Kidney Graft (kidney + graft)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Terms modified by Kidney Graft

  • kidney graft function
  • kidney graft survival

  • Selected Abstracts


    Educating Kidney Transplant Professionals and Candidates May Improve Utilization, Allocation Efficiency and Lifetime Survival

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 4 2010
    K. A. Andreoni
    Is the answer to more appropriate use of ECD Kidney Grafts as reviewed by Grams et al in this publication better education of transplant professionals and patients? See article by Grams et al on page 802. [source]


    Melatonin protects kidney grafts from ischemia/reperfusion injury through inhibition of NF-kB and apoptosis after experimental kidney transplantation

    JOURNAL OF PINEAL RESEARCH, Issue 4 2009
    Zhanqing Li
    Abstract:, Free radicals are involved in pathophysiology of ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). Melatonin is a potent scavenger of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Thus, this study was designed to elucidate its effects in a model of rat kidney transplantation. Twenty Lewis rats were randomly divided into 2 groups (n = 10 animals each). Melatonin (50 mg/kg BW) dissolved in 5 mL milk was given to one group via gavage 2 hr before left donor nephrectomy. Controls were given the same volume of milk only. Kidney grafts were then transplanted into bilaterally nephrectomized syngeneic recipients after 24 hr of cold storage in Histidine,Tryptophan,Ketoglutarate solution. Both graft function and injury were assessed after transplantation through serum levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, transaminases, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Biopsies were taken to evaluate tubular damage, the enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid hydroperoxide (LPO), and the expression of NF-kBp65, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), caspase-3 as indices of oxidative stress, necrosis, and apoptosis, respectively. Melatonin improved survival (P < 0.01) while decreasing BUN, creatinine, transaminases, and LDH values up to 39,71% (P < 0.05). Melatonin significantly reduced the histological index for tubular damage, induced tissue enzymatic activity of SOD while reducing LPO. At the same time, melatonin down-regulated the expression of NF-kBp65, iNOS, and caspase-3. In conclusion, donor preconditioning with melatonin protected kidney donor grafts from IRI-induced renal dysfunction and tubular injury most likely through its anti-oxidative, anti-apoptotic and NF-kB inhibitory capacity. [source]


    Anaemia after renal transplantation

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION, Issue 2005
    M. Lorenz
    Abstract Anaemia is a frequent complication among long-term renal transplant recipients. A prevalence of approximately 40% has been reported in several studies. If renal function declines to stage 5 kidney disease, the prevalence of anaemia in kidney transplants is even higher. A positive correlation between haemoglobin concentration and creatinine clearance has been reported, which is a function of endogenous erythropoietin production by the functioning graft. Inflammation related to a retained kidney graft may cause hypo-responsiveness to erythropoietic agents once kidney transplant recipients return to dialysis. Furthermore, the use of azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil and sirolimus may be associated with post-transplant anaemia. Along with erythropoietin deficiency, depletion of iron stores is one of the major reasons for anaemia in the kidney transplant population. The proportion of hypochromic red blood cells appears to be a useful parameter to measure iron supply and utilization as well as to estimate mortality risks in kidney transplant recipients. While anaemia is an important cardiovascular risk-factor after transplantation, our data suggest that anaemia is not associated with mortality and graft loss. Nevertheless, inadequate attention is paid so far to the management of anaemia after renal transplantation. A promising future aspect for risk reduction of cardiovascular disease includes the effect of erythropoietic agents on endothelial progenitor cells. [source]


    Alport syndrome: HLA association and kidney graft outcome

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF IMMUNOGENETICS, Issue 3 2004
    S. Barocci
    Summary Alport syndrome (AS) is a genetic disease of type IV collagen involving non-homogeneous patterns of inheritance characterized clinically by the presence of progressive haematuric nephritis leading to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), hearing loss and/or ophthalmologic abnormalities. The aim of this study was to investigate, in a cohort of AS patients who had undergone a kidney graft (KG) or who were still on a waiting list for a KG, (a) whether there is a correlation between AS and HLA antigen expression, and (b) long-term graft outcome in transplant patients. The AS cohort was represented by 34 ESRD patients, of whom 25 received a KG and the remaining nine were still on a waiting list. AS transplant patients represented 2.78% of 899 first KGs performed at our centre (Transplantation Department at S. Martino Hospital, Genoa) between 1983 and 2002. Grafts were procured from cadaveric donors in 18 cases and from living, related donors in seven cases. All AS transplant patients had a post-transplant follow-up period of at least 12 months. Results showed that: (i) the frequency of the HLA-DRB1*16 antigen was significantly increased in the whole AS cohort as compared to 128 healthy subjects (HS) (corrected P -value 0.0026; relative risk 7.20) as well as to 232 non-AS ESRD patients on a waiting list for KG (corrected P -values 0.0156; relative risk 4.67); (ii) 5- and 10-year graft survivals in the AS transplant patients were 80 and 73%, respectively, and did not differ from those of a control group represented by 25 non-AS KG recipients matched for sex, age, number of HLA mismatches and immunosuppressive treatment. Increased frequency of HLA-DRB1*16 in AS patients may reflect a linkage disequilibrium with genes coding for collagen synthesis. [source]


    Conservative management of an extensive renal graft subcapsular hematoma arising during living donor nephrectomy.

    JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ULTRASOUND, Issue 3 2010
    Role of Doppler sonographic posttransplant follow-up
    Abstract We report a case of subcapsular hematoma (SH) of a kidney graft arising during minimal-incision living-donor nephrectomy. SH covered at least two-thirds of the cortical surface. Capsulotomy was not done because it was deemed too risky. In the immediate postoperative period, a rapid deterioration of graft function was observed associated with Doppler sonographic evidence of graft compression. However, in the following days, spontaneous resolution of SH and progressive improvement of Doppler findings was observed, which preceded full recovery of graft function. Conservative management seemed a valid approach of this complication in this case where Doppler sonography proved essential for the follow-up. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound, 2010 [source]


    Early phase of reperfusion of human kidney allograft does not affect an erythrocyte anti-oxidative system

    NEPHROLOGY, Issue 5 2006
    LESZEK DOMA
    SUMMARY: Background: Generation of reactive oxygen specimens is the basic mechanism leading to ischaemia/reperfusion injury of the kidney graft. Oxygen burst is a trigger for sophisticated biochemical changes leading to generation of oxygenated lipids and changes in microcirculation, which recruit recipient's neutrophils and contribute to delayed graft function. It has been shown that the free radicals generation correlates with the activity of anti-oxidative system. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione (GSH) are involved in protection against free radicals. Aim: To examine the activity of erythrocyte anti-oxidative system during reperfusion of the transplanted kidney allograft. Methods: The study included 40 renal transplant recipients. Blood was taken from the iliac vein before transplantation and from the graft's renal vein immediately, as well as 2 and 4 min after total reperfusion. The authors assessed the process of reperfusion using ThermaCAM SC500 termovision camera. Spectrophotometric methods were used to measure superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activity as well as glutathione concentrations in erythrocytes. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase as well as glutathione concentrations during the first 4 min after total graft reperfusion. Nevertheless, there was a positive correlation between the activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. Conclusion: The results suggest that the erythrocyte anti-oxidative system is stable during the early phase after reperfusion. An association between some anti-oxidative enzymes was noted. [source]


    Recipient Tissue Factor Expression Is Associated With Consumptive Coagulopathy in Pig-to-Primate Kidney Xenotransplantation

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 7 2010
    C. C. Lin
    Consumptive coagulopathy (CC) remains a challenge in pig-to-primate organ xenotransplantation (Tx). This study investigated the role of tissue factor (TF) expression on circulating platelets and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Baboons (n = 9) received a kidney graft from pigs that were either wild-type (n = 2), ,1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout (GT-KO; n = 1) or GT-KO and transgenic for the complement-regulatory protein, CD46 (GT-KO/CD46, n = 6). In the baboon where the graft developed hyperacute rejection (n = 1), the platelets and PBMCs expressed TF within 4 h of Tx. In the remaining baboons, TF was detected on platelets on post-Tx day 1. Subsequently, platelet-leukocyte aggregation developed with formation of thrombin. In the six baboons with CC, TF was not detected on baboon PBMCs until CC was beginning to develop. Graft histopathology showed fibrin deposition and platelet aggregation (n = 6), but with only minor or no features indicating a humoral immune response (n = 3), and no macrophage, B or T cell infiltration (n = 6). Activation of platelets to express TF was associated with the initiation of CC, whereas TF expression on PBMCs was concomitant with the onset of CC, often in the relative absence of features of acute humoral xenograft rejection. Prevention of recipient platelet activation may be crucial for successful pig-to-primate kidney Tx. [source]


    Early and Limited Use of Tacrolimus to Avoid Rejection in an Alemtuzumab and Sirolimus Regimen for Kidney Transplantation: Clinical Results and Immune Monitoring

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 5 2009
    S. J. Knechtle
    Alemtuzumab induction with 60 days of tacrolimus treatment and continuous sirolimus treatment prevented acute rejection in nine of 10 consecutive renal allograft recipients. All patients are alive with a functioning kidney graft at 27,39 months of follow-up. Extensive immune monitoring was performed in all patients. Alloantibody detection, cytokine kinetics assay (CKA), and trans vivo delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) assay were performed every 6 months showing correlation with clinical evolution. Despite alloantibody presence in five patients, eight patients remain without the need for specific treatment and only sirolimus monotherapy in decreasing dosage. Four patients take only 1 mg sirolimus daily with levels of 3,4 ng/mL. One patient showed clinical signs of rejection at month 9 post-transplant, with slow increase in serum creatinine and histological signs of mixed cellular (endarteritis) and humoral rejection (C4d positivity in peritubular capillaries and donor-specific antibody (DSA)). In summary, the addition of tacrolimus therapy for 2 months to a steroid-free, alemtuzumab induction and sirolimus maintenance protocol limited the previously shown acute rejection development. Nevertheless, alloantibody was present in serum and/or C4d present on 1-year biopsy in half the patients. The combination of CKA and DSA monitoring or the performance of transvivo DTH correlated with immune status of the patients. [source]


    CXC and CC chemokines induced in human renal epithelial cells by inflammatory cytokines

    APMIS, Issue 7 2009
    ELISKA THORBURN (NEE KRASNA)
    Human renal epithelial cells might play an important role during the allograft rejection by producing chemokines in response to proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-, and interleukin (IL)-1, produced by endothelial and epithelial cells early after transplantation. The production of chemokines allows inflammatory cells to be drawn into the kidney graft and therefore plays a critical role in the pathophysiologic processes that lead to the rejection of renal transplant. In this process, two chemokine superfamilies, the CC and the CXC chemokines, are the most important. The CC chemokines target mainly monocytes and T lymphocytes, while most of the CXC chemokines attract neutrophils. We showed in our study that in vitro, in unstimulated cells, basal mRNA expression of CXC chemokines (Gro,, Gro,, Gro,, ENA-78 and GCP-2, IL-8) that attract neutrophils was detectable and expression of these genes and chemokine release were increased in TNF-,- and IL-1,-induced renal epithelial cells. Most of the CC chemokines [monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), macrophage Inflammatory protein 1 beta (MIP-1,), regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP-3,)] showed detectable mRNA expression only after stimulation with proinflammatory cytokines and not in control cells. TNF-, seems to induce preferably the expression of RANTES, MCP-1, interferon-inducible protein (IP-10) and Interferon-Inducible T-cell Alpha Chemoattractant (I-TAC), while IL-1, induces mainly IL-8 and epithelial neutrophil-activating peptide 78 (ENA-78). [source]


    Humoral immunity in renal transplantation: clinical significance and therapeutic approach

    CLINICAL TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 6 2008
    Ajda T. Rowshani
    Abstract:, Donor-specific antibodies (DSA) form a significant barrier in solid organ transplantation of highly pre-sensitized candidates. Although avoiding transplantation over a positive cross-match test can largely prevent the occurrence of hyperacute antibody-mediated rejection, transplantation of highly pre-sensitized candidates is often complicated by the occurrence of acute and chronic antibody-mediated graft rejection leading to diminished graft function and survival. The pre-existent HLA and/or non-HLA-specific antibodies are without any doubt important contributing factors underlying humoral-mediated graft injury. Furthermore, increasing evidence underlines the association of newly formed de novo DSA after transplantation with poor graft function and survival. There is still a need to further develop desensitizing therapies not only to make transplantation of highly pre-sensitized candidates feasible, but also to reduce the new formation of allo-antibodies. Here, we summarize current views on desensitization therapies and the impact of the presence of DSA on the fate of the kidney graft. [source]


    Melatonin protects kidney grafts from ischemia/reperfusion injury through inhibition of NF-kB and apoptosis after experimental kidney transplantation

    JOURNAL OF PINEAL RESEARCH, Issue 4 2009
    Zhanqing Li
    Abstract:, Free radicals are involved in pathophysiology of ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). Melatonin is a potent scavenger of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Thus, this study was designed to elucidate its effects in a model of rat kidney transplantation. Twenty Lewis rats were randomly divided into 2 groups (n = 10 animals each). Melatonin (50 mg/kg BW) dissolved in 5 mL milk was given to one group via gavage 2 hr before left donor nephrectomy. Controls were given the same volume of milk only. Kidney grafts were then transplanted into bilaterally nephrectomized syngeneic recipients after 24 hr of cold storage in Histidine,Tryptophan,Ketoglutarate solution. Both graft function and injury were assessed after transplantation through serum levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, transaminases, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Biopsies were taken to evaluate tubular damage, the enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid hydroperoxide (LPO), and the expression of NF-kBp65, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), caspase-3 as indices of oxidative stress, necrosis, and apoptosis, respectively. Melatonin improved survival (P < 0.01) while decreasing BUN, creatinine, transaminases, and LDH values up to 39,71% (P < 0.05). Melatonin significantly reduced the histological index for tubular damage, induced tissue enzymatic activity of SOD while reducing LPO. At the same time, melatonin down-regulated the expression of NF-kBp65, iNOS, and caspase-3. In conclusion, donor preconditioning with melatonin protected kidney donor grafts from IRI-induced renal dysfunction and tubular injury most likely through its anti-oxidative, anti-apoptotic and NF-kB inhibitory capacity. [source]


    Ex vivo Application of Carbon Monoxide in UW Solution Prevents Transplant-Induced Renal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Pigs

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 4 2010
    J. Yoshida
    I/R injury is a major deleterious factor of successful kidney transplantation (KTx). Carbon monoxide (CO) is an endogenous gaseous regulatory molecule, and exogenously delivered CO in low concentrations provides potent cytoprotection. This study evaluated efficacies of CO exposure to excised kidney grafts to inhibit I/R injury in the pig KTx model. Porcine kidneys were stored for 48 h in control UW or UW supplemented with CO (CO-UW) and autotransplanted in a 14-day follow-up study. In the control UW group, animal survival was 80% (4/5) with peak serum creatinine levels of 12.0 5.1 mg/dL. CO-UW showed potent protection, and peak creatinine levels were reduced to 6.9 1.4 mg/dL with 100% (5/5) survival without any noticeable adverse event or abnormal COHb value. Control grafts at 14 days showed significant tubular damages, focal fibrotic changes and numerous infiltrates. The CO-UW group showed significantly less severe histopathological changes with less TGF-, and p-Smad3 expression. Grafts in CO-UW also showed significantly lower early mRNA levels for proinflammatory cytokines and less lipid peroxidation. CO in UW provides significant protection against renal I/R injury in the porcine KTx model. Ex vivo exposure of kidney grafts to CO during cold storage may therefore be a safe strategy to reduce I/R injury. [source]


    High Weight Differences between Donor and Recipient Affect Early Kidney Graft Function,A Role for Enhanced IL-6 Signaling

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 8 2009
    W. Gong
    The frequency of delayed function of kidney transplants varies greatly and is associated with quality of graft, donor age and the duration of cold ischemia time. Furthermore, body weight differences between donor and recipient can affect primary graft function, but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. We transplanted kidney grafts from commensurate body weight (L-WD) or reduced body weight (H-WD) donor rats into syngeneic or allogeneic recipients. Twenty-four hours posttransplantation, serum creatinine levels in H-WD recipients were significantly higher compared to L-WD recipients indicating impaired primary graft function. This was accompanied by upregulation of IL-6 transcription and increased tubular destruction in grafts from H-WD recipients. Using DNA microarray analysis, we detected decreased expression of genes associated with kidney function and an upregulation of other genes such as Cyp3a13, FosL and Trib3. A single application of IL-6 into L-WD recipients is sufficient to impair primary graft function and cause tubular damage, whereas immediate neutralization of IL-6 receptor signaling in H-WD recipients rescued primary graft function with well-preserved kidney graft architecture and a normalized gene expression profile. These findings have strong clinical implication as anti-IL6R treatment of patients receiving grafts from lower-weight donors could be used to improve primary graft function. [source]


    The Indirect Alloresponse Impairs the Induction but Not Maintenance of Tolerance to MHC Class I-Disparate Allografts

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 1 2009
    M. J. Weiss
    We studied the effects of indirect allorecognition on the induction and maintenance phases of tolerance in miniature swine cotransplanted with heart and kidney allografts. MHC class I-mismatched heart and kidney grafts were cotransplanted in recipients receiving CyA for 12 days. Recipients were unimmunized or immunized with a set of donor-derived or control third-party MHC class I peptides either 21 days prior to transplantation or over 100 days after transplantation. T-cell proliferation, delayed type hypersensitivity reaction (DTH) and antibody production were assessed. All animals injected with donor MHC class I peptides developed potent indirect alloresponses specific to the immunizing peptides. While untreated recipients developed stable tolerance, all animals preimmunized with donor allopeptides rejected kidney,heart transplants acutely. In contrast, when peptide immunization was delayed until over 100 days after kidney,heart transplantation, no effects were observed on graft function or in vitro measures of alloimmunity. Donor peptide immunization prevented tolerance when administered to recipients pre transplantation but did not abrogate tolerance when administered to long-term survivors post transplantation. This suggests that the presence of T cells activated via indirect allorecognition represent a barrier to the induction but not the maintenance of tolerance. [source]


    Successful Long-Term Outcome of the First Combined Heart and Kidney Transplant in a Patient with Systemic AL Amyloidosis

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 1 2009
    V. Audard
    Simultaneous cardiac and renal involvement is associated with a particularly poor prognosis in patients with AL amyloidosis (AL-A). We report the first case of a successful long-term outcome of combined heart and kidney transplantation not followed by autologous stem cell transplantation in a patient with systemic AL-A. The recipient was a 46-year-old man with end-stage renal failure associated with serious cardiac involvement in the context of AL-A. Before transplantation, two courses of oral melphalan plus prednisone induced partial hematologic remission, as shown by the decrease in circulating free light chain with no improvement of renal or heart function. The patient underwent combined heart and kidney transplantation as a rescue treatment. During the follow-up period (36 months), plasma cell dyscrasia remains in complete remission, with normal free lambda light chain levels and no recurrence of amyloid deposition on heart and kidney grafts. This case report demonstrates that combined heart and kidney transplantation not systematically associated with stem cell transplantation may be considered an additional therapeutic option in AL-A patients with severe organ dysfunction and partial hematologic remission. [source]


    NOS2 (iNOS) Deficiency in Kidney Donor Accelerates Allograft Loss in a Murine Model

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 1 2007
    C. Du
    Renal NOS2 is expressed and produces abundant nitric oxide (NO) in various renal cells in response to proinflammatory cytokines. However, the role of this enzyme in renal allograft survival remains unknown. Kidney allotransplantation was performed in the murine model of C57BL/6J (H-2d) to nephrectomized Balb/c (H-2b) mice. Here we show that deficiency in NOS2 expression in kidney donors significantly advanced allograft failure, indicated by decreasing mean survival of recipients receiving NOS2 null grafts (15.4 6.4 days) as compared to those with wild type grafts (65.4 28.1 days) (p = 0.0005). Consistent with survival results, NOS2 null grafts had more severe renal tubule injury and decreased renal function compared to wild type grafts. In vitro NOS2 expressing TEC had greater resistance to allogeneic lymphocyte-mediated apoptosis. The addition of exogenous NO inhibited Fas-mediated TEC apoptosis and reduced proliferation of allogeneic lymphocytes. These data suggest that endogenous production of NO through renal NOS2 activity can play a protective role in kidney grafts through attenuating Fas-mediated donor cell apoptosis as well as by inhibiting proliferation of inflammatory infiltrating lymphocytes. Enhanced donor NOS2 expression may be a useful strategy to improve kidney transplant survival. [source]


    Correlation of Biochemical and Hematological Changes with Graft Failure Following Pig Heart and Kidney Transplantation in Baboons

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 12 2003
    Christoph Knosalla
    We have explored biochemical and hematologic parameters that might indicate acute humoral xenograft rejection (AHXR) following pig organ transplantation in baboons. Baboons (n = 15) received an immunosuppressive regimen, and underwent a miniature swine or hDAF kidney (Group 1, n = 6) or heart (Group 2, n = 7) transplantation. Control baboons (Group 3, n = 2) received the immunosuppressive regimen without organ transplantation. Blood chemistry and hematologic parameters were measured daily. Baboon and porcine cytomegalovirus were monitored. In Groups 1 and 2, organ grafts survived for up to 29 days. A plasma fibrinogen of <80 mg/dL on 2 consecutive days, and a serum lactate dehydrogenase of >600 U/L and aspartate transaminase of >300 U/L, were associated with the development of AHXR in both heart and kidney grafts. In Group 1, a decrease in platelet count of >150 000/,L within 3 days, or a count of <50 000/,L, were associated with AHXR. In Group 2, a creatine phosphokinase of >500 U/L was associated with graft failure. In Group 3, no abnormalities were observed. The possibility that porcine CMV may play a role in graft injury could not be excluded. Noninvasive parameters were identified that have predictive potential for AHXR. Monitoring of these might enable therapeutic intervention to reverse rejection. [source]