Kidney Dysfunction (kidney + dysfunction)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Treatment of congestive heart failure , current status of use of digitoxin

G. G. Belz
Digitalis glycosides exert a positive inotropic effect, i.e. an increase in myocardial contractility associated with a prolongation of relaxation period, and glycosides lower the heart rate (negative chronotropic), impede stimulus conduction (negative dromotropic) and promote myocardial excitability (positive bathmotropic). They seem to influence the activities of both the vagal and the sympathetic systems. Digitalis glycosides that belong to different substance classes are closely comparable concerning pharmacodynamics but differ substantially in regard to pharmacokinetics. Digoxin and its derivatives are less lipophilic, show lower protein binding and shorter half-life, are mainly eliminated via the kidney and accumulate rather rapidly in cases of insufficient kidney function. Digitoxin is highly lipophilic and extensively bound to plasma proteins, has a longer half-life, is mainly eliminated in the metabolized state via urine and faeces and does not accumulate in kidney dysfunction. As a result of a more stable pharmacokinetic profile, the incidence of toxic side effects seems to be lower with digitoxin than with digoxin. Since the beginning of the 1990s, the antagonists of the RAAS qualified as the standard treatment for congestive heart failure, often in combination with diuretics, vasodilators or ,-antagonists. However, the important role of digitalis glycosides as therapeutic comedication or alternative was never denied, especially in atrial fibrillation with tachycardia. The PROVED and RADIANCE trials proved a detrimental effect of the withdrawal of digoxin therapy on exercise capacity, left-ventricular ejection fraction and clinical symptoms. The DIG trial revealed that digoxin comedication in sinus rhythm patients with congestive heart failure was associated with a lower morbidity (as taken from death or hospitalization because of worsening heart failure) and an unchanged overall mortality , being a unique feature among the available inotropic drugs. Comparable studies for digitoxin have not yet been performed but, because of its higher pharmacological stability, it might well be associated with even more advantages in this regard than digoxin. [source]

Cystatin C as an index of cerebral small vessel disease: results of a cross-sectional study in community-based Japanese elderly

M. Wada
Background and purpose:, Recent studies have shown that kidney dysfunction is associated with cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). Although creatinine-based estimating equations have been used as the standard measure for the evaluation of kidney function, the accuracy of these is limited in the elderly because of muscle mass decrease with aging. Cystatin C is a more useful measurement than creatinine-based estimating equations for evaluating kidney function, however, the relationship amongst cystatin C, cognitive dysfunction, and cerebral SVD has not been fully examined in community-based elderly. Methods:, We performed a cross-sectional study using MRI to determine the relationship amongst cystatin C, cognitive function, and cerebral SVD in a total of 604 community-based Japanese elderly. Results:, In this study, subjects with higher cystatin C levels tended to have more lacunas and higher grades of white matter lesions. Although a decline of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores was associated with SVD-related lesions, the relationship between the tertiles of cystatin C and mean MMSE scores was not statistically significant. In the logistic regression analysis, the association between cystatin C and SVD-related lesions was statistically significant, even after adjustment for conventional risk factors and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Furthermore, subjects with higher cystatin C levels accompanied with albuminuria had a greater risk for the presence of subclinical cerebral SVD than those with lower cystatin C levels without albuminuria. Conclusions:, The present study suggests that there is a close relationship between cystatin C and subclinical cerebral SVD, independently of conventional risk factors, in community-based elderly. [source]

Uric Acid as a Marker for Renal Dysfunction in Hypertensive Women on Diuretic and Nondiuretic Therapy

Hyperuricemia is a common finding in hypertensive patients, especially among those who are on diuretic therapy. However, its clinical relevance regarding cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease (CKD) has not clearly been established. The authors assessed whether, in a population of 385 hypertensive women categorized according to diuretic therapy, the stratification in quartiles by uric acid levels would identify a gradient of changes in renal function and in risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The following were evaluated: serum uric acid, glycemia, total and fractional cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoprotein (Apo) B, Apo A-I, and C-reactive protein. Renal function was assessed by serum creatinine, albuminuria, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation, whereas cardiovascular risk was estimated through the Framingham score. A total of 246 women were on diuretic therapy; 139 were taking other antihypertensive medications. There was a reduction in eGFR parallel to the increase in uric acid levels, regardless of diuretic use and without a concomitant increase in albuminuria. In both groups, higher uric acid levels translated into an increase in metabolic syndrome components, in markers of insulin resistance, triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein levels, and Apo B/Apo A-I ratios, as well as in Framingham scores. Hyperuricemia was associated with an increase in inflammatory markers only in patients on diuretic therapy. In a binary logistic regression, hyperuricemia (uric acid >6.0 mg/dL) was independently associated with CKD (eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 mē) (odds ratio, 2.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.61,4.3; P<.001). In hypertensive women, the presence of hyperuricemia indicated a substantial degree of kidney dysfunction as well as a greater cardiovascular risk profile. [source]

Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in the therapy of renal diseases

H. P. Lefebvre
Renal diseases, especially chronic renal failure (CRF), are common in canine and feline medicine. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a pivotal role in these conditions in the development of renal lesions and the progression of kidney dysfunction. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) are currently considered as the most efficient agents in therapeutic strategies. The benefit of an ACEI treatment can be explained by at least three mechanisms: ACEI limit systemic and glomerular capillary hypertension, have an antiproteinuric effect, and retard the development of glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial lesions. These effects have been studied in dogs and cats, and there is now some evidence to support the recommendation of ACEI therapy in dogs and cats with CRF. Nevertheless the prescription of ACEI in such patients should take into account the potential influence of renal impairment on ACEI disposition, and adverse effects on the renal function itself (especially hypotension and acute reductions in glomerular filtration rate). The risk of drug interaction with diuretics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and anesthetics, should not be overestimated. Furthermore, hypotension may occur in patients on a low sodium diet. [source]

Prognostic factors for patients with cirrhosis and kidney dysfunction in the era of MELD: results of a prospective study

Michael Schepke
Abstract: Background/Aim: Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is associated with a poor prognosis. The incidence and prognostic impact of kidney dysfunction due to other causes in cirrhotic patients are less well known. The current study prospectively evaluated the incidence and the prognostic relevance of different etiologies of kidney failure in cirrhotic patients. Methods: Eighty-eight consecutive patients with cirrhosis and serum creatinine ,1.5 mg/dl were enrolled. The etiologies of kidney dysfunction were analyzed, and prognostic factors including Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score were evaluated in a multivariate Cox model. Results: HRS was present in 35 (40%) patients (15 HRS 1, 20 HRS 2), followed by renal parenchymal disease (23%), drug-induced kidney dysfunction (19%) and prerenal failure due to bleeding or infections (15%). HRS patients had a significantly higher MELD score and shorter survival. In addition to the MELD score, only HRS 1 was independently predictive for survival. HRS 2 patients had a similar outcome as patients with non-HRS kidney dysfunction. Conclusions: In patients with cirrhosis and renal failure, hepatorenal syndrome is associated with a worse prognosis than kidney dysfunction due to other conditions but only HRS type 1 has independent prognostic relevance in addition to the MELD score in these patients. [source]

Simultaneous Liver,Kidney Transplantation: Evaluation to Decision Making

C. L. Davis
Questions about appropriate allocation of simultaneous liver and kidney transplants (SLK) are being asked because kidney dysfunction in the context of liver failure enhances access to deceased donor organs. There is specific concern that some patients who undergo combined liver and kidney transplantation may have reversible renal failure. There is also concern that liver transplants are placed prematurely in those with end-stage renal disease. Thus to assure allocation of transplants only to those truly in need, the transplant community met in March 2006 to review post-MELD (model for end-stage liver disease) data on the impact of renal function on liver waitlist and transplant outcomes and the results of SLK. [source]

Increased Hepatic and Decreased Urinary Metallothionein in Rats after Cessation of Oral Cadmium Exposure

Yihuai Liang
Wistar rats of both genders were given CdCl2 in drinking water at daily doses of 0, 2.5, 5.0 or 10.0 mg Cd/kg body-weight for 12 weeks. Half of the animals were then killed; the others were given Cd-free water for the following 16 weeks, i.e. until 28 weeks after start of the experiment (28-week rats). We observed dose-dependent increases in the levels of MT in the tissues of rats 12 weeks after beginning the experiment (12-week rats). After the exposure ceased, levels of MT in the 28-week rats changed in three ways: an increase in the liver, persistence in the kidney cortex and a decrease in the medulla, relative to those levels in their 12-week counterparts. Biomarkers of kidney dysfunction were determined to be urinary MT (UMT) and urinary N -acetyl-,- d -glucosaminidase (UNAG). After 12 weeks, we observed dose-related statistically significant increases in UMT and UNAG in all of the Cd-exposed groups. A statistically significant decrease for UNAG between the 12- and 28-week rats occurred among males at the lowest Cd dose and for UMT in all of the Cd-exposed groups. The unchanged tissue levels of MT in the kidney cortex suggest that decreased UMT is a sign either of (i) decreased transport of Cd-MT from the liver via blood plasma to the renal tubules or (ii) increased tubular reabsorption and recovery of renal tubular function. [source]