CPS following challenge with F. columnare was significantly affected by abrasion, which supports the use of abrasion for the F. columnare challenge model for channel catfish. [source]


Melatonin, a potent regulator of hemeoxygenase-1, reduces cardiopulmonary bypass-induced renal damage in rats

JOURNAL OF PINEAL RESEARCH, Issue 3 2009
Zhongqiu Wang
Abstract:, Acute renal dysfunction is a frequent complication after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). This study was designed to evaluate the potential protective effect of melatonin on CPB-induced renal damage in a rat model. Forty male Sprague,Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham, control (CPB + placebo), low dose of melatonin (CPB + 10 mg/kg melatonin) and high dose of melatonin (CPB + 20 mg/kg melatonin). Blood samples were collected at the beginning, at the end of CPB, and at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 24 hr postoperation. Serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels were assayed. Rats were killed 24 hr after surgery, the histologic appearance of the kidney and malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) contents were determined. The expression levels of hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein and gene were determined using western blotting and real-time PCR, respectively. In the control group, CPB surgery significantly increased urea, creatinine levels in serum, MDA and MPO levels in tissues, while decreasing SOD and CAT activities in tissues. Histopathologic findings of the control group confirmed that there was renal impairment by cast formation and tubular necrosis in the tubular epithelium. These changes were markedly reversed in both low dose of melatonin and high dose of melatonin groups. Furthermore, HO-1 gene transcript and protein were significantly upregulated in the kidney tissues after melatonin treatment compared with the placebo treatment. Our findings show that melatonin was effective in preventing CPB-induced renal damage probably through its antioxidant function and upregulation of HO-1. [source]


Melatonin ameliorates chronic renal failure-induced oxidative organ damage in rats

JOURNAL OF PINEAL RESEARCH, Issue 4 2004
Göksel, ener
Abstract:, Chronic renal failure (CRF) is associated with oxidative stress that promotes production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Melatonin, the chief secretory product of the pineal gland, was recently found to be a potent free radical scavenger and antioxidant. The aim of this study was to examine the role of melatonin in protecting the aorta, heart, corpus cavernosum, lung, diaphragm, and kidney tissues against oxidative damage in a rat model of CRF, which was induced by five of six nephrectomy. Male Wistar albino rats were randomly assigned to either the CRF group or the sham-operated control group, which had received saline or melatonin (10 mg/kg, i.p.) for 4 wk. CRF was evaluated by serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN) level and creatinine measurements. Aorta and corporeal tissues were used for contractility studies, or stored along with heart, lung, diaphragm, and kidney tissues for the measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA, an index of lipid peroxidation), protein carbonylation (PC, an index for protein oxidation), and glutathione (GSH) levels (a key antioxidant). Plasma MDA, PC, and GSH levels and erythrocytic superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were studied to evaluate the changes of antioxidant status in CRF. In the CRF group, the contraction and the relaxation of aorta and corpus cavernosum samples decreased significantly compared with controls (P < 0.05,0.001). Melatonin treatment of the CRF group restored these responses. In the CRF group, there were significant increases in tissue MDA and PC levels in all tissues with marked reductions in GSH levels compared with controls (P < 0.05,0.001). In the plasma, while MDA and PC levels increased, GSH, SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px activities were reduced. Melatonin treatment reversed these effects as well. In this study, the increase in MDA and PC levels and the concomitant decrease in GSH levels of tissues and plasma and also SOD, CAT, GSH-Px activities of plasma demonstrate the role of oxidative mechanisms in CRF-induced tissue damage, and melatonin, via its free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties, ameliorates oxidative organ injury. CRF-induced dysfunction of the aorta and corpus cavernosum of rats was reversed by melatonin treatment. Thus, supplementing CRF patients with adjuvant therapy of melatonin may have some benefit. [source]


Epigenetic inactivation of HOXA5 and MSH2 gene in clear cell renal cell carcinoma

PATHOLOGY INTERNATIONAL, Issue 10 2010
Koo Han Yoo
The high-throughput method using microarray is an easy and fast way to analyze the methylation status of hundreds of preselected genes and to screen them for signatures in methylation. The aim of our study is to detect hypermethylated genes and to analyze the association between methylation status and clinicopathological parameters of clear cell renal cell carcinoma. The genetic substrate included 62 cancer tissues and 62 matched adjacent normal kidney tissues. We adapted the GoldenGate genotyping assay to determine the methylation state of 1505 specific CpG sites in 807 genes. We identified two genes (HOXA5 and MSH2) with ,-value differences of more than 0.3 between cancer and normal tissues. The high methylation group in HOXA5 had high Fuhrman's nuclear grade (P= 0.041). Other data in HOXA5 and MSH2 were not significant with methylation status (P > 0.05). Survival curve of the high methylation group in HOXA5 was slightly lower than that of the low methylation group. However, the statistical significances of overall survival in HOXA5 and MSH2 were low (P > 0.05). We report the hypermethylation of two genes in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. The data we obtained could provide the basis for a diagnostic test pathological assessment, or prognosis in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. [source]


Thymoquinone supplementation attenuates hypertension and renal damage in nitric oxide deficient hypertensive rats

PHYTOTHERAPY RESEARCH, Issue 5 2007
Mahmoud M. Khattab
Abstract The present study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effect of thymoquinone (TQ), the main constituent of the volatile oil from Nigellasativa seeds, in rats after chronic inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis with N, -nitro- l -arginine methyl esters (l -NAME). Rats were divided randomly into different treatment groups: control, l -NAME, TQ and l -NAME + TQ. Hypertension was induced by 4 weeks administration of l -NAME (50 mg/kg/day p.o.). TQ was administered alone or in combination with l -NAME and continued for 4 weeks. The animals were killed, and the serum and kidney tissues were isolated for the determination of creatinine and glutathione (GSH), respectively. Rats receiving l -NAME showed a progressive increase in systolic blood pressure compared with control rats. Concomitant treatment with TQ (0.5 and 1 mg/kg/day p.o.) reduced the increase in systolic blood pressure induced by l -NAME in a dose dependent manner. Kidney injury was demonstrated by a significant increase in serum creatinine and a decrease in GSH in kidney tissue from l -NAME treated rats. Treatment of rats with TQ decreased the elevated creatinine and increased GSH to normal levels. TQ inhibited the in vitro production of superoxide radical in enzymatic and non-enzymatic systems. In conclusion, TQ is effective in protecting rats against l -NAME-induced hypertension and renal damage possibly via antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Expression of Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4, in Developing Mice

ANATOMIA, HISTOLOGIA, EMBRYOLOGIA, Issue 1 2009
T. Kanazawa
Summary Hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF) 4,, a transcription factor of the nuclear hormone receptor family, is generally expressed in some endoderm-derived epithelial tissues such as hepatocytes. In mice, an alternative promoter referred to as the P2 promoter is located upstream from the P1 promoter, resulting in the transcription of at least nine isoforms. In this study, we investigated the expression of Hnf4, in adult and embryonic mouse tissues, paying special attention to the developing metanephros by using immunohistochemistry and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for the detection of P1 and/or P2 promoter-derived products. In adult mouse tissues, the kidney was the only organ expressing Hnf4, controlled only by the P1 promoter, and HNF4, was detected in the nuclei of epithelial cells in the proximal tubules, but not in other components of the nephron. In the metanephros, HNF4, was detected first at the epithelial cell nuclei in part of the comma-shaped body, distributed widely throughout the developing nephron and finally restricted to the proximal tubules. Interestingly, it was noted that Hnf4, mRNAs from stomach, pancreas and kidney tissues in embryonic periods were transcribed by both promoters. Immunohistochemistry for HNF4, and HNF1, revealed that both factors involved the same network of transcription factors, giving the impression that HNF4, was upstream of HNF1,. [source]


Rosiglitazone Inhibits Cell Proliferation by Inducing G1 Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in ADPKD Cyst-Lining Epithelia Cells

BASIC AND CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY & TOXICOLOGY, Issue 6 2010
Yawei Liu
Many drugs inhibiting cell proliferation have been proved to be effective in slowing the disease progression in ADPKD. Recent evidence has suggested that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor , (PPAR,) ligands have anti-neoplasm effects through inhibiting cell growth and inducing cell apoptosis in various cancer cells. In the present study, we examined the expression of PPAR, in human ADPKD kidney tissues and cyst-lining epithelial cell line, and found that the expression of PPAR, was greater in ADPKD kidney tissues and cyst-lining epithelial cell line than in normal kidney tissues and human kidney cortex (HKC) cell line. Rosiglitazone inhibited significantly proliferation of cyst-lining epithelial cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. These effects were diminished by GW9662, a specific PPAR, antagonist. Cell cycle analysis showed a G0/G1 arrest in human ADPKD cyst-lining epithelial cells with rosiglitazone treatment. Analysis of cell cycle regulatory proteins revealed that rosiglitazone decreased the protein levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, pRb, cyclin D1, cyclin D2 and Cdk4 but increased the levels of p21 and p27 in a dose-dependent manner. Rosiglitazone also induced apoptosis in cyst-lining epithelial cells, which was correlated with increased bax expression and decreased bcl-2 expression. These results suggest PPAR, agonist might serve as a promising drug for the treatment of ADPKD. [source]


Protective effects of antioxidant combination against D-galactosamine-induced kidney injury in rats

CELL BIOCHEMISTRY AND FUNCTION, Issue 2 2010
Tunc Catal
Abstract The protective effects of an antioxidant combination in kidney injury induced by the injection of D-galactosamine (D-GaIN) were examined in the present study. Sprague Dawley female rats were used and divided into four groups as follows: (1) animals injected physiological saline solution, intraperitoneally, (2) animals treated with the combination of ascorbic acid (100,mg,kg,1,day,1), , -carotene (15,mg,kg,1,day,1), , -tocopherol (100,mg,kg,1,day,1), and sodium selenate (0.2,mg,kg,1,day,1) for three days orally, (3) rats injected D-GaIN (500,mg,kg,1) intraperitoneally as a single dose, and (4) animals treated with the antioxidant combination for three days, then injected D-GaIN. The tissue and blood samples of animals were collected for morphological and biochemical evaluations. Histopathological injury in kidney tissues was observed together with a significant increase in tissue lipid peroxidation (LPO) level, myeloperoxidase (MPO), lactate dehydrogenase, catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, and serum creatinine and urea levels, and a significant decrease in glutathione level and glutathione peroxidase activity in D-GaIN injected rats. However, a decrease in the degenerative changes was detected in the kidney tissue of D-GaIN,+,antioxidant group, and biochemical results showed reversed effects. In conclusion, it seems reasonable to conclude that the treatment of the antioxidant combination has a protective effect on D-GaIN-induced kidney injury of rats. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Stem cell antigen 2: a new gene involved in the self-renewal of erythroid progenitors

CELL PROLIFERATION, Issue 5 2008
C. Bresson-Mazet
We have previously shown that SCA2 is overexpressed in self-renewing avian erythroid progenitors (T2ECs) as opposed to differentiating T2ECs. The aim of this study was to define the role of SCA2 in the switch between self-renewal and differentiation of erythroid progenitors. Materials and methods: We have investigated the cellular processes controlled by SCA2 in T2ECs by RNA interference and overexpression approaches. Moreover, we have used a SAGE Querying and analysis tools developed in our laboratory, to investigate the expression level of SCA2 gene in different human cell types. Results: We demonstrate the regulation of SCA2 expression by TGF-,, a growth factor essential for self-renewal of T2ECs. We establish that SCA2 knockdown by RNA interference reduced the proliferation and promoted the differentiation of T2ECs. In contrast, SCA2 overexpression inhibited differentiation of T2ECs only. Furthermore, by using a bioinformatic approach, we found that SCA2 is highly expressed in a variety of human cancer cells. We confirmed this result by quantitative PCR on human colon and kidney tissues. Conclusions: Altogether, these findings imply that SCA2 may function in a dose-dependent manner to support the self-renewal state and that its deregulation might contribute to the development of some human cancers. [source]