Kidney

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Kidney

  • adult kidney
  • baby hamster kidney
  • bovine kidney
  • cadaveric kidney
  • canine kidney
  • combined kidney
  • contralateral kidney
  • darby canine kidney
  • deceased donor kidney
  • donor kidney
  • dysplastic kidney
  • ecd kidney
  • embryonic kidney
  • hamster kidney
  • head kidney
  • horseshoe kidney
  • human embryonic kidney
  • human kidney
  • leave kidney
  • mammalian kidney
  • monkey kidney
  • mouse kidney
  • multicystic dysplastic kidney
  • native kidney
  • normal kidney
  • obstructed kidney
  • perfused kidney
  • pig kidney
  • polycystic kidney
  • porcine kidney
  • rat kidney
  • right kidney
  • single kidney
  • solitary kidney
  • transplant kidney
  • transplanted kidney

  • Terms modified by Kidney

  • kidney allograft
  • kidney allograft recipient
  • kidney allograft survival
  • kidney bean
  • kidney biopsy
  • kidney blood flow
  • kidney cancer
  • kidney capsule
  • kidney cell
  • kidney cell line
  • kidney cortex
  • kidney damage
  • kidney development
  • kidney disease
  • kidney diseases
  • kidney donation
  • kidney donor
  • kidney dysfunction
  • kidney epithelial cell
  • kidney failure
  • kidney function
  • kidney graft
  • kidney graft function
  • kidney graft survival
  • kidney injury
  • kidney model
  • kidney recipient
  • kidney sample
  • kidney section
  • kidney specimen
  • kidney tissue
  • kidney transplant
  • kidney transplant candidate
  • kidney transplant outcome
  • kidney transplant patient
  • kidney transplant recipient
  • kidney transplantation
  • kidney volume
  • kidney weight

  • Selected Abstracts


    INTERACTIONS BETWEEN THE RAS, ADVANCED GLYCATION AND NF-kB IN THE DIABETIC KIDNEY: INTERVENTIONAL STUDIES

    NEPHROLOGY, Issue 1 2002
    Josephine M Forbes
    [source]


    IMMUNOLOCALIZATION OF FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTORS IN THE ADULT RAT KIDNEY

    NEPHROLOGY, Issue 3 2000
    John F Bertram
    [source]


    INTRAPERITONEAL GLYCEROL INDUCES OXIDATIVE STRESS IN RAT KIDNEY

    CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL PHARMACOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY, Issue 8 2008
    Elenara Rieger
    SUMMARY 1Glycerol has been used for the treatment of intracranial hypertension, cerebral oedema and glaucoma. Experimentally, intramuscular administration of hypertonic glycerol solution is used to produce acute renal failure. In this model, glycerol causes rhabdomyolysis and myoglobinuria, resulting in the development of renal injury. The pathogenesis is thought to involve vascular congestion, the formation of casts and oxidative stress. However, the effect of glycerol itself independent of rhabdomyolysis has not been investigated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of i.p. glycerol on some biochemical and oxidative stress parameters in the kidney of young rats. 2Rats received 10 mL/kg, i.p., hypertonic glycerol solution (50% v/v) or saline (NaCl 0.85 g%) followed by 24 h water deprivation. Twenty-four hours after the administration of glycerol, rats were killed. Creatinine levels and the activity of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were determined in the plasma. In addition, CK, pyruvate kinase and LDH activity and oxidative stress parameters (free radical formation, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation) were measured in renal tissue. 3Glycerol did not alter plasma CK activity and increased plasma creatinine levels, suggesting renal insufficiency and the absence of rhabdomyolysis. Renal CK and pyruvate kinase activity was decreased, suggesting diminution of energy homeostasis in the kidney. Plasma and renal LDH activity was decreased, whereas the formation of free radicals, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation were increased, suggesting oxidative stress. 4These results are similar to those described after the intramuscular administration of glycerol. Therefore, it is possible that glycerol may provoke renal lesions by mechanisms other than those induced by rhabdomyolysis. [source]


    ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME 2 IN THE KIDNEY

    CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL PHARMACOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY, Issue 4 2008
    A Koitka
    SUMMARY 1Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is an important homeostatic component of the renin angiotensin system (RAS). ACE2 both degrades the vasoconstrictor, angiotensin II and generates the potent vasodilator peptide, angiotensin 1,7. These actions counterbalance those of ACE. 2ACE2 is highly expressed in the healthy kidney, particularly in the proximal tubules, where it colocalizes with ACE and angiotensin receptors. 3Kidney disease and subtotal nephrectomy is associated with a reduction in renal ACE2 expression, possibly facilitating the damaging effects of angiotensin II in the failing kidney. Acquired or genetic ACE2 deficiency also appears to exacerbate renal damage and albuminuria in experimental models, supporting this hypothesis. 4ACE2 also has an important role in blood pressure control. Many models of hypertension are associated with reduced ACE2 expression. Although ACE2 KO animals are normotensive, in states associated with activation of the RAS, ACE2 overexpression improves blood pressure control and reduces angiotensin responsiveness. [source]


    Heat Shock Transcription Factors and the hsp70 Induction Response in Brain and Kidney of the Hyperthermic Rat During Postnatal Development

    JOURNAL OF NEUROCHEMISTRY, Issue 1 2000
    Andrew J. Morrison
    Abstract : Heat shock transcription factor (HSF) 1 levels increase in brain regions and decline in kidney during postnatal rat development. In both neonatal and adult rats, levels of HSF1 protein in brain and kidney are proportional to the levels of HSF DNA-binding activity and the magnitude of heat shock protein hsp70 induction after thermal stress. There appears to be more HSF1 protein in adult brain than is needed for induction of hsp70 after thermal stress, suggesting that HSF1 may have other functions in addition to its role as a stress-inducible activator of heat shock genes. HSF2 protein levels decline during postnatal rat development in brain regions and kidney. Gel mobility shift analysis shows that HSF2 is not in a DNA-binding form in the neonatal brain and kidney, suggesting that HSF2 may not be involved in the constitutive expression of hsps in early postnatal development. There is no apparent relationship between levels of HSF2 protein and basal levels of hsp90, hsp70, heat shock cognate protein hsc70, and hsp60. [source]


    Shifts in metabolic parameters surrounding glucose homoeostasis resulting from tricyclic antidepressant therapy: implications of insulin resistance?

    JOURNAL OF PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY: AN INTERNATI ONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCE, Issue 1 2007
    W. Chadwick
    This study displayed the physiological effects the tricyclic antidepressants amitriptyline or trimipramine have on glucose homoeostasis in male Wistar rats. An insulin secreting cell line (INS-1) was also used to determine effects tricyclic antidepressants have on insulin secretion and insulin displacement. Thirty rats each received a 1 mg kg,1 dose of amitriptyline or trimipramine for a period of 14 weeks; another 14 rats served as the control group. Blood glucose, serum insulin and muscle and liver glycogen levels were determined. Kidney, liver and muscle insulin degradation was measured and compared with insulin degrading enzyme concentrations in the latter two tissues. INS-1 cells were used to determine the effect 1,M amitriptyline has on insulin secretion. Displacement studies for [3H]glibenclamide by amitriptyline or trimipramine were undertaken on INS-1 cells. A significant increase in blood glucose (P < 0.01) was found for both test groups after 6 and 14 weeks of receiving the medication, which may be related to a significant decrease in liver and muscle glycogen levels (P < 0.001). Serum insulin levels remained unchanged, although a significant increase in insulin degradation was observed in the muscle, liver and kidney, which may be related to a significant increase in insulin degrading enzyme (P < 0.001) that was found. A significant increase in insulin secretion was observed for the INS-1 cells treated with amitriptyline, although no significant displacement for the [3H]glibenclamide was evident for amitriptyline or trimipramine. The significant alterations in glucose homoeostasis observed, as well as the significant changes associated with insulin secretion and degradation associated with amitriptyline or trimipramine treatment, imply that prolonged use of these medicines may lead to insulin resistance and full blown diabetes. [source]


    Melatonin attenuates ifosfamide-induced Fanconi syndrome in rats

    JOURNAL OF PINEAL RESEARCH, Issue 1 2004
    Goksel Sener
    Abstract:, Regarding the mechanisms of ifosfamide (IFO)-induced nephrotoxicity and hemorrhagic cystitis, several hypotheses have been put forward, among which oxidative stress and depletion of glutathione (GSH) are suggested. This investigation elucidates the role of free radicals in IFO-induced toxicity and the protection by melatonin. Wistar albino rats were injected intraperitoneally with saline (0.9% NaCl; control-C group), melatonin (Mel group; 10 mg/kg daily for 5 days) or ifosfamide (50 mg/kg daily for 5 days; IFO group) or IFO + Mel. On the 5th day (120 hr) after the first IFO dose, animals were killed by decapitation and trunk blood was collected. Kidney and bladder tissues were obtained for biochemical and histological analysis. Urine was collected 24 hr before the rats were killed. The results demonstrated that IFO induced a Fanconi syndrome (FS) characterized by wasting of sodium, phosphate, and glucose, along with increased serum creatinine and urea. Melatonin markedly ameliorated the severity of renal dysfunction induced by IFO with a significant decrease in urinary sodium, phosphate, and glucose and increased creatinine excretion. Moreover, melatonin significantly improved the IFO-induced GSH depletion, malondialdehayde accumulation and neutrophil infiltration in both renal and bladder tissues. In the kidney, Na+,K+ -ATPase activity which was significantly reduced by IFO, was increased with melatonin treatment. Increased collagen contents of the kidney and bladder tissues by IFO treatment were reversed back to the control levels with melatonin. Our results suggest that IFO causes oxidative damage in renal and bladder tissues and melatonin, via its antioxidant effects, protects these tissues. These data suggest that melatonin may be of therapeutic use in preventing acquired FS due to IFO toxicity. [source]


    Osteopontin Expression in Progressive Renal Injury in Remnant Kidney: Role of Angiotensin II

    NEPHROLOGY, Issue 3 2000
    Huang Xr
    [source]


    Current Awareness in NMR in Biomedicine

    NMR IN BIOMEDICINE, Issue 8 2010
    Article first published online: 27 SEP 2010
    In order to keep subscribers up-to-date with the latest developments in their field, John Wiley & Sons are providing a current awareness service in each issue of the journal. The bibliography contains newly published material in the field of NMR in biomedicine. Each bibliography is divided into 12 sections: 1 Reviews; 2 General; 3 Technology; 4 Contrast Agents; 5 Brain and Nerves; 6 Neuropathology; 7 Cancer; 8 Cardiac, Vascular and Respiratory Systems; 9 Liver, Kidney and Other Organs; 10 Muscle and Orthopaedic; 11 Plants, Micro-organisms and Parasites; 12 Others. Within each section, articles are listed in alphabetical order with respect to author. If, in the preceding period, no publications are located relevant to any one of these headings, that section will be omitted. [source]


    Current Awareness in NMR in Biomedicine

    NMR IN BIOMEDICINE, Issue 2 2010
    Article first published online: 22 FEB 2010
    In order to keep subscribers up-to-date with the latest developments in their field, John Wiley & Sons are providing a current awareness service in each issue of the journal. The bibliography contains newly published material in the field of NMR in biomedicine. Each bibliography is divided into 12 sections: 1 Reviews; 2 General; 3 Technology; 4 Contrast Agents; 5 Brain and Nerves; 6 Neuropathology; 7 Cancer; 8 Cardiac, Vascular and Respiratory Systems; 9 Liver, Kidney and Other Organs; 10 Muscle and Orthopaedic; 11 Plants, Micro-organisms and Parasites; 12 Others. Within each section, articles are listed in alphabetical order with respect to author. If, in the preceding period, no publications are located relevant to any one of these headings, that section will be omitted. [source]


    Current Awareness in NMR in Biomedicine

    NMR IN BIOMEDICINE, Issue 10 2009
    Article first published online: 9 DEC 200
    In order to keep subscribers up-to-date with the latest developments in their field, John Wiley & Sons are providing a current awareness service in each issue of the journal. The bibliography contains newly published material in the field of NMR in biomedicine. Each bibliography is divided into 12 sections: 1 Reviews; 2 General; 3 Technology; 4 Contrast Agents; 5 Brain and Nerves; 6 Neuropathology; 7 Cancer; 8 Cardiac, Vascular and Respiratory Systems; 9 Liver, Kidney and Other Organs; 10 Muscle and Orthopaedic; 11 Plants, Micro-organisms and Parasites; 12 Others. Within each section, articles are listed in alphabetical order with respect to author. If, in the preceding period, no publications are located relevant to any one of these headings, that section will be omitted. [source]


    Current Awareness in NMR in Biomedicine

    NMR IN BIOMEDICINE, Issue 6 2009
    Article first published online: 3 JUL 200
    In order to keep subscribers up-to-date with the latest developments in their field, John Wiley & Sons are providing a current awareness service in each issue of the journal. The bibliography contains newly published material in the field of NMR in biomedicine. Each bibliography is divided into 12 sections: 1 Reviews; 2 General; 3 Technology; 4 Contrast Agents; 5 Brain and Nerves; 6 Neuropathology; 7 Cancer; 8 Cardiac, Vascular and Respiratory Systems; 9 Liver, Kidney and Other Organs; 10 Muscle and Orthopaedic; 11 Plants, Micro-organisms and Parasites; 12 Others. Within each section, articles are listed in alphabetical order with respect to author. If, in the preceding period, no publications are located relevant to any one of these headings, that section will be omitted. [source]


    Current Awareness in NMR in Biomedicine

    NMR IN BIOMEDICINE, Issue 8 2008
    Article first published online: 5 SEP 200
    In order to keep subscribers up-to-date with the latest developments in their field, John Wiley & Sons are providing a current awareness service in each issue of the journal. The bibliography contains newly published material in the field of NMR in biomedicine. Each bibliography is divided into 11 sections: 1 Reviews; 2 General; 3 Technology; 4 Contrast Agents; 5 Brain and Nerves; 6 Neuropathology; 7 Cancer; 8 Cardiac, Vascular and Respiratory Systems; 9 Liver, Kidney and Other Organs; 10 Muscle and Orthopaedic; 11 Plants, Micro-organisms and Parasites; 12 Others. Within each section, articles are listed in alphabetical order with respect to author. If, in the preceding period, no publications are located relevant to any one of these headings, that section will be omitted. [source]


    Current Awareness in NMR in Biomedicine

    NMR IN BIOMEDICINE, Issue 4 2008
    Article first published online: 25 APR 200
    In order to keep subscribers up-to-date with the latest developments in their field, John Wiley & Sons are providing a current awareness service in each issue of the journal. The bibliography contains newly published material in the field of NMR in biomedicine. Each bibliography is divided into 11 sections: 1 Reviews; 2 General; 3 Technology; 4 Contrast Agents; 5 Brain and Nerves; 6 Neuropathology; 7 Cancer; 8 Cardiac, Vascular and Respiratory Systems; 9 Liver, Kidney and Other Organs; 10 Muscle and Orthopaedic; 11 Plants, Micro-organisms and Parasites; 12 Others. Within each section, articles are listed in alphabetical order with respect to author. If, in the preceding period, no publications are located relevant to any one of these headings, that section will be omitted. [source]


    Current awareness in NMR in biomedicine

    NMR IN BIOMEDICINE, Issue 3 2008
    Article first published online: 18 MAR 200
    In order to keep subscribers up-to-date with the latest developments in their field, John Wiley & Sons are providing a current awareness service in each issue of the journal. The bibliography contains newly published material in the field of NMR in biomedicine. Each bibliography is divided into 11 sections: 1 Reviews; 2 General; 3 Technology; 4 Contrast Agents; 5 Brain and Nerves; 6 Neuropathology; 7 Cancer; 8 Cardiac, Vascular and Respiratory Systems; 9 Liver, Kidney and Other Organs; 10 Muscle and Orthopaedic; 11 Plants, Micro-organisms and Parasites; 12 Others. Within each section, articles are listed in alphabetical order with respect to author. If, in the preceding period, no publications are located relevant to any one of these headings, that section will be omitted. [source]


    Current Awareness in NMR in Biomedicine

    NMR IN BIOMEDICINE, Issue 7 2006
    Article first published online: 31 OCT 200
    In order to keep subscribers up-to-date with the latest developments in their field, John Wiley & Sons are providing a current awareness service in each issue of the journal. The bibliography contains newly published material in the field of NMR in biomedicine. Each bibliography is divided into 11 sections: 1 Books, Reviews ' Symposia; 2 General; 3 Technology; 4 Contrast Agents; 5 Brain and Nerves; 6 Neuropathology; 7 Cancer; 8 Cardiac, Vascular and Respiratory Systems; 9 Liver, Kidney and Other Organs; 10 Muscle and Orthopaedic; 11 Plants, Micro-organisms and Parasites; 12 Others. Within each section, articles are listed in alphabetical order with respect to author. If, in the preceding period, no publications are located relevant to any one of these headings, that section will be omitted. [source]


    Current Awareness in NMR in Biomedicine

    NMR IN BIOMEDICINE, Issue 5 2006
    Article first published online: 26 JUL 200
    In order to keep subscribers up-to-date with the latest developments in their field, John Wiley & Sons are providing a current awareness service in each issue of the journal. The bibliography contains newly published material in the field of NMR in biomedicine. Each bibliography is divided into 11 sections: 1 Books, Reviews ' Symposia; 2 General; 3 Technology; 4 Contrast Agents; 5 Brain and Nerves; 6 Neuropathology; 7 Cancer; 8 Cardiac, Vascular and Respiratory Systems; 9 Liver, Kidney and Other Organs; 10 Muscle and Orthopaedic; 11 Plants, Micro-organisms and Parasites; 12 Others. Within each section, articles are listed in alphabetical order with respect to author. If, in the preceding period, no publications are located relevant to any one of these headings, that section will be omitted. [source]


    Current Awareness in NMR in Biomedicine

    NMR IN BIOMEDICINE, Issue 2 2006
    Article first published online: 16 MAR 200
    In order to keep subscribers up-to-date with the latest developments in their field, John Wiley & Sons are providing a current awareness service in each issue of the journal. The bibliography contains newly published material in the field of NMR in biomedicine. Each bibliography is divided into 11 sections: 1 Books, Reviews ' Symposia; 2 General; 3 Technology; 4 Contrast Agents; 5 Brain and Nerves; 6 Neuropathology; 7 Cancer; 8 Cardiac, Vascular and Respiratory Systems; 9 Liver, Kidney and Other Organs; 10 Muscle and Orthopaedic; 11 Plants, Micro-organisms and Parasites; 12 Others. Within each section, articles are listed in alphabetical order with respect to author. If, in the preceding period, no publications are located relevant to any one of these headings, that section will be omitted. [source]


    Current Awareness in NMR in Biomedicine

    NMR IN BIOMEDICINE, Issue 8 2004
    Article first published online: 23 DEC 200
    In order to keep subscribers up-to-date with the latest developments in their field, John Wiley & Sons are providing a current awareness service in each issue of the journal. The bibliography contains newly published material in the field of NMR in biomedicine. Each bibliography is divided into 11 sections: 1 Books, Reviews ' Symposia; 2 General; 3 Technology; 4 Brain and Nerves; 5 Neuropathology; 6 Cancer; 7 Cardiac, Vascular and Respiratory Systems; 8 Liver, Kidney and Other Organs; 9 Muscle and Orthopaedic; 10 Plants, Micro-organisms and Parasites; 11 Others. Within each section, articles are listed in alphabetical order with respect to author. If, in the preceding period, no publications are located relevant to any one of these headings, that section will be omitted. [source]


    Current Awareness in NMR in Biomedicine

    NMR IN BIOMEDICINE, Issue 6-7 2003
    Article first published online: 3 DEC 200
    In order to keep subscribers up-to-date with the latest developments in their field, John Wiley & Sons are providing a current awareness service in each issue of the journal. The bibliography contains newly published material in the field of NMR in biomedicine. Each bibliography is divided into 9 sections: 1 Books, Reviews ' Symposia; 2 General; 3 Technology; 4 Brain and Nerves; 5 Neuropathology; 6 Cancer; 7 Cardiac, Vascular and Respiratory Systems; 8 Liver, Kidney and Other Organs; 9 Muscle and Orthopaedic. Within each section, articles are listed in alphabetical order with respect to author. If, in the preceding period, no publications are located relevant to any one of these headings, that section will be omitted. [source]


    Patient Willingness to Pay for a Kidney for Transplantation

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 6 2010
    D. K. Herold
    While kidney transplantation is the most cost-effective treatment available for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and affords patients with the best quality of life, the current supply of kidneys does not meet the demand. A potential solution to increasing the supply is to compensate living donors for a kidney. The purpose of this study was to describe ESRD patient willingness to pay for a kidney. Using a self-administered survey, 107 patients in 31 U.S. states completed the survey. The quantitative method and descriptive survey design employed descriptive, correlational, nonparametric and multivariate statistical tests to evaluate the data. Of participants, 78.5% were willing to pay for a kidney; there were significant correlations between gender, health status, household income, preferred source of a kidney and willingness to pay. Men, patients with poor and fair health status and those with household incomes ,$50 000 were more willing to pay. Step-wise regression analysis found price and doctor's influence accounting for 52% of variance in willingness to pay. As price increased and doctor's opinion mattered, willingness to pay increased. This study supports development of additional studies with larger sample sizes and patients on kidney transplant waiting lists. [source]


    Kidney and Pancreas Transplantation in the United States, 1999,2008: The Changing Face of Living Donation

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 4p2 2010
    D. A. Axelrod
    The waiting list for kidney transplantation continued to grow between 1999 and 2008, from 41 177 to 76 089 candidates. However, active candidates represented the minority of this increase (36 951,50 624, a 37% change), while inactive candidates increased over 500% (4226,25 465). There were 5966 living donor (LD) and 10 551 deceased donor (DD) kidney transplants performed in 2008. The total number of pancreas transplants peaked at 1484 in 2004 and has declined to 1273. Although the number of LD transplants increased by 26% from 1999 to 2008, the total number peaked in 2004 at 6647 before declining 10% by 2008. The rate of LD transplantation continues to vary significantly as a function of demographic and geographic factors, including waiting time for DD transplant. Posttransplant survival remains excellent, and there appears to be greater use of induction agents and reduced use of corticosteroids in LD recipients. Significant changes occurred in the pediatric population, with a dramatic reduction in the use of LD organs after passage of the Share 35 rule. Many strategies have been adopted to reverse the decline in LD transplant rates for all age groups, including expansion of kidney paired donation, adoption of laparoscopic donor nephrectomy and use of incompatible LD. [source]


    Renal Transplantation Across HLA and ABO Antibody Barriers: Integrating Paired Donation into Desensitization Protocols

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 3 2010
    Robert A. Montgomery
    The field of desensitization and incompatible transplantation has made great gains over the past decade. There are now several options and effective therapies for many patients who face antibody barriers. Kidney paired donation (KPD) and desensitization have traditionally been considered competing strategies and patients have been offered one or the other without regard for the probability of a successful outcome. It is now possible to predict which donor/recipient phenotypes will benefit from each of these modalities. KPD should be favored among patients with immunologic phenotypes that are likely to match without prolonged waiting times. However, as many as 50% of patients with incompatible donors will fail to find a match in a KPD pool and many of these patients could be desensitized to their donor. Positive crossmatch and ABO incompatible transplantation has been accomplished in selective cases without the need for heavy immunosuppression or B-cell ablative therapy. Patients who are both difficult-to-match due to broad sensitization and hard-to-desensitize because of strong donor reactivity can often be successfully transplanted through a combination of desensitization and KPD. Using these various modalities it is estimated that most patients with incompatible live donors can undergo successful renal transplantation. [source]


    Clinical Outcomes of Multicenter Domino Kidney Paired Donation

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 10 2009
    Y. J. Lee
    Domino kidney paired donation (KPD) is a method by which an altruistic living nondirected donor (LND) is allocated to a pool of incompatible donor,recipient pairs (DRP) and a series of KPDs is initiated. To evaluate the feasibility and clinical outcomes of multicenter domino KPD, we retrospectively analyzed a cohort of DRPs who underwent domino KPD between February 2001 and July 2007 at one of 16 transplant centers. One hundred seventy-nine kidney transplants were performed, with 70 domino chains initiated by altruistic LND. There were 45 two-pair chains, 15 three-pair chains, 7 four-pair chains, 2 five-pair chains and 1 six-pair chain. A majority of donors were spouses (47.5%) or altruistic LNDs (39.1%). DRPs with a blood type O recipient or an AB donor comprised 45.9% of transplanted DRPs. HLA mismatch improved in transplanted donors compared to intended donors in pairs enrolled to improve HLA mismatch (3.4 ± 0.7 vs. 4.8 ± 1.0, p < 0.001). One-year and 5-year graft survival rates were 98.3% and 87.7%, respectively, with a median follow-up of 46 months. One-year and 5-year patient survival rates were 97.2% and 90.8%, respectively. In conclusion, multicenter domino KPD could multiply the benefits of donation from LNDs, with patients and graft survival rates comparable to those seen with conventional KPD. [source]


    B-Cell Immunity in the Context of T-Cell Tolerance after Combined Kidney and Bone Marrow Transplantation in Humans

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 9 2009
    F. Porcheray
    Five patients with end-stage kidney disease received combined kidney and bone marrow transplants from HLA haploidentical donors following nonmyeloablative conditioning to induce renal allograft tolerance. Immunosuppressive therapy was successfully discontinued in four patients with subsequent follow-up of 3 to more than 6 years. This allograft acceptance was accompanied by specific T-cell unresponsiveness to donor antigens. However, two of these four patients showed evidence of de novo antibodies reactive to donor antigens between 1 and 2 years posttransplant. These humoral responses were characterized by the presence of donor HLA-specific antibodies in the serum with or without the deposition of the complement molecule C4d in the graft. Immunofluorescence staining, ELISA assays and antibody profiling using protein microarrays demonstrated the co-development of auto- and alloantibodies in these two patients. These responses were preceded by elevated serum BAFF levels and coincided with B-cell reconstitution as revealed by a high frequency of transitional B cells in the periphery. To date, these B cell responses have not been associated with evidence of humoral rejection and their clinical significance is still unclear. Overall, our findings showed the development of B-cell allo- and autoimmunity in patients with T-cell tolerance to the donor graft. [source]


    Successful Urgent Transplantation of an Adult Kidney into a Child with Inferior Vena Cava Thrombosis

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 8 2009
    R. B. Stevens
    Poor venous drainage options following inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombosis have been considered to complicate or preclude renal transplantation of adult kidneys into pediatric patients. We describe urgent renal transplantation in a 5-year-old (15.3 kg) male with IVC thrombosis using an adult living donor. Preoperative magnetic resonance venography revealed a patent infrahepatic/suprarenal vena cava and portal system. In surgery, the right liver lobe was mobilized sufficiently to anastomose the graft renal vein to the native IVC at the confluence of the native left renal vein and proximal vena cava. Graft function has remained excellent with serum creatinine of 0.5 mg/dL at 36 months. IVC thrombosis need not preclude successful transplantation of adult-sized kidneys into children. [source]


    Kidney and Pancreas Transplantation in the United States, 1998,2007: Access for Patients with Diabetes and End-Stage Renal Disease

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 4p2 2009
    K. P. McCullough
    Although the number of candidates on the kidney transplant waiting list at year-end rose from 40 825 to 76 070 (86%) between 1998 and 2007, recent growth principally reflects increases in the number of patients in inactive status. The number of active patients increased by ,only' 4510 between 2002 and 2007, from 44 263 to 48 773. There were 6037 living donor and 10 082 deceased donor kidney transplants in 2007. Patient and allograft survival was best for recipients of living donor kidneys, least for expanded criteria donor (ECD) deceased donor kidneys, and intermediate for non-ECD deceased donor kidneys. The total number of pancreas transplants peaked at 1484 in 2004 and has since declined to 1331. Among pancreas recipients, those with simultaneous pancreas-kidney (SPK) transplants experienced the best pancreas graft survival rates: 86% at 1 year and 53% at 10 years. Between 1998 and 2006, among diabetic patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who were under the age of 50 years, 23% of all and 62% of those waitlisted received a kidney-alone or SPK transplant. In contrast, 6% of diabetic patients aged 50,75 years with ESRD were transplanted, representing 46% of those waitlisted from this cohort. Access to kidney-alone or SPK transplantation varies widely by state. [source]


    Increased Expression of Senescence-Associated Cell Cycle Inhibitor p16INK4a in Deteriorating Renal Transplants and Diseased Native Kidney

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 6 2005
    Anette Melk
    Some features of kidney transplants with dysfunction overlap the lesions of aging, such as tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis (TA/IF) without major glomerular abnormalities. Somatic cell limitations could contribute to deterioration in aging and disease states. Since expression of p16INK4a, a cell cycle inhibitor associated with somatic cell senescence in vitro, is induced in aged kidney, we studied whether kidneys with dysfunction and TA/IF manifested increased p16INK4a expression. We performed p16INK4a immunostaining on transplanted kidneys and native kidneys with chronic renal diseases. At implantation, transplants manifested little TA/IF, and nuclear p16INK4a immunostaining was consistent with age. However, transplants biopsied for abnormal function displaying TA/IF showed strong nuclear and cytoplasmic p16INK4a staining, beyond the amount predicted for age. Both atrophic and non-atrophic nephrons displayed increased p16INK4a, suggesting that it was not simply a feature of atrophy. Epithelial p16INK4a staining was not increased in transplants with good function, but was increased in diseased native kidneys. The finding of increased p16INK4a expression in renal transplants and diseased kidneys with TA/IF and impaired function supports the concept that some cell senescence changes that accompany aging are also induced by injury and disease stresses. Thus, aging, injury and disease may share common pathways involving somatic cell senescence. [source]


    The Development of the Metanephric Kidney in the Pig

    ANATOMIA, HISTOLOGIA, EMBRYOLOGIA, Issue 2005
    H. Bragulla
    Aims:, The metanephric kidneys of the pig are used as xenotransplants in human medicine. In order for transplants to fit within the host organisms, the subcapsular blastema and blood vessels are crucial for the development of new nephrons to sustain the organ functions. The aim of this study is to obtain data concerning the post-natal development of metanephric nephrons in the porcine kidney. Materials and Methods:, The metanephric kidneys of six porcine fetuses with a crown-rump length ranging from 40 mm to 220 mm of eight piglets aged between 6 to 10 weeks and of three adult pigs were studied. Eight lectins as well as anti-actin and anti-myosin antibodies were used for lectin- and immunohistochemistry to study the subcapsular metanephric blastema, to visualize the blood-urine barrier in the nephrons and collecting tubules, and to study the blood vessels in both the renal cortex and marrow. Results and Conclusions:, A subcapsular metanephric blastema was still present in the kidney of 10-week-old piglets. Dense condensation of mesenchymal cells surrounded the terminal branches of the collecting ducts and showed first signs of mesenchymal-epithelial transformation. Characteristic comma-shaped and s-shaped bodies were found in and underneath the subcapsular blastema. In the fibrous renal capsule of six-week-old piglets, a first faint binding reaction of anti-actin was visible and intensified in the fibrous renal capsule in ten-week-old piglets and in adult pigs. In addition, the smooth-muscle layers of the blood vessels were stained by the anti-actin and anti-myosin antibodies. The lectins showed various affinities to the endothelium of blood vessels and to the epithelial cells lining of the capsules of the metanephric renal corpuscles, the various parts of the renal tubules, as well as the collecting tubules and the renal pelvis. The affinity of the epithelial cells to a specific lectin varies in neighbouring cells, indicating different cell activities or cell cycles. [source]


    Adenosine modulates cell growth in baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells

    BIOFACTORS, Issue 4 2000
    Rashmi A. Mittal
    Abstract Adenosine is known to modulate cell growth in a variety of mammalian cells either via the activation of receptors or through metabolism. We investigated the effect of adenosine on Baby Hamster Kidney (BHK) cell growth and attempted to determine its mechanism of modulation. In wild-type BHK cells, adenosine evoked a biphasic response in which a low concentration of adenosine (1± 150;5 ,M) produced an inhibition of colony formation but at higher concentrations (up to 50 ,M) this inhibition was progressively reversed. However, no biphasic response was observed in an ± 147;adenosine kinase± 148; deficient BHK mutant, ± 147;5a± 148;, which suggests that adenosine kinase plays an important role in the modulation of growth response to adenosine. Adenosine receptors did not appear to have a role in regulating cell growth of BHK cells. Specific A1 and A2 receptor antagonists were unable to reverse the effect of adenosine on cell growth. Even though a specific A3 adenosine receptor antagonist MRS-1220 partly reversed the inhibition in colony formation at 1 ,M adenosine, it also affected the transport of adenosine. Thus adenosine transport and metabolism appears to play the major role in this modulation of cell growth as 5,-amino-5,-deoxyadenosine, an adenosine kinase inhibitor, reversed the inhibition of cell growth observed at 1 ,M adenosine. These results, taken together, would suggest that adenosine modulates cell growth in BHK mainly through its transport and metabolism to adenine nucleotides. [source]