Kidney Capsule (kidney + capsule)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

PDGFR-, signaling is critical for tooth cusp and palate morphogenesis

Xun Xu
Abstract Platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFR-,) and PDGF ligands are key regulators for embryonic development. Although Pdgfr, is spatially expressed in the cranial neural crest (CNC)-derived odontogenic mesenchyme, mice deficient for Pdgfr, are embryonic lethal, making it impossible to investigate the functional significance of PDGF signaling in regulating the fate of CNC cells during tooth morphogenesis. Taking advantage of the kidney capsule assay, we investigated the biological function of PDGF signaling in regulating tooth morphogenesis. Pdgfr, and Pdgfa are specifically and consistently expressed in the CNC-derived odontogenic mesenchyme and the dental epithelium, respectively, throughout all stages of tooth development, suggesting a paracrine function of PDGF signaling in regulating tooth morphogenesis. Highly concentrated expression patterns of Pdgfr, and Pdgfa are associated with the developing dental cusp, suggesting possible functional importance of PDGF signaling in regulating cusp formation. Loss of the Pdgfr, gene does not affect proper odontoblasts proliferation and differentiation in the CNC-derived odontogenic mesenchyme but perturbs the formation of extracellular matrix and the organization of odontoblast cells at the forming cusp area, resulting in dental cusp growth defect. Pdgfr,,/, mice have complete cleft palate. We show that the cleft palate in Pdgfr, mutant mice results from an extracellular matrix defect within the CNC-derived palatal mesenchyme. The midline epithelium of the mutant palatal shelf remains functionally competent to mediate palatal fusion once the palatal shelves are placed in close contact in vitro. Collectively, our data suggests that PDGFR, and PDGFA are critical regulators for the continued epithelial,mesenchymal interaction during tooth and palate morphogenesis. Disruption of PDGFR, signaling disturbs the growth of dental cusp and interferes with the critical extension of palatal shelf during craniofacial development. Developmental Dynamics 232:75,84, 2005. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Cell-autonomous role of EphB2 and EphB3 receptors in the thymic epithelial cell organization

Javier García-Ceca
Abstract The role of EphB2 and EphB3 in the organization of thymic epithelial cells has been studied in EphB-deficient fetal thymus lobes grafted under the kidney capsule of WT mice. The deficient lobes, as compared with WT ones, showed altered distribution of medullary areas, shortening of medullary epithelial cell processes and presence of K5,K8, areas. EphB2 and EphB3 expressed on thymic epithelial cells play an autonomous role in their organization. The relevance of Eph/ephrinB forward and reverse signals for this process was evaluated in grafted fetal thymus lobes from mice expressing a truncated EphB2 receptor capable of activating reverse, but not forward, signaling. These deficient lobes showed important alterations of the thymic epithelial organization as compared with the grafted WT lobes, but a less severe phenotype than the grafted EphB2-deficient thymus lobes, which confirms the relevance of EphB2 forward signal for the thymic epithelial organization but, also, a role of the reverse signaling in determining the final epithelial phenotype. [source]

Effect of hyperprolactinaemia as induced by pituitary homografts under kidney capsule on gastric and duodenal ulcers in rats

Mohammed Asad
The effect of hyperprolactinaemia, induced by two or four pituitary homografts under the kidney capsule, on gastric and duodenal ulcers has been studied. The acute gastric ulcer models used were pylorus ligation, indometacin-induced and ethanol-induced gastric ulcers. Chronic gastric ulcers were induced using acetic acid and duodenal ulcers by mercaptamine hydrochloride. After pylorus ligation, there was an approximate 30,40% increase in gastric secretion, a significant increase in total acidity (P < 0.01) and in the ulcer index (P < 0.01) in rats bearing pituitary homografts under the kidney capsule when compared with the sham-operated control. Hyperprolactinaemia did not affect the formation of ethanol-induced gastric ulcers but showed a 40% reduction in the development of indometacin-induced gastric ulcers. It also produced a 20% increase in the ulcer index in acetic acid-induced chronic gastric ulcers and a 30% increase in ulcer area in mercaptamine-induced duodenal ulcers. Our results showed that hyperprolactinaemia induced gastric acid secretion and thereby aggravated gastric and duodenal ulcers in rats. Hyperprolactinaemia did not affect gastric cytoprotection. [source]

Tumorigenic study on hepatocytes coexpressing SV40 with Ras

Beicheng Sun
Abstract A model of neoplastic transformation by the combination of SV40 large T antigen (LT), SV40 small T antigen (ST), oncogenic Ras, and human telomerase reverse trasncriptase subunit (hTERT) has become established and replicated in primary human fibroblasts, however, there is no report on human hepatocytes. Here we use cell transplantation model, and show that transplantation of human hepatocytes of HL-7702 and HL-7703 expressing Ha-RasV12 and SV40 LT into subrenal capsule of immunodeficient mice results in fully malignant tumors, in contrast to conventional subcutaneous injections where tumors fail to develop. In GM-847 cell study, we have found that hTERT is not required for tumorigenic growth in subrenal capsule transplantation, however, it is required in subcutaneous injection assay. These results demonstrate that Human hepatocytes can be transformed under kidney capsule by coexpressing SV40 LT and Ha-RasV12, neither hTERT nor protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) inhibition are required for malignant transformation, a gene which increases cell survival in the subcutaneous injection model is not required for tumorigenic growth in subrenal capsule. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Survival of ovarian allografts in an experimental animal model

Roger G. Gosden
Abstract: Transplantation of ovarian tissue is a promising strategy for fertility preservation in young cancer patients with premature ovarian failure if they have cryopreserved their own tissue before undergoing gonadotoxic treatment. However, extension of ovary donation to children and adults seeking treatment for hypogonadism is controversial unless the tissue does not provoke an immune reaction or specific tolerance can be safely and effectively achieved. The survival of heterotopic ovarian allografts was tested in a mouse model. Isografts were placed under the kidney capsule of ovariectomized animals differing at the H-2 haplotype (H-2d or H-2k). Within three wk, and in contrast to isografts, the allografts were rejected, although their survival was extended when donor and host strains shared the same haplotype (H-2k). Allograft survival was not improved if the tissue was implanted orthotopically. When monoclonal antibodies to CD4 antigens were administered at doses exceeding those effective for long-term tolerance to cardiac allografts, graft survival was prolonged in one of two strain combinations, but they failed to restore fertility. These results indicate that the ovary is not an immunologically privileged organ, as the older literature suggested, and chronic immunosuppression is likely to be required for ovarian allografts in clinical settings. [source]

Induction of Human T-Cell Tolerance to Pig Xenoantigens via Thymus Transplantation in Mice with an Established Human Immune System

K. Habiro
Thymus xenotransplantation has been shown to induce tolerance to porcine xenografts in mice and to permit survival of ,1,3Gal-transferase knockout porcine kidney xenografts for months in nonhuman primates. We evaluated the ability of porcine thymus xenotransplantation to induce human T-cell tolerance using a humanized mouse (hu-mouse) model, where a human immune system is preestablished by implantation of fetal human thymus tissue under the kidney capsule and intravenous injection of CD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Human T-cell depletion with an anti-CD2 mAb following surgical removal of human thymic grafts prevented the initial rejection of porcine thymic xenografts in hu-mice. In these hu-mice, porcine thymic grafts were capable of supporting human thymopoiesis and T-cell development, and inducing human T-cell tolerance to porcine xenoantigens. Human T cells from these mice responded strongly to third-party pig, but not to the thymic donor swine leukocyte antigen (SLA)-matched pig stimulators in a mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) assay. Anti-pig xenoreactive antibodies declined in these hu-mice, whereas antibody levels increased in nontolerant animals that rejected porcine thymus grafts. These data show that porcine thymic xenotransplantation can induce donor-specific tolerance in immunocompetent hu-mice, supporting this approach for tolerance induction in clinical xenotransplantation. [source]

Human islet-derived precursor cells can cycle between epithelial clusters and mesenchymal phenotypes

Behrous Davani
Abstract We showed previously that undifferentiated, proliferating human islet-derived precursor cells (hIPCs) are a type of mesenchymal stem/stromal cell (MSC) that can be induced by serum deprivation to form clusters and ultimately differentiate in vitro to endocrine cells. We also demonstrated that partially differentiated hIPC clusters, when implanted under the kidney capsules of mice, continued to differentiate in vivo into hormone-producing cells. However, we noted that not all hIPC preparations yielded insulin-secreting cells in vivo and that in some animals no hormone-expressing cells were found. This suggested that the implanted cells were not always irreversibly committed to further differentiation and may even de-differentiate to a mesenchymal phenotype. In this study, we show that human cells with a mesenchymal phenotype are indeed found in the grafts of mice implanted with hIPCs in epithelial cell clusters (ECCs), which are obtained after 4-day in vitro culture of hIPCs in serum-free medium (SFM); mesenchymal cells were predominant in some grafts. We could mimic the transition of ECCs to de-differentiated mesenchymal cells in vitro by exposure to foetal bovine serum (FBS) or mouse serums, and to a significantly lesser extent to human serum. In a complementary series of experiments, we show that mouse serum and FBS are more effective stimulants of mesenchymal hIPC migration than is human serum. We found that proliferation was not needed for the transition from ECCs to de-differentiated cells because mitomycin-treated hIPCs that could not proliferate underwent a similar transition. Lastly, we show that cells exhibiting a mesenchymal phenotype can be found in grafts of adult human islets in mice. We conclude that epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of cells in hIPC ECCs can occur following implantation in mice. This potential for EMT of human islets or differentiated precursor cells must be considered in strategies for cell replacement therapy for diabetes. [source]