Keywords Used (keywords + used)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Why Girls Smoke: A Proposed Community-Based Prevention Program

Mary Ann Faucher CNM
Objectives: To review the literature on reasons teenage girls start smoking and to identify the role and opportunities for nurses to have an impact on this public health problem. In addition, a proposed smoking prevention program targeted to teenage girls is presented. Data Sources: Information was gathered from professional journals and texts and from MEDLINE and PROQUEST. Keywords used in the searches were smoking prevention, tobacco use, smoking and adolescents, teenage girls and smoking, health education and smoking, and smoking prevention programs. Data Synthesis and Conclusions: Smoking initiation in teenage girls is a problem with ramifications for individual health as well as for public health. Although the literature demonstrates the rising incidence of smoking in teenage girls and evidence suggests the reasons girls start smoking differ from those of their male counterparts, a dearth of information on smoking prevention programs exists for this population. It is reasonable to assume that the best practices for adolescent smoking prevention can be applied to programs specifically for girls, along with efforts to address social influences, self-image, and self-esteem, which may be particularly important to teenage girls. The theory of reasoned action provides a framework for prevention strategies that target the behavioral beliefs and attitudes that influence teenage girls to smoke. Nurses can educate themselves about contributing factors that lead teenage girls to start smoking. Implementing this knowledge into nursing practice in a variety of settings could help meet the Healthy People 2010 goals of reducing teenage smoking to 16%. [source]

The Thorn Course: rhetoric and reality

A. COULDWELL bn bsc rmn
The Thorn Course that provides psychosocial interventions and family work training for UK mental health professionals was founded in 1992. Since this time policy, service provision and needs have changed. The aim of this study was to examine the Thorn Course through relevant literature, in order to establish whether research and policy have been integrated into practice within training and services. A search of professional journal databases was conducted. Keywords used were ,Thorn Course' and ,psychosocial intervention training'. The resulting body of literature was reviewed. Five main themes emerged which were examined: needs identified, delivering the Thorn Course, training outcomes, implementing interventions and user and carer involvement. There is a distinct lack of research studies evaluating any aspect of the Thorn Course. There is little evidence that user and carer involvement has moved beyond rhetoric and community mental health nurses continue to lack opportunities and support to implement psychosocial skills acquired in training. [source]

The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT): A Review of Recent Research

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 2 2002
Duane F. Reinert
Background: Efficient, inexpensive screening for early stage alcohol problems is important in health care settings. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) has been studied extensively to establish its value in this regard. Methods: A literature search that used EtOH as a database was conducted to identify studies published on the AUDIT through September 2001. Keywords used for the search were "Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test" and "AUDIT." All studies reporting psychometric properties of the measure were reviewed with particular attention being given to the period 1996 and later. A small number of additional references were located by noting their citation in other studies reviewed. Results: Although more research is needed on non-English versions to establish their psychometric properties, at least in its English edition, the AUDIT demonstrates sensitivities and specificities comparable, and typically superior, to those of other self-report screening measures. Test-retest reliability and internal consistency are also quite favorable. For males, the AUDIT-C, a shortened version of the AUDIT, appears approximately equal in validity to the full scale. Conclusions: Recent research continues to support use of the AUDIT as a means of screening for alcohol use disorders in health care settings in the United States. [source]

Annotation: The similarities and differences between autistic disorder and Asperger's disorder: a review of the empirical evidence

Kathleen E. Macintosh
Background:, The ongoing controversy over the distinction between autistic disorder and Asperger's disorder is important to resolve because of the implications regarding an understanding of the aetiology and prognosis, and the diagnostic and clinical practices relating to these conditions. This paper provides a critical evaluation of current published research evidence. Method:, Databases, such as PsychINFO and Medline, as well as book chapters, reference lists from relevant articles, and recent editions of key journals were searched for all relevant studies (until 2002) which incorporated participants diagnosed with high-functioning autism and Asperger's disorder using either cluster analysis or comparative approaches to examine similarities and differences between these groups. Keywords used in the searches included autistic disorder, Asperger's disorder, autism, high-functioning autism, and pervasive developmental disorder. Results:, On the basis of the available evidence, there seem to be few qualitative differences between autistic disorder and Asperger's disorder. Conclusion:, There is currently insufficient evidence to establish the validity of Asperger's disorder as a syndrome distinct from high-functioning autism. The findings are consistent with the view that these disorders belong on an autism spectrum. [source]

ORIGINAL RESEARCH: Phosphodiesterase Type 5 Regulation in the Penile Corpora Cavernosa

Ching-Shwun Lin PhD
ABSTRACT Introduction., Penile detumescence depends on the hydrolysis of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) by phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5). It is hoped that a review of publications relevant to the regulation of PDE5 in the penis will be helpful to both scientists and clinicians who are interested in the sciences of erectile function/dysfunction. Aims., The aim of this article is to comprehensively review the mechanisms by which PDE5 activity and expression in the penis are regulated. All published studies relevant to PDE5 regulation in the penis or penile cells will be reviewed. Methods., Entrez (PubMed) was used to search for publications relevant to the topics of this review. Keywords used in the searches included vascular, cavernous, penis, smooth muscle, signaling molecules, erection, priapism, and PDE5. Articles that are dedicated to the study of erectile function/dysfunction were prioritized for citation. Results., Regulation of PDE5 can occur at both protein and gene levels. At protein level, PDE5 is activated by phosphorylation and/or allosteric cGMP binding. Deactivation is carried out by protein phosphatase 1 and thus linked to the Rho-kinase signaling pathway. Cleavage of PDE5 into an inactive form has been shown as carried out by caspase-3. At the gene level, PDE5 expression is regulated at two alternative promoters, PDE5A and PDE5A2, both of which are positively regulated by cyclic adenosine monophosphate and cGMP. Downregulation of PDE5 has been observed in the penis of castrated animals; however, proof of androgen regulation of PDE5 gene requires examination of the smooth muscle content. Hyperoxia and hypoxia, respectively, regulate PDE5 expression positively and negatively. Hypoxic downregulation of PDE5 is a possible mechanism for the development of priapism. Conclusions., PDE5 can be regulated at protein and gene levels. In the penis, changes of PDE5 activity have been linked to its phosphorylation status, and downregulation of PDE5 expression has been associated with hypoxia. Lin CS. PDE5 regulation in the penile corpora nervosa. J Sex Med 2009;6(suppl 3):203,209. [source]

Crystalloid or colloid for partial exchange transfusion in neonatal polycythemia: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Abstract Aims: To determine whether crystalloid solutions are as effective as colloid solutions when a partial exchange transfusion is performed in newborns with polycythemia. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register of the Cochrane Library (1966,2004). Keywords used were: polycythemia, partial exchange transfusion, hyperviscosity, and limited to newborn. Randomized studies in newborns with polycythemia were selected for evaluation. Outcomes examined were: long-term neurodevelopment; short-term physiological effects; improvement in clinical symptoms; reduction in haematocrit at 4,6 h; haematocrit at 24 h; and frequency of serious complications. Results: Four randomized controlled clinical trials, including 200 patients in total, with evaluable data, which satisfied our criteria, were found. There were no data on long-term outcomes. There is no reported important difference in short-term physiologic effects. Use of crystalloid was as effective as colloid in both correction of haematological values and reduction of clinical symptoms following partial exchange transfusion. Conclusion: Crystalloid solutions are as effective as colloid solutions for partial exchange transfusion. When crystalloid solutions are used for this purpose, there is no risk of transmission of blood-borne diseases, there is no risk of anaphylaxis, they are rapidly and easily available, and are less expensive. The use of crystalloid should become the standard for partial exchange transfusion. [source]