Killer Cell Receptors (killer + cell_receptor)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Killer Cell Receptors

  • natural killer cell receptor

  • Selected Abstracts

    Generating isomorphous heavy-atom derivatives by a quick-soak method.

    Part II: phasing of new structures
    A quick-soak method has been applied to generate de novo heavy-atom phasing to solve two new protein structures, a type II transforming growth factor , receptor (TBRII) and a natural killer cell receptor,ligand complex, NKG2D,ULBP3. In the case of TBRII, a crystal derivatized for only 10,min in saturated HgCl2 provided adequate phasing for structure determination. Comparison between HgCl2 derivatives generated by 10,min soaking and by 12,h soaking revealed similar phasing statistics. The shorter soak, however, resulted in a derivative more isomorphous to the native than the longer soak as judged by changes in the unit-cell parameter a upon derivatization as well as by the quality of a combined SIRAS electron-density map. In the case of the NKG2D,ULBP3 structure, all overnight soaks in heavy-atom solutions resulted in crystal lattice disorder and only the quick soaks preserved diffraction. Despite fragile lattice packing, the quick-soaked K2PtCl4 derivative was isomorphous with the native crystal and the electron-density map calculated from combined SIR and MAD phases is better than that calculated from MAD phases alone. Combined with mass-spectrometry-assisted solution heavy-atom derivative screening and the use of synchrotron radiation, the quick-soak derivatization has the potential to transform the time-consuming conventional heavy-atom search into a real-time `on-the-fly' derivatization process that will benefit high-throughput structural genomics. [source]

    Natural Killer Cell Receptor+ T-Lymphocytes in Normal and Helicobacter pylori -Infected Human Gastric Mucosa

    HELICOBACTER, Issue 6 2008
    Joan O'Keeffe
    Abstract Background:,Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with development of chronic inflammation and infiltration of immune cells into the gastric mucosa. As unconventional T-lymphocytes expressing natural killer cell receptors are considered to play central roles in the immune response against infection, a study investigating their frequencies in normal and H. pylori -infected gastric mucosa was undertaken. Materials and Methods:, Flow cytometry was used to quantify T-cells expressing the natural killer cell markers CD161, CD56, and CD94 in freshly isolated lymphocytes from the epithelial and lamina propria layers of gastric mucosa. Thirteen H. pylori -positive and 24 H. pylori -negative individuals were studied. Results:, CD94+ T-cells were the most abundant (up to 40%) natural killer receptor-positive T-cell population in epithelial and lamina propria layers of H. pylori -negative gastric mucosa. CD161+ T-cells accounted for about one-third of all T-cells in both compartments, but the lowest proportion were of CD56+ T-cells. Compared with H. pylori -negative mucosa, in H. pylori -infected mucosa the numbers of CD161+ T-cells were significantly greater (p = .04) in the epithelium, whereas the numbers of CD56+ T-cells were lower (p = .01) in the lamina propria. A minor population (< 2%) of T-cells in both mucosal layers of H. pylori -negative subjects were natural killer T-cells, and whose proportions were not significantly different (p > .05) to those in H. pylori -infected individuals. Conclusions:, The predominance, heterogeneity, and distribution of natural killer cell receptor-positive T-cells at different locations within the gastric mucosa reflects a potential functional role during H. pylori infection and warrants further investigation. [source]

    Gene expression characteristics of CD28null memory phenotype CD8+ T cells and its implication in T-cell aging

    Monchou Fann
    Summary:, Accumulation of CD28nullCD8+ T cells is considered as one of the hallmarks of aging in the human immune system. However, the precise changes of CD28nullCD8+ T cells, compared to those of the precursor CD28+CD8+ memory T cells, have not been determined. In this study, we present an analysis of the global gene expression profiles of CD28+ and CD28null memory phenotype CD8+ T cells. These two CD8+ T subsets exhibited an overall similar gene expression profile with only a few dozen genes that were differentially expressed. A wide range of functions, including co-stimulation, effector activity, signaling, and transcription, were possessed by these differentially expressed genes, reflecting significant functional changes of CD28null memory phenotype CD8+ T cells from their CD28+ counterparts. In addition, CD28null memory CD8+ T cells expressed several natural killer cell receptors and high levels of granzymes, perforin, and FasL, indicating an increasing capacity for cytotoxicity during memory CD8+ T-cell aging. Interestingly, in vitro culture of these two subsets with interleukin-15 showed that similar gene expression changes occurred in both subsets. Our analysis provides the gene expression portraits of CD28null memory phenotype CD8+ T cells and alteration from their CD28+ counterparts and suggests potential mechanisms of T-cell aging. [source]

    Structural basis of MHC class I recognition by natural killer cell receptors

    Mark W. Sawicki
    Summary: Natural killer (NK)-cell function is regulated by NK receptors that recognize MHC class I (MHC-I) molecules on target cells. Two structurally distinct families of NK receptors have been identified, the immunoglobulin-like family (killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs), leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptors (LIRs)) and the C-type lectin-like family (Ly49, CD94/NKG2A, NKG2D, CD69). Recently, the three-dimensional structures of several NK receptors were determined, in free form or bound to MHC-I. These include those of unbound KIRs, NKG2D, CD69, LIR-1 and the CD94 subunit of the CD94/NKG2A heterodimer. Together, these structures define the basic molecular architecture of both the immunoglobulin-like and C-type lectin-like families of NK receptors. In addition, crystal structures have been reported for the complex between Ly49A and H-2Dd, and for KIR2DL2 bound to HLA-Cw3. The complex structures provide a framework for understanding MHC-I recognition by NK receptors from both families and reveal striking differences in the nature of this recognition, despite the receptors' functional similarity. This research was supported, in part, by National Institutes of Health grants R01 AI47900 and R37 36900 (RAM) and a fellowship from the Cancer Research Institute (MWS). We are grateful to DW Wolan and IA Wilson for providing coordinates of NKG2D prior to publication, and to members of our laboratories for encouragement. [source]

    Human natural killer cell receptors and co-receptors

    Roberto Biassoni
    Summary: In the absence of sufficient signaling by their HLA class I-specific inhibitory receptors, human natural killer (NK) cells become activated and display potent cytotoxicity against cells that are either HLA class I negative or deficient. This indicates that the NK receptors responsible for the induction of cytotoxicity recognize ligands on target cells different from HLA class I molecules. On this basis, the process of NK-cell triggering can be considered as a mainly non-MHC-restricted mechanism. The recent identification of a group of NK-specific triggering surface molecules has allowed a first series of pioneering studies on the functional/molecular characteristics of such receptors. The first three members of a receptor family that has been termed natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCR) are represented by NKp46, NKp44 and NKp30. These receptors are strictly confined to NK cells, and their engagement induces a strong activation of NK-mediated cytolysis. A direct correlation exists between the surface density of NCR and the ability of NK cells to kill various target cells. Importantly, mAb-mediated blocking of these receptors has been shown to suppress cytotoxicity against most NK-susceptible target cells. However, the process of NK-cell triggering during target cell lysis may also depend on the concerted action of NCR and other triggering receptors, such as NKG2D, or surface molecules, including 2B4 and NKp80, that appear to function as co-receptors rather than as true receptors. Notably, a dysfunction of 2B4 has been associated with a severe form of immunodeficiency termed X-linked lymphoproliferative disease. Future studies will clarify whether also the altered expression and/or function of other NK-triggering molecules may represent a possible cause of immunological disorders. This work was supported by grants awarded by Associazione Italiana per la Ricerca sul Cancro (A.I.R.C.), Istituto Superiore di SanitÓ (I.S.S.), Ministero della SanitÓ, and Ministero dell'UniversitÓ e della Ricerca Scientifica e Tecnologica (M.U.R.S.T.) and Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Progetto Finalizzato Biotecnologie. The financial support of Telethon-Italy (grant no. E.0892) is gratefully acknowledged. [source]

    Understanding the role of natural killer cell receptors and their human leukocyte antigen ligands in multiple sclerosis,

    ANNALS OF NEUROLOGY, Issue 6 2009
    D(ABHI), Elizabeth A. Trachtenberg MS
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Increased expression of the natural killer cell inhibitory receptor CD94/NKG2A and CD158b on circulating and lesional T cells in patients with chronic plaque psoriasis

    Y.H. Liao
    Summary Background, Psoriasis is a common inflammatory cutaneous disorder characterized by activated T-cell infiltration. T lymphocytes bearing natural killer cell receptors (NKRs) have been suggested to play an important role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. However, the expression pattern of activating and inhibitory NKRs on T lymphocytes from psoriatic patients and its significance in psoriasis needs further study. Objectives, To investigate the pathogenesis of NKR-expressing T cells in psoriasis. Materials and methods, Thirty patients with chronic plaque psoriasis and 20 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. The immunophenotypic profiles of NKRs, including CD56, CD16 (activating NKRs), CD158a, CD158b, CD94 and NKG2A (inhibitory NKRs), were analysed in peripheral blood T lymphocytes, as well as psoriatic lesional infiltrating T cells, by triple-fluorescence flow cytometry. Results, A significant increase of inhibitory CD8+ CD158b+, CD4, CD8, CD158b+ and CD8+ CD94/NKG2A+ T cells was found in the peripheral blood of patients with psoriasis when compared with controls. Tissue-infiltrating T lymphocytes expressing inhibitory receptors CD158b, CD94 and NKG2A were found in psoriatic lesions. There was a significant positive correlation between the increased percentage of circulating CD8+ CD94/NKG2A+ T cells and the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index. Conclusions, In the present study, we demonstrated increased proportions of particular subsets of inhibitory CD158b+ and/or CD94/NKG2A+ T cells in patients with psoriasis. The elevation of these inhibitory NKR-expressing T cells was correlated with disease severity, which may signify the possibility of chronic antigen-driven stimulation and dysregulated cytokine production in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. [source]