Keys

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Keys

  • florida keys
  • identification keys


  • Selected Abstracts


    VARIABILITY IN THE ECOPHYSIOLOGY OF HALIMEDA SPP. (CHLOROPHYTA, BRYOPSIDALES) ON CONCH REEF, FLORIDA KEYS, USA,

    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 4 2003
    Kevin Beach
    The photosynthetic performance, pigmentation, and growth of a Halimeda community were studied over a depth gradient on Conch Reef, Florida Keys, USA during summer,fall periods of 5 consecutive years. The physiology and growth of H. tuna (Ellis & Solander) Lamouroux and H. opuntia (L.) Lamouroux on this algal dominated reef were highly variable. Maximum rate of net photosynthesis (Pmax), respiration rate, and quantum efficiency (,) did not differ between populations of either species at 7 versus 21 m, even though the 21-m site received a 66% lower photon flux density (PFD). Physiological parameters, as well as levels of photosynthetic pigments, varied temporally. Pmax, saturation irradiance, compensation irradiance, and growth were greatest in summer months, whereas ,, chl a, chl b, and carotenoid concentrations were elevated each fall. Halimeda tuna growth rates were higher at 7 m compared with 21 m for only two of five growth trials. This may have arisen from variability in light and nutrient availability. Individuals growing at 7 m received a 29% greater PFD in August 2001 than in 1999. In August 1999 and 2001 seawater temperatures were uniform over the 14-m gradient, whereas in August 2000 cold water regularly intruded upon the 21-m but not the 7-m site. These results illustrate the potentially dynamic relationship between nutrients, irradiance, and algal productivity. This suggests the necessity of long-term monitoring over spatial and temporal gradients to accurately characterize factors that impact productivity. [source]


    MACROALGAL TISSUE NUTRIENTS AS INDICATORS OF NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS STATUS IN THE FLORIDA KEYS

    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 2000
    Hanisak M. D.
    This study used the tremendous biochemical and ecological diversity of macroalgae to assess nitrogen and phosphorus availability at a broad, ecosystem-level scale in the Florida Keys and nearby waters. Spatial variation in tissue nutrients (carbon, C; nitrogen, N; phosphorus, P) of dominant macroalgae were assessed, both as ratios and absolute values, along 12 inshore-offshore transects in the Florida Keys and at 10 stations in nearby Florida Bay. The resulting detailed analysis demonstrated spatial and temporal patterns in macroalgal tissue nutrients. The transect data revealed no universal inshore-offshore patterns in tissue nutrients and no obvious "hotspots" of nutrient enrichment. Similarly, when data were compared among segments, there was no universal geographical pattern in tissue nutrients for all species. The most striking result was that the N and P status of macroalgae in Florida Bay was significantly different than other locations. Macroalgae collected from Florida Bay generally had higher N and lower P levels than algae collected elsewhere. The most common inshore-offshore pattern was higher %N and lower %P availability inshore; however, limited inshore-offshore differences in N:P ratio suggests that both nutrients were generally readily available in proportional amounts required by the various species. Most species in this study had higher %N, and to a lesser extent, higher %P and %C in March than in July. Based on the published literature on other species of macroalgae, it appears that N and P are generally available in sufficient quantities that most macroalgal growth is not limited by either nutrient. [source]


    Documenting Loss of Large Trophy Fish from the Florida Keys with Historical Photographs

    CONSERVATION BIOLOGY, Issue 3 2009
    LOREN McCLENACHAN
    arrecifes de coral; ecología histórica; directrices cambiantes; peces de arrecife; sobrepesca Abstract:,A loss of large vertebrates has occurred in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, but data to measure long-term population changes are sparse. Historical photographs provide visual and quantitative evidence of changes in mean individual size and species composition for groups of marine fish that have been targeted by sport fishing. I measured such trends for 13 groups of recreationally caught "trophy" reef fish with photographs taken in Key West, Florida, from 1956 to 2007. The mean fish size declined from an estimated 19.9 kg (SE 1.5) to 2.3 kg (SE 0.3), and there was a major shift in species composition. Landings from 1956 to 1960 were dominated by large groupers (Epinephelus spp.), and other large predatory fish were commonly caught, including sharks with an average length of just <2 m. In contrast, landings in 2007 were composed of small snappers (Lutjanus spp. and Ocyurus chrysurus) with an average length of 34.4 cm (SE 0.62), and the average length of sharks declined by more than 50% over 50 years. Major declines in the size of fish caught were not reflected in the price of fishing trips, so customers paid the same amount for a less-valuable product. Historical photographs provide a window into a more pristine coral reef ecosystem that existed a half a century ago and lend support to current observations that unfished reef communities are able to support large numbers of large-bodied fish. Resumen:,Una pérdida de vertebrados mayores ha ocurrido en ecosistemas acuáticos y terrestres, pero los datos para medir los cambios poblaciones a largo plazo son escasos. Las fotografías históricas proporcionan evidencia visual y cuantitativa de cambios en el tamaño individual promedio y de la composición de especies en grupos de peces marinos que han sido blanco de la pesca deportiva. Medí esas tendencias en 13 grupos de peces de arrecife capturados recreativamente como "trofeos" mediante fotografías tomadas en Key West, Florida, desde 1956 a 2007. El peso promedio de los peces declinó de unos 19.9 kg (ES 1.5) a 2.3 kg (ES 0.3), y hubo un cambio mayor en la composición de especies. Las capturas entre 1956 y 1960 estuvieron dominadas por meros (Epinephelus spp.) grandes, y otros peces depredadores eran capturados comúnmente, incluyendo tiburones con una longitud promedio de poco menos de 2m. En contraste, las capturas en 2007 fueron compuestas de pargos (Lutjanus spp. y Ocyurus chrysurus) pequeños con una longitud promedio de 34.4 cm (ES 0.62), y la longitud promedio de los tiburones declinó más de 50% en 50 años. La gran declinación en el tamaño de los peces capturados no se reflejó en los precios de los viajes de pesca, así que los clientes pagaron la misma cantidad por un producto menos valioso. Las fotografías históricas proporcionan una visión de un ecosistema arrecifal coralino prístino que existió hace medio siglo y proporcionan soporte a los comentarios actuales de que las comunidades arrecifales no explotadas son capaces de soportar numerosos peces de talla grande. [source]


    Tritrophic interactions and trade-offs in herbivore fecundity on hybridising host plants

    ECOLOGICAL ENTOMOLOGY, Issue 3 2004
    Maria V. Cattell
    Abstract., 1. Interspecific plant hybridisation can have important evolutionary consequences for hybridising plants and for the organisms that they interact with on multiple trophic levels. In this study the effects of plant hybridisation on the abundance of herbivores and on the levels of herbivore parasitism were investigated. 2. Borrichia frutescens, B. arborescens, and their hybrid (B. × cubana) were censused for Asphondylia borrichiae galls and Pissonotus quadripustulatus plant hoppers in the Florida Keys. Levels of egg parasitism were determined by dissecting parental and hybrid stems and galls for herbivore and parasite eggs and larvae. Stem toughness and gall size are plant-mediated modes of protection from parasitism and these were also measured. For gall midges, fly size was measured as an estimate of fecundity. 3. Field censuses indicated that herbivore abundances varied on hybrid hosts relative to parent plant species and that the different herbivore species exhibited different patterns of abundance. Asphondylia borrichiae gall numbers followed the additive pattern of abundance while P. quadripustulatus numbers most closely resembled the dominance pattern. 4. Parasitism of P. quadripustulatus eggs was high on B. frutescens and the hybrids, and low on B. arborescens, which also had significantly tougher stems. Asphondylia borrichiae suffered the highest levels of parasitism on B. frutescens, the host plant which produced the smallest galls. On B. arborescens, which produced the largest galls, levels of A. borrichiae parasitism were lowest. Both parasitism and gall size were intermediate on the hybrid plants. Galls on B. arborescens and hybrid plants produced significantly smaller flies then those from B. frutescens suggesting that, when selecting hosts from among parent species and hybrids, gall flies may face a trade-off between escape from natural enemies and maximising fecundity. [source]


    Review of the genus Leucophenga Mik (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in India, with descriptions of five new species from northern India

    ENTOMOLOGICAL SCIENCE, Issue 4 2005
    Rajendra S. FARTYAL
    Abstract A review of all Indian Leucophenga species is given, including descriptions of five new species: L. champawatensis, L. chaubattiaensis, L. kumaonensis, L. nainae and L. neointerrupta. New collection records of some species from India and adjacent countries; namely, Myanmar and China, and distribution range of each species within India are also given. Keys to species groups and species occurring in India are provided. [source]


    Genus Pagastia Oliver (Diptera: Chironomidae) from Japan, with description of a new species

    ENTOMOLOGICAL SCIENCE, Issue 3 2004
    Kazuo ENDO
    Abstract A new species, Pagastia hidakamontana sp. nov., is described from the alpine zone of the Hidaka Mountains in Hokkaido, Japan. Pagastia orthogonia Oliver, so far known only from the Nearctic Region, is newly recorded from Japan and redescribed. Females of P. lanceolata (Tokunaga) and P. nivis (Tokunaga) are redescribed, and the synonymy of P. lanceolata with Syndiamesa (Lasiodiamesa) crassipilosa Tokunaga (= Pseudodiamesa crassipilosa) is proposed. Keys to males and females of Japanese species of the genus are provided. [source]


    Human enteric viruses in groundwater indicate offshore transport of human sewage to coral reefs of the Upper Florida Keys

    ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, Issue 4 2010
    J. Carrie Futch
    Summary To address the issue of human sewage reaching corals along the main reef of the Florida Keys, samples were collected from surface water, groundwater and coral [surface mucopolysaccharide layers (SML)] along a 10 km transect near Key Largo, FL. Samples were collected semi-annually between July 2003 and September 2005 and processed for faecal indicator bacteria (faecal coliform bacteria, enterococci and Clostridium perfringens) and human-specific enteric viruses (enterovirus RNA and adenovirus DNA) by (RT)-nested polymerase chain reaction. Faecal indicator bacteria concentrations were generally higher nearshore and in the coral SML. Enteric viruses were evenly distributed across the transect stations. Adenoviruses were detected in 37 of 75 samples collected (49.3%) whereas enteroviruses were only found in 8 of 75 samples (10.7%). Both viruses were detected twice as frequently in coral compared with surface water or groundwater. Offshore, viruses were most likely to be found in groundwater, especially during the wet summer season. These data suggest that polluted groundwater may be moving to the outer reef environment in the Florida Keys. [source]


    Systematic revision of Compositae in Egypt.

    FEDDES REPERTORIUM, Issue 1-2 2009

    A systematic revision for the species of tribe Anthemideae is provided. Twenty seven species belonging to eleven genera are recognized. Anthemis fayedina Zareh is described as a new one to science. Keys, synonyms as well as notes on distribution and ecology are included. (© 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) Systematische Revision der Compositae Ägyptens. 10. Anthemideae Eine systematische Revision der Arten der Tribus Anthemideae wird vorgelegt. 27 Arten aus elf Gattungen werden betrachtet. Anthemis fayedina Zareh wird als neueArt beschrieben. Beigefügt sind ein Schlüssel, Synonyma sowie Anmerkungen zum Auftreten der Arten und zu ihrer Ökologie. [source]


    Larval transport and retention of the spiny lobster, Panulirus argus, in the coastal zone of the Florida Keys, USA

    FISHERIES OCEANOGRAPHY, Issue 5 2002
    Cynthia Yeung
    Abstract The spiny lobster Panulirus argus is of ecological and commercial importance in the South Florida coast of the continental USA and throughout the Intra-Americas Sea. Essential spiny lobster habitat in South Florida is primarily located in the Florida Keys coastal zone (including the Dry Tortugas), where the dynamic regional circulation coupled with the long planktonic larval duration (6,12 months) of P. argus raises questions of larval retention and recruitment. Locally spawned phyllosomata entrained in the Florida Current are likely to be expatriated out of the Straits of Florida, which implies that the local spiny lobster population is sustained by the transport of larval recruits from upstream locations. We examined the physical processes that may influence recruitment. Transport processes in the Keys coastal zone are spatially variable. Observed and modelled data suggest that the upper Keys is a point of onshore larval transport via the inshore meandering of the Florida Current, and the lower Keys to Dry Tortugas region apoint of retention through wind-driven onshore/countercurrents and eddy recirculation. Eddies that propagate between the Dry Tortugas and the lower Keys facilitate the exchange of larvae between the Florida Current and the coastal zone. Northerly wind events associated with cold fronts can enhance recirculation of larvae in the upper Keys. The association of older larvae with the Florida Current front supports the hypothesis that spiny lobster larval recruits come from upstream sources in the Caribbean. [source]


    Time Warner Cable Kansas City looks beyond the usual suspects for ways to retain and engage customer-facing employees

    GLOBAL BUSINESS AND ORGANIZATIONAL EXCELLENCE, Issue 1 2008
    Wendy Vega
    When too many new hires are leaving after just a few months on the job, despite effective recruitment and on-boarding programs, it is time to look for answers in new places. This company set out to strengthen the relationship between frontline supervisors and their new,mostly Generation Y,customer care specialists, and found it's never too early to start building engagement. Keys to early development of a strong supervisor-employee bond include beginning relationship building during the hiring interview; supervisor participation in new-hire training; learning the individual's personal drivers of engagement; 30-/60-/90-day assessments with coaching and mentoring; and exposing the new hire to positive high-performing peers (while buffering them from negative influencers). © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


    Globalizing Sport: National Rivalry and International Community in the 1930s By Barbara J. Keys

    HISTORY, Issue 310 2008
    PETER J. BECK
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Non,housestaff medicine services in academic centers: Models and challenges

    JOURNAL OF HOSPITAL MEDICINE, Issue 3 2008
    Niraj L. Sehgal MD
    Abstract Non,housestaff medicine services are growing rapidly in academic medical centers (AMCs), partly driven by efforts to comply with resident duty hour restrictions. Hospitalists have emerged as a solution to providing these services given their commitment to delivering efficient and high-quality care and the field's rapid growth. However, limited evidence is available on designing these services, including the similarities and differences of existing ones. We describe non,housestaff medicine services at 5 AMCs in order to share our experiences and outline important considerations in service development. We discuss common challenges in building and sustaining these models along with local institutional factors that affect decision making. Keys to success include ensuring an equitable system for scheduling and staffing, fostering opportunities for scholarly activities and academic promotion (defining the "academic hospitalist"), and providing compensation that supports recruitment and retention of hospitalists. With further work hour restrictions expected in the future and increased requests for surgical comanagement, the relationship between AMCs and hospitalists will continue to evolve. To succeed in developing hospitalist faculty who follow long careers in hospital medicine, academic leadership must carefully plan for and evaluate the methods of providing these clinical services while expanding on our academic mission. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2008;3:247,255. © 2008 Society of Hospital Medicine. [source]


    VARIABILITY IN THE ECOPHYSIOLOGY OF HALIMEDA SPP. (CHLOROPHYTA, BRYOPSIDALES) ON CONCH REEF, FLORIDA KEYS, USA,

    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 4 2003
    Kevin Beach
    The photosynthetic performance, pigmentation, and growth of a Halimeda community were studied over a depth gradient on Conch Reef, Florida Keys, USA during summer,fall periods of 5 consecutive years. The physiology and growth of H. tuna (Ellis & Solander) Lamouroux and H. opuntia (L.) Lamouroux on this algal dominated reef were highly variable. Maximum rate of net photosynthesis (Pmax), respiration rate, and quantum efficiency (,) did not differ between populations of either species at 7 versus 21 m, even though the 21-m site received a 66% lower photon flux density (PFD). Physiological parameters, as well as levels of photosynthetic pigments, varied temporally. Pmax, saturation irradiance, compensation irradiance, and growth were greatest in summer months, whereas ,, chl a, chl b, and carotenoid concentrations were elevated each fall. Halimeda tuna growth rates were higher at 7 m compared with 21 m for only two of five growth trials. This may have arisen from variability in light and nutrient availability. Individuals growing at 7 m received a 29% greater PFD in August 2001 than in 1999. In August 1999 and 2001 seawater temperatures were uniform over the 14-m gradient, whereas in August 2000 cold water regularly intruded upon the 21-m but not the 7-m site. These results illustrate the potentially dynamic relationship between nutrients, irradiance, and algal productivity. This suggests the necessity of long-term monitoring over spatial and temporal gradients to accurately characterize factors that impact productivity. [source]


    MACROALGAL TISSUE NUTRIENTS AS INDICATORS OF NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS STATUS IN THE FLORIDA KEYS

    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 2000
    Hanisak M. D.
    This study used the tremendous biochemical and ecological diversity of macroalgae to assess nitrogen and phosphorus availability at a broad, ecosystem-level scale in the Florida Keys and nearby waters. Spatial variation in tissue nutrients (carbon, C; nitrogen, N; phosphorus, P) of dominant macroalgae were assessed, both as ratios and absolute values, along 12 inshore-offshore transects in the Florida Keys and at 10 stations in nearby Florida Bay. The resulting detailed analysis demonstrated spatial and temporal patterns in macroalgal tissue nutrients. The transect data revealed no universal inshore-offshore patterns in tissue nutrients and no obvious "hotspots" of nutrient enrichment. Similarly, when data were compared among segments, there was no universal geographical pattern in tissue nutrients for all species. The most striking result was that the N and P status of macroalgae in Florida Bay was significantly different than other locations. Macroalgae collected from Florida Bay generally had higher N and lower P levels than algae collected elsewhere. The most common inshore-offshore pattern was higher %N and lower %P availability inshore; however, limited inshore-offshore differences in N:P ratio suggests that both nutrients were generally readily available in proportional amounts required by the various species. Most species in this study had higher %N, and to a lesser extent, higher %P and %C in March than in July. Based on the published literature on other species of macroalgae, it appears that N and P are generally available in sufficient quantities that most macroalgal growth is not limited by either nutrient. [source]


    Systematics and phylogeny of the Asclerosibutia -group of genera (Coleoptera, Oedemeridae), with description of a new genus and seven new species from tropical Africa

    MITTEILUNGEN AUS DEM MUSEUM FUER NATURKUNDE IN BERLIN-DEUTSCHE ENTOMOLOGISCHE ZEITSCHRIFT, Issue 1 2004
    Xavier A. Vázquez
    Abstract The phylogenetic relationships of the Asclerosibutia-group are studied, based on the examination of the type species of all genera previously described. The phylogenetic hypothesis supports that the Asclerosibutia-group is a monophyletic assemblage. On the base of the cladistic analysis, three genera can be recognized, i.e., Idgiomimula Blair, 1926, gen. rediv., Monosigynes gen. n. and Asclerosibutia Pic, 1914, with the following relationships: Idgiomimula (Monosigynes (Asclerosibutia)). Seven new species are described: Idgiomimula uhligi sp. n., Monosigynes difformis sp. n., Monosigynes marci sp. n., Monosigynes zarazagai sp. n., Monosigynes sphyrninus sp. n., Asclerosibutia girardi sp. n. and Asclerosibutia beardae sp. n. Danerces semipicea Karsch. 1881. Microsessinia notatipennis Pic, 1922, Microsessinia rufithorax Pic, 1958, are transferred to the genus Monosigynes. Microsessinia cyanescens Pic, 1922 is transferred to Asclerosibutia and Asclerosibutia terminalis Blair, 1926 is transferred to Idgiomimula. The following new synonyms are established: Microsessinia Pic, 1922 (= Asclerosibutia Pic, 1914), Microsessinia notatipennis var. atrimembris Pic, 1935 (= Monosigynes notatipennis (Pic, 1922)), Asclerosibutia gabonica Pic, 1914. Nacerdes latenigra Pic, 1922, Asclerosibutia lineaticollis var. rufipennis Blair, 1926, Asclerosibutia reducta Pic, 1930, Asclerosibutia divisa Pic. 1952, Asclerosibutia lineaticollis var. ealensis Pic, 1952 (all synonyms of Asclerosibutia lineaticollis Pic, 1914). and Asclerosibutia abdominalis Blair, 1926 (= Asclerosibutia marshalli Blair, 1926). Keys to the genera and species are given. All descriptions are accompanied by male and female genital illustrations. Lectotypes for the following species are designated: Monosigynes rufithorax Pic, 1958, Asclerosibutia violacea Blair, 1926, and Asclerosibutia lineaticollis var. rufipennis Blair. 1926. [source]


    Data Analysis and Citizenship Focus: Analytic Master Keys to Better Governance?

    PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION REVIEW, Issue 3 2008
    Christopher Hood
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    The Reformation of the Keys: Confession, Conscience, and Authority in Sixteenth-Century Germany , Ronald K. Rittgers

    RELIGIOUS STUDIES REVIEW, Issue 2 2006
    Robert Kolb
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Effectiveness of teaching an early parenting approach within a community-based support service for adolescent mothers

    RESEARCH IN NURSING & HEALTH, Issue 1 2008
    Jane E. Drummond
    Abstract A single blind, pre-test, post-test design was used to test the effectiveness of the Keys to Caregiving Program in enhancing adolescent mother,infant interactions. Participants were sequentially allocated to groups in order of referral. The outcome was the enhancement of maternal and infant behaviors that exhibited mutual responsiveness as measured by the Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scale. Issues with recruitment and collaboration with the community agencies made achieving a desirable sample size difficult. Pre-tests and post-tests were completed for 13 participants. While the sample size was insufficient to confidently establish whether or not the Keys to Caregiving produced a between groups treatment effect, mothers within the treatment group evidenced significantly greater contingent responsiveness over time than those within the control group. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Res Nurs Health 31:12,22, 2008 [source]


    Keys to Helping Socially Anxious Teenagers: For School Personnel and Parents

    THE BROWN UNIVERSITY CHILD AND ADOLESCENT BEHAVIOR LETTER, Issue S3 2005
    Article first published online: 18 AUG 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Occurrence of Macrosiphum hellebori Theobald & Walton (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in Australia

    AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF ENTOMOLOGY, Issue 2 2009
    Isabel Valenzuela
    Abstract The European aphid species, Macrosiphum hellebori, the hellebore aphid, is recorded from Australia, having been found in Melbourne, Victoria and in Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, colonising ornamental hellebores, Helleborus species (Ranunculaceae). Insect associates of M. hellebori are recorded, including the hymenopterous primary parasite Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Braconidae: Aphidiinae). Keys are provided for the identification of the three species of Macrosiphum Passerini known from Australia. [source]


    Australian species of Anachloris Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Geometridae: Larentiinae): taxonomy, musculature of the male genitalia and systematic position

    AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF ENTOMOLOGY, Issue 3 2001
    Olga Schmidt
    Abstract The genus Anachloris Meyrick, containing the species A. subochraria (Doubleday) and A. uncinata (Guenée) is reviewed, and a new species A. tofocolorata sp. n. is described and illustrated. Keys to species and distribution maps, as well as information about the biology of A. uncinata, are provided. The skeletomuscular system of the male genitalia and the structure of the female genitalia of Hydriomena impluviata (Denis and Schiffermüller) from Europe are compared with those of A. subochraria and A. uncinata from Australia, suggesting that Anachloris does not belong to the tribe Hydriomenini. Additional study is necessary to establish its tribal position. [source]


    Forest Succession in Tropical Hardwood Hammocks of the Florida Keys: Effects of Direct Mortality from Hurricane Andrew,

    BIOTROPICA, Issue 1 2001
    Michael S. Ross
    ABSTRACT A tree species replacement sequence for dry broadleaved forests (tropical hardwood hammocks) in the upper Florida Keys was inferred from species abundances in stands abandoned from agriculture or other anthropogenic acitivities at different times in the past. Stands were sampled soon after Hurricane Andrew, with live and hurricane-killed trees recorded separately; thus it was also possible to assess the immediate effect of Hurricane Andrew on stand successional status. We used weighted averaging regression to calculate successional age optima and tolerances for all species, based on the species composition of the pre-hurricane stands. Then we used weighted averaging calibration to calculate and compare inferred successional ages for stands based on (1) the species composition of the pre-hurricane stands and (2) the hurricane-killed species assemblages. Species characteristic of the earliest stages of post-agricultural stand development remains a significant component of the forest for many years, but are gradually replaced by taxa not present, even as seedlings, during the first few decades. This compositional sequence of a century or more is characterized by the replacement of deciduous by evergreen species, which is hypothesized to be driven by increasing moisture storage capacity in the young organic soils. Mortality from Hurricane Andrew was concentrated among early-successional species, thus tending to amplify the long-term trend in species composition. [source]


    A USB kit for digital I/O applications in a digital electronics lab designed by using PIC16C765 microcontroller

    COMPUTER APPLICATIONS IN ENGINEERING EDUCATION, Issue 2 2009
    Ali Buldu
    Abstract In this article, a USB Kit is designed by using Microchip's PIC16C765 microcontroller that has a low-speed USB serial interface engine. It is used to communicate with and/or through USB port for digital I/O applications in a Digital Electronics Lab. In this education kit, two groups of keys (switches) and a group of LED are used to realize the experiments about logic gate applications included in Electronics and Computer Education Department's curriculum of Marmara University and also included in other faculties' curriculums related to the engineering science all around the world. In designed board, one of the key groups is 8-bit software-controlled by using simulator interface and the other is 8-bit user-controlled by using real switches existing on the board. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Comput Appl Eng Educ 17: 131,138, 2009; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com); DOI 10.1002/cae20172 [source]


    BetweenIT: An Interactive Tool for Tight Inbetweening

    COMPUTER GRAPHICS FORUM, Issue 2 2010
    Brian Whited
    Abstract The generation of inbetween frames that interpolate a given set of key frames is a major component in the production of a 2D feature animation. Our objective is to considerably reduce the cost of the inbetweening phase by offering an intuitive and effective interactive environment that automates inbetweening when possible while allowing the artist to guide, complement, or override the results. Tight inbetweens, which interpolate similar key frames, are particularly time-consuming and tedious to draw. Therefore, we focus on automating these high-precision and expensive portions of the process. We have designed a set of user-guided semi-automatic techniques that fit well with current practice and minimize the number of required artist-gestures. We present a novel technique for stroke interpolation from only two keys which combines a stroke motion constructed from logarithmic spiral vertex trajectories with a stroke deformation based on curvature averaging and twisting warps. We discuss our system in the context of a feature animation production environment and evaluate our approach with real production data. [source]


    Identification and authentication of integrated circuits

    CONCURRENCY AND COMPUTATION: PRACTICE & EXPERIENCE, Issue 11 2004
    Blaise Gassend
    Abstract This paper describes a technique to reliably and securely identify individual integrated circuits (ICs) based on the precise measurement of circuit delays and a simple challenge,response protocol. This technique could be used to produce key-cards that are more difficult to clone than ones involving digital keys on the IC. We consider potential venues of attack against our system, and present candidate implementations. Experiments on Field Programmable Gate Arrays show that the technique is viable, but that our current implementations could require some strengthening before it can be considered as secure. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Framing French Success in Elementary Mathematics: Policy, Curriculum, and Pedagogy

    CURRICULUM INQUIRY, Issue 3 2004
    FRANCES C. FOWLER
    ABSTRACT For many decades Americans have been concerned about the effective teaching of mathematics, and educational and political leaders have often advocated reforms such as a return to the basics and strict accountability systems as the way to improve mathematical achievement. International studies, however, suggest that such reforms may not be the best path to successful mathematics education. Through this qualitative case study, the authors explore in depth the French approach to teaching elementary mathematics, using interviews, classroom observations, and documents as their data sets. They apply three theoretical frameworks to their data and find that the French use large-group instruction and a visible pedagogy, focusing on the discussion of mathematical concepts rather than on the completion of practice exercises. The national curriculum is relatively nonprescriptive, and teachers are somewhat empowered through site-based management. The authors conclude that the keys to French success with mathematics education are ongoing formative assessment, mathematically competent teachers, policies and practices that help disadvantaged children, and the use of constructivist methods. They urge comparative education researchers to look beyond international test scores to deeper issues of policy and practice. [source]


    Managing design for global value in Japan

    DESIGN MANAGEMENT REVIEW, Issue 4 2001
    Leimei Julia Chiu
    If boldness and creativity are the keys to success in international markets, then several Japanese initiatives,richly illustrated here by Leimei Julia Chiu,hold great promise. These are programs,RE Design: Daily Products of the Twenty-first Century; Creating Experiences; and Design of a New Age, Design in a Global Economy,that challenge managers to reexamine tradition, evaluate new processes, and explore the frontiers of product design [source]


    Diversity and abundance patterns of phytophagous insect communities on alien and native host plants in the Brassicaceae

    ECOGRAPHY, Issue 6 2003
    Mark Frenzel
    The herbivore load (abundance and species richness of herbivores) on alien plants is supposed to be one of the keys to understand the invasiveness of species. We investigate the phytophagous insect communities on cabbage plants (Brassicaceae) in Europe. We compare the communities of endophagous and ectophagous insects as well as of Coleoptera and Lepidoptera on native and alien cabbage plant species. Contrary to many other reports, we found no differences in the herbivore load between native and alien hosts. The majority of insect species attacked alien as well as native hosts. Across insect species, there was no difference in the patterns of host range on native and on alien hosts. Likewise the similarity of insect communities across pairs of host species was not different between natives and aliens. We conclude that the general similarity in the community patterns between native and alien cabbage plant species are due to the chemical characteristics of this plant family. All cabbage plants share glucosinolates. This may facilitate host switches from natives to aliens. Hence the presence of native congeners may influence invasiveness of alien plants. [source]


    Four ways towards tropical herbivore megadiversity

    ECOLOGY LETTERS, Issue 4 2008
    Thomas M. Lewinsohn
    Abstract Most multicellular species alive are tropical arthropods associated with plants. Hence, the host-specificity of these species, and their diversity at different scales, are keys to understanding the assembly structure of global biodiversity. We present a comprehensive scheme in which tropical herbivore megadiversity can be partitioned into the following components: (A) more host plant species per se, (B) more arthropod species per plant species, (C) higher host specificity of herbivores, or (D) higher species turnover (beta diversity) in the tropics than in the temperate zone. We scrutinize recent studies addressing each component and identify methodological differences among them. We find substantial support for the importance of component A, more tropical host species. A meta-analysis of published results reveals intermediate to high correlations between plant and herbivore diversity, accounting for up to 60% of the variation in insect species richness. Support for other factors is mixed, with studies too scarce and approaches too uneven to allow for quantitative summaries. More research on individual components is unlikely to resolve their relative contribution to overall herbivore diversity. Instead, we call for the adoption of more coherent methods that avoid pitfalls for larger-scale comparisons, for studies assessing different components together rather than singly, and for studies that investigate herbivore beta-diversity (component D) in a more comprehensive perspective. [source]


    Design and development of a card-sized virtual keyboard using permanent magnets and hall sensors

    ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATIONS IN JAPAN, Issue 3 2009
    Kazuyuki Demachi
    Abstract This paper proposes a method to distinguish the key-type of human fingers attached to small permanent magnets. The Hall sensors arrayed in the credit card-size area feel the distribution of the magnetic field due to the key-typing movement of the human fingers as if a keyboard exists, and the signal is analyzed using the genetic algorithm or the neural network algorithm to distinguish the typed keys. By this method, the keyboard can be miniaturized to credit card size (54 mm × 85 mm). We called this system "the virtual keyboard system." © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Electron Comm Jpn, 92(3): 32,37, 2009; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/ecj.10043 [source]