Killer Immunoglobulin-like Receptors (killer + immunoglobulin-like_receptor)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Human cytomegalovirus and natural killer-mediated surveillance of HLA class I expression: a paradigm of host,pathogen adaptation

Miguel López-Botet
Summary: Among various strategies to evade the host immune response, some viruses like human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) interfere with surface MHC class I expression and antigen presentation to T lymphocytes. The ability of natural killer (NK) cells to detect MHC class I molecules through inhibitory receptors can be envisaged as an adaptation of the immune system for responding to such pathological alterations. To fulfil that role, rodents use members of the Ly49 C-type lectin superfamily, whereas primates employ killer immunoglobulin-like receptors and the immunoglobulin-like transcript 2/leucocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor-1 receptor. CD94/NKG2 lectin-like heterodimers represent the most conserved receptor system for MHC class I molecules; by interacting with human HLA-E or murine Qa-1b, CD94/NKG2A inhibitory receptors broadly probe the biosynthesis pathway of other class I molecules. Reciprocally, HCMV has developed mechanisms to evade the NK response while modulating HLA class Ia expression. The ability of HCMV to maintain surface levels of HLA-E and to express an HLA class I surrogate (UL18) are herein discussed in the context of the interplay with human NKR systems. This work was supported by grants FIS 00/0181 and SAF98-0006. We thank Dr A. Angulo for helpful discussion. [source]

Putting the natural killer cell in its place

IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 1 2006
Geraldine M. O'Connor
Summary Natural killer (NK) cells were originally described as ,null' lymphocytes, but we have increasing evidence of their role in recognizing pathogen, and our knowledge of NK cell receptors continues to expand exponentially. Human NK cells have many receptors for human leucoctye antigen (HLA) class I. These killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) and CD94/NKG2 receptors can signal in both positive and negative ways to regulate NK cell functions. The inhibitory receptors are the best characterized, but even in these cases much of their functional biology remains elusive. In this review, some recent advances in terms of the three-immunoglobulin (3Ig)-domain KIRs are discussed. Natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCRs) are among the activatory receptors found on NK cells. While pathogen ligands for these receptors have been described, endogenous ligands remain elusive. NCRs and NKG2D, a receptor for stress-induced antigens, appear to play complementary functional roles in terms of NK cell activation. More recently described on NK cells are the Toll-like receptors. In particular, these receptors of the innate immune system allow NK cells to directly sense pathogen, and their ligation on accessory cells indirectly activates NK cells through cytokine production. It is becoming clear that none of these receptor systems functions in isolation and that it is the sum of the signals (which will reflect the pathogenic situation), in addition to the cytokine milieu, that will direct NK cell activation. The resulting cytotoxicity, cytokine production and direct cell,cell regulatory interactions with other cells of the immune system, for example dendritic cells, ultimately determine the role of the NK cell in the context of an overall immune response. [source]

Reassessing the Impact of Donor HLA-C Genotype on Long-Term Liver Transplant Survival

T. H. Tran
HLA-C is the major inhibitory ligand for killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) that are expressed on natural killer (NK) cells. Based on their KIR specificity, HLA-C alleles can be divided into two groups, termed HLA-C1 and HLA-C2. Donor HLA-C group has recently been identified by Hanvesakul et al. (Am J Transplant 2008) as a critical determinant of clinical outcome following liver transplantation: Possession of at least one HLA-C group 2 allele by the donor was associated with significantly improved long-term graft and patient survival, presumably due to an inhibition of host NK cell function. To verify this study, we performed genotyping of 913 deceased liver donors for the relevant KIR epitopes of HLA-C and correlated the presence or absence of donor HLA-C2 genotype with graft and patient survival. In our study, donor HLA-C2 genotype had no impact on 10-year graft or patient survival. We cannot confirm a major role of donor HLA-C2 genotype on long-term allograft survival after liver transplantation. [source]

Killer immunoglobulin-like receptor ligand HLA-Bw4 protects against multiple sclerosis,

Ĺslaug R. Lorentzen MD
Objective Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the central nervous system. A human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II association is well established (DRB1*1501-DQB1*0602), but more recently HLA class II,independent associations with HLA class I variants have also been reported. The HLA class I (HLA-A, -B, -C) molecules serve as ligands for both T-cell receptors and killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs). We investigated the HLA class I alleles defined by their KIR binding motifs and the KIR genes to evaluate whether these genes could influence MS susceptibility or severity, alone or in combination. Methods We typed Norwegian MS patients (n = 631) and controls (n = 555) for HLA-A, -B, -C and -DRB1 alleles as well as the presence or absence of genes encoding inhibitory (KIR2DL1, KIR2DL2, KIR2DL3, KIR2DL5, KIR3DL1, KIR3DL2, KIR3DL3) and activating (KIR2DS1, KIR2DS2, KIR2DS3, KIR2DL4, KIR2DS4, KIR2DS5, KIR3DS1) KIRs. Results The frequency of the HLA-Bw4 specificity, which is the ligand for the inhibitory KIR3DL1, was significantly reduced in MS patients as compared with controls (41.4% vs 55.1%, puncorrected (uc) = 4.6 × 10,6). Also after stratifying for known HLA class II associations, the HLA-Bw4 association was seen (puc = 0.002). No significant differences in gene carrier frequencies of inhibitory and activating KIRs were observed. However, our data indicate that MS patients who carry the activating KIR2DS2 and the inhibitory KIR2DL2 genes have more severe disease than patients not carrying these genes. Interpretation Carriage of the ligand of the inhibitory KIR3DL1 receptor, HLA-Bw4, was found to protect against MS in an HLA-DRB1 independent manner. Ann Neurol 2009;65:658,666 [source]

Activating and inhibitory killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) in haploidentical haemopoietic stem cell transplantation to cure high-risk leukaemias

A. Moretta
Summary A number of experimental studies have shown that natural killer (NK) cells can eliminate cancer cells and the mechanisms involved in this effect have been uncovered during the last two decades. Clinical data from haploidentical haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haplo-HSCT) revealed that NK cells were responsible for remarkably favourable effects in both adult and paediatric high-risk leukaemias. NK receptors specific for major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules, including killer immunoglobulin (Ig)-like receptors (KIR) and CD94/NKG2A, play a major role in the anti-leukaemia effect (mediating either inhibitory or activating signals). Haplo- HSCT requires a heavy conditioning regimen for the patient and the use of large numbers of T cell-depleted HSC to be grafted. After transplantation, natural killer cells develop from HSC shortly after engraftment and may include ,alloreactive' NK cells that kill leukaemic cells and prevent graft- versus -host disease (GvHD). Alloreactive NK cells are characterized by the expression of KIR that are not engaged by any of the human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class I alleles expressed by the patient. Their generation is dependent upon the existence of a KIR/HLA class I mismatch between donor and recipient. Novel important information on the function and specificity of different KIR has been obtained recently by the analysis of donor-derived alloreactive NK cells in a cohort of paediatric patients given haplo-HSCT to cure acute, high-risk leukaemias. [source]