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    State-led Democratic Politics and Emerging Forms of Indigenous Leadership Among the Ye'kwana of the Upper Orinoco

    JOURNAL OF LATIN AMERICAN & CARIBBEAN ANTHROPOLOGY, Issue 1 2006
    Matthew LauerArticle first published online: 28 JUN 200
    En este artículo analizo la política Ye'kwana del Alto Orinoco para revelar como sus nociones de liderazgo, autoridad, y comunidad han sido transformadas con la intrusión política nacional de Venezuela. Comparo las respuestas de indigenistas, misioneros, políticos regionales, e indígenas Ye'kwana sobre la ascensión al poder político de Jaime Turón, un líder polémico Ye'kwana y alcalde del municipio Alto Orinoco. Sostengo que la política de descentralización y democratización conducida por muchos estados de América Latina son procesos que simultáneamente excluyen e incorporan a líderes indígenas y plantean desafíos complicados para aquellos que buscan legitimidad entre los pueblos indígenas y organizaciones indigenistas. Ésta situación es especialmente pertinente al caso de Venezuela, un país petrolero donde líderes indígenas entran a la esfera política nacional como políticos elegidos con presupuestos municipales relativamente grandes bajo su control y no como lideres asociados a federaciones interétnicas. Este estudio revela los aspectos emergentes del liderazgo indígena contemporáneo y los criterios híbridos necesarios para la legitimidad política entre indígenas Amazónicas. Además, agrega a una comprensión más plural y multi-vocal de la política indígena en América Latina. PALABRAS CLAVES: indígenas Amazónicas, política de etnicidad, liderazgo, cambio política,Venezuela. KEYWORDS: Amazonian Indians, cultural politics, leadership, political change,Venezuela. [source]


    "I Was There:" Competing Indigenous Imaginaries of the Past and the Future in Oaxaca's Sierra Mazateca

    JOURNAL OF LATIN AMERICAN & CARIBBEAN ANTHROPOLOGY, Issue 1 2006
    Ben FeinbergArticle first published online: 28 JUN 200
    En este artículo, examino las diferentes formas por las cuales dos individuos Mazatecos representan la cultura, la autenticidad, y una conceptualización Mazateca de la historia durante sus interacciones con gente no Mazateca.Ambos adaptan estilos metaculturales diferentes para crear naraciones de autenticidad. Para el primero, la autenticidad es una cualidad compartida por individuos que sirven de mediadores entre grupos culturales diferentes y que se extiende a sus representaciones culturales; para el segundo, la autenticidad nace en la cultura reificada que sobrevive del pasado. Estos discursos diferentes se manifiestan en discusiones sobre los ańos sesenta en la Sierra mazateca,una época cuando miles de estrangeros asociados con la contracultura de esta década visitaron la región para experimentar con los hongos alucinogénicos. PALABRAS CLAVES: Oaxaca, Mazateca, identidad indígena, chamanismo, metacultura, turismo. KEYWORDS: Oaxaca, Mazateca, indigenous identity, shamanism, metaculture, tourism. [source]


    Raymond Williams's Keywords: investigating meanings ,offered, felt for, tested, confirmed, asserted, qualified, changed'

    CRITICAL QUARTERLY, Issue 4 2006
    ALAN DURANT
    First page of article [source]


    Sensitivity to sulphonylureas in patients with hepatocyte nuclear factor-1, gene mutations: evidence for pharmacogenetics in diabetes

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 7 2000
    E. R. Pearson
    SUMMARY Introduction Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is characterized by autosomal dominantly inherited, early-onset, non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Mutations in the hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-1, gene are the commonest cause of MODY. Individual patients with HNF-1, mutations have been reported as being unusually sensitive to the hypoglycaemic effects of sulphonylurea therapy. We report three patients, attending a single clinic, with HNF-1, mutations that show marked hypersensitivity to sulphonylureas. Case reports In cases 1 and 2 there were marked changes in HbA1c on cessation (4.4% and 5.8%, respectively) and reintroduction (5.0% and 2.6%) of sulphonylureas. Case 3 had severe hypoglycaemic symptoms on the introduction of sulphonylureas despite poor glycaemic control and was shown with a test dose of 2.5 mg glibenclamide to have symptomatic hypoglycaemia (blood glucose 2 mmol/l) after 4 h despite eating. Conclusions HNF-1, MODY diabetic subjects are more sensitive to sulphonylureas than Type 2 diabetic subjects and this is seen in different families, with different mutations and may continue up to 13 years from diagnosis. This is an example of pharmacogenetics, with the underlying aetiological genetic defect altering the pharmacological response to treatment. The present cases suggest that in HNF-1, MODY patients: (i) sulphonylureas can dramatically improve glycaemic control and should be considered as initial treatment for patients with poor glycaemic control on an appropriate diet; (ii) hypoglycaemia may complicate the introduction of sulphonylureas and therefore very low doses of short acting sulphonylureas should be used initially; and (iii) cessation of sulphonylureas should be undertaken cautiously as there may be marked deterioration in glycaemic control. Keywords, genetics, HNF-1,, MODY, pharmacogenetics, sulphonylurea sensitivity [source]


    Survival probability of zirconia-based fixed dental prostheses up to 5 yr: a systematic review of the literature

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ORAL SCIENCES, Issue 5 2010
    Jaana-Sophia Schley
    Schley J-S, Heussen N, Reich S, Fischer J, Haselhuhn K, Wolfart S. Survival probability of zirconia-based fixed dental prostheses up to 5 yr: a systematic review of the literature. Eur J Oral Sci 2010; 118: 443,450. © 2010 Eur J Oral Sci The purpose of this systematic review was to calculate the 5-yr survival rates of all-ceramic zirconia-based fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) and to analyze technical and biological complications. An electronic literature search of MEDLINE (PubMed) was conducted independently by three reviewers to identify clinical studies from 1999 to 2009 and was completed by a manual search. Keywords and inclusion and exclusion criteria were well-defined. The search revealed 399 titles and led to the final analysis of 18 full-text articles. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria. Extracted data were statistically calculated into 5-yr survival rates and 5-yr complication-free rates by using Poisson regression analysis. In total, 310, 3- to 4-unit FDPs and 20 FDPs with more than 4 units were included. The estimated 5-yr survival rate for all FDPs was 94.29% (95% CI: 58.98,99.32); 19 FDPs were lost as a result of catastrophic failures. The 5-yr complication-free rate regarding technical complications was 76.41% (95% CI: 42.42,91.60) with chipping being the most frequent complication. Regarding biological complications, the 5-yr complication-free rate was 91.72% (95% CI: 59.19,98.53). The survival rates of zirconia-based short-unit FDPs are promising. However, an important improvement of the veneering systems is required, and for FDPs with more units in function, further randomized, controlled clinical trials are necessary. [source]


    The Prevalence of Lying in America: Three Studies of Self-Reported Lies

    HUMAN COMMUNICATION RESEARCH, Issue 1 2010
    Kim B. Serota
    This study addresses the frequency and the distribution of reported lying in the adult population. A national survey asked 1,000 U.S. adults to report the number of lies told in a 24-hour period. Sixty percent of subjects report telling no lies at all, and almost half of all lies are told by only 5% of subjects; thus, prevalence varies widely and most reported lies are told by a few prolific liars. The pattern is replicated in a reanalysis of previously published research and with a student sample. Substantial individual differences in lying behavior have implications for the generality of truth,lie base rates in deception detection experiments. Explanations concerning the nature of lying and methods for detecting lies need to account for this variation. L'importance du mensonge aux États-Unis : trois études de mensonges auto-déclarés Kim B. Serota, Timothy R. Levine, Franklin J. Boster Cette étude aborde la fréquence et la distribution des mensonges déclarés par la population adulte. Un sondage national a demandéŕ 1 000 adultes américains de déclarer le nombre de mensonges racontés dans une période de 24 heures. 60 % des sujets ont rapporté ne pas avoir dit de mensonge du tout et prčs de la moitié de ces mensonges sont racontés par 5 % des sujets. L'importance des mensonges varie donc largement et la plupart des mensonges déclarés sont formulés par un petit nombre de menteurs prolifiques. Cette tendance se retrouve également dans une nouvelle analyse de recherches déjŕ publiées et dans l'échantillon étudiant. Des différences individuelles importantes dans les comportements mensongers ont également des conséquences pour la généralité d'un taux de référence vérité,mensonge dans les expériences de détection de la tromperie. Les explications concernant la nature du mensonge et les méthodes de détection de mensonges doivent prendre en compte cette variation. Mots clés : tromperie, mensonge, différences individuelles The Prevalence of Lying in America: Three Studies of Self-Reported Lies Research Question: This study addresses the frequency and the distribution of reported lying in the adult population. Significance: In the deception literature, consensus is that most people lie on a daily basis. Yet this view is founded on very little empirical evidence. This research tests the question of lying prevalence. Method: Survey research techniques and descriptive analysis are used to establish base rates and frequency distributions for reported lying behavior. Data source: A national survey asked 1,000 U.S. adults to report the number of lies told in a 24 hour period. Cross-validation is provided by re-analysis of previously reported diary and experimental data and by replication using a sample of 225 students. Findings: The oft-repeated average (arithmetic mean) of one to two lies per day is replicated but the study finds the distribution is highly skewed. On a typical day, 60% of subjects report telling no lies at all, and almost half or all lies are told by only 5% of subjects; thus, prevalence varies widely and most reported lies are told by a few prolific liars. The pattern is replicated in the re-analysis of previously published research and with the student sample. Implications: The findings of a highly skewed distribution render the average number of lies per day misleading. Substantial individual differences in lying behavior also have implications for the generality of truth-lie base-rates in deception detection experiments. Explanations concerning the nature of lying and methods for detecting lies need to account for this variation. Keywords: deception, lies, lying, communication, individual differences Die Prävalenz von Lügen in Amerika. Drei Studien zu selbstberichteten Lügen Forschungsfrage: Diese Studie untersucht die Häufigkeit und Verteilung von Lügen in der erwachsenen Bevölkerung. Zentralität: In der Literatur zu Täuschung besteht Konsens darüber, dass Menschen täglich Lügen. Allerdings basiert diese Feststellung auf wenigen empirischen Daten. Diese Untersuchung testet die Frage nach der Prävalenz von Lügen. Methode: Umfrage und beschreibende Analyse wurden angewandt, um eine Basisrate und Häufigkeitsdistribution für selbstberichtetes Lügenverhalten zu gewinnen. Datenquelle: In einer nationalen Umfrage wurden 1.000 US-amerikanische Erwachsene zur Zahl der Lügen befragt, die sie in 24 Stunden erzählten. Validiert wurden diese Aussagen durch eine erneute Analyse von bereits dokumentierten Tagebuchdaten und Experimentaldaten und durch die Replikation mit einer Stichprobe von 225 Studierenden. Ergebnisse: Der oft wiederholte Durchschnitt (arithmetische Mittel) von ein bis zwei Lügen pro Tag wurde in der Studie repliziert, allerdings zeigte sich auch, dass diese Verteilung schief ist. 60% der Befragten gaben an, an einem typischen Tag keine Lügen zu erzählen, fast die Hälfte aller Lügen wird von nur 5% der Befragten erzählt; die Prävalenz variiert stark und die meisten der berichteten Lügen werden durch wenige produktive Lügner erzählt. Dieses Muster wurde bei einer erneuten Analyse von vorher publizierten Daten und in der Studentenstichprobe repliziert. Implikationen: Die Ergebnisse dieser stark schiefen Verteilung zeigen, dass die durchschnittliche Zahl von Lügen pro Tag irreführend ist. Substantielle individuelle Unterschiede im Lügenverhalten haben Implikationen für die Verallgemeinerbarkeit von Wahrheit-Lüge-Basisraten in Täuschungserfassungs-Experimenten. Erklärungen zur Natur von Lügen und Methoden zur Erfassung von Lügen müssen diese Variation bedenken. Schlüsselworte: Täuschung, Lüge, Lügen, Kommunikation, individuelle Unterschiede La Prevalencia de la Mentira en América: Tres Estudios de Auto-reportes de Mentiras Kim B. Serota, Timothy R. Levine, Franklin J. Boster Michigan State University The authors thank Deborah Kashy Resumen Este estudio trata sobre la frecuencia y la distribución de los reportes de las mentiras de la población adulta. Una encuesta nacional preguntó a 1,000 adultos Estadounidenses que reporten el número de mentiras contadas en un período de 24-horas. 60% de los sujetos reportaron que no dicen mentiras para nada, y casi la mitad son contadas por solo un 5% de los sujetos; así, la prevalencia varía enormemente y muchos reportaron que las mentiras son contadas por pocos mentirosos prolíficos. La pauta es replicada en el re-análisis de investigación previamente publicada y con una muestra de estudiantes. Las diferencias individuales sustanciales en el comportamiento mentiroso tienen implicaciones también para la generalidad del índice basado en la verdad-mentira en los experimentos de detección de decepción. Las explicaciones concernientes a la naturaleza de la mentira y los métodos de detección de mentiras necesitan responder a esta variación. Palabras Claves: decepción, mentiras, mentir, comunicación, diferencias individuales [source]


    The contribution of neurogenic inflammation to sensitive skin: concepts, mechanisms and cosmeceutical intervention

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COSMETIC SCIENCE, Issue 6 2009
    A. Ferrer-Montiel
    IFSCC Magazine, 11 (2008) (4) 311,315 This paper was presented as a keynote lecture at the IFSCC Congress 2008, Barcelona, Spain. Cutaneous neurogenic inflammation is emerging as an underlying mechanism for several skin conditions. The intimate cross-talk between the cutaneous immune system and the peripheral nervous system is fundamental for skin biology. However, an imbalance or dysfunction results in the onset of an inflammatory state that is reinforced by the synergic and complementary action of both systems. Cumulative evidence indicates that the thermoreceptor TRPV1 is a key player of neurogenic inflammation. This receptor is activated by both physical and chemical stimuli, and its activity is potentiated by pro-inflammatory mediators. An increase in TRPV1 activity results in an increment of neuronal excitability that leads to the release of proalgesic agents that stimulate the immune system. Therefore, the TRPV1 receptor is being considered as a cosmeceutical target, and agents that reduce its activity will be useful cosmeceuticals. Keywords:, Algogens, epidermis, immune system, nociceptor, sensitization [source]


    Association between pacifier use and breast-feeding, sudden infant death syndrome, infection and dental malocclusion

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EVIDENCE BASED HEALTHCARE, Issue 6 2005
    Ann Callaghan RN RM BNurs(Hons)
    Executive summary Objective, To critically review all literature related to pacifier use for full-term healthy infants and young children. The specific review questions addressed are: What is the evidence of adverse and/or positive outcomes of pacifier use in infancy and childhood in relation to each of the following subtopics: ,breast-feeding; ,sudden infant death syndrome; ,infection; ,dental malocclusion. Inclusion criteria, Specific criteria were used to determine which studies would be included in the review: (i) the types of participants; (ii) the types of research design; and (iii) the types of outcome measures. To be included a study has to meet all criteria. Types of participants,The participants included in the review were healthy term infants and healthy children up to the age of 16 years. Studies that focused on preterm infants, and infants and young children with serious illness or congenital malformations were excluded. However, some total population studies did include these children. Types of research design, It became evident early in the review process that very few randomised controlled trials had been conducted. A decision was made to include observational epidemiological designs, specifically prospective cohort studies and, in the case of sudden infant death syndrome research, case,control studies. Purely descriptive and cross-sectional studies were excluded, as were qualitative studies and all other forms of evidence. A number of criteria have been proposed to establish causation in the scientific and medical literature. These key criteria were applied in the review process and are described as follows: (i) consistency and unbiasedness of findings; (ii) strength of association; (iii) temporal sequence; (iv) dose,response relationship; (v) specificity; (vi) coherence with biological background and previous knowledge; (vii) biological plausibility; and (viii) experimental evidence. Studies that did not meet the requirement of appropriate temporal sequencing of events and studies that did not present an estimate of the strength of association were not included in the final review. Types of outcome measures,Our specific interest was pacifier use related to: ,breast-feeding; ,sudden infant death syndrome; ,infection; ,dental malocclusion. Studies that examined pacifier use related to procedural pain relief were excluded. Studies that examined the relationship between pacifier use and gastro-oesophageal reflux were also excluded as this information has been recently presented as a systematic review. Search strategy, The review comprised published and unpublished research literature. The search was restricted to reports published in English, Spanish and German. The time period covered research published from January 1960 to October 2003. A protocol developed by New Zealand Health Technology Assessment was used to guide the search process. The search comprised bibliographic databases, citation searching, other evidence-based and guidelines sites, government documents, books and reports, professional websites, national associations, hand search, contacting national/international experts and general internet searching. Assessment of quality, All studies identified during the database search were assessed for relevance to the review based on the information provided in the title, abstract and descriptor/MeSH terms, and a full report was retrieved for all studies that met the inclusion criteria. Studies identified from reference list searches were assessed for relevance based on the study title. Keywords included: dummy, dummies, pacifier(s), soother(s), comforter(s), non-nutritive sucking, infant, child, infant care. Initially, studies were reviewed for inclusion by pairs of principal investigators. Authorship of articles was not concealed from the reviewers. Next, the methodological quality of included articles was assessed independently by groups of three or more principal investigators and clinicians using a checklist. All 20 studies that were accepted met minimum set criteria, but few passed without some methodological concern. Data extraction, To meet the requirements of the Joanna Briggs Institute, reasons for acceptance and non-acceptance at each phase were clearly documented. An assessment protocol and report form was developed for each of the three phases of review. The first form was created to record investigators' evaluations of studies included in the initial review. Those studies that failed to meet strict inclusion criteria were excluded at this point. A second form was designed to facilitate an in-depth critique of epidemiological study methodology. The checklist was pilot tested and adjustments were made before reviewers were trained in its use. When reviewers could not agree on an assessment, it was passed to additional reviewers and discussed until a consensus was reached. At this stage, studies other than cohort, case,control and randomised controlled trials were excluded. Issues of clarification were also addressed at this point. The final phase was that of integration. This phase, undertaken by the principal investigators, was assisted by the production of data extraction tables. Through a process of trial and error, a framework was formulated that adequately summarised the key elements of the studies. This information was tabulated under the following headings: authors/setting, design, exposure/outcome, confounders controlled, analysis and main findings. Results, With regard to the breast-feeding outcome, 10 studies met the inclusion criteria, comprising two randomised controlled trials and eight cohort studies. The research was conducted between 1995 and 2003 in a wide variety of settings involving research participants from diverse socioeconomic and cultural backgrounds. Information regarding exposure and outcome status, and potential confounding factors was obtained from: antenatal and postnatal records; interviews before discharge from obstetric/midwifery care; post-discharge interviews; and post-discharge postal and telephone surveys. Both the level of contact and the frequency of contact with the informant, the child's mother, differed widely. Pacifier use was defined and measured inconsistently, possibly because few studies were initiated expressly to investigate its relationship with breast-feeding. Completeness of follow-up was addressed, but missing data were not uniformly identified and explained. When comparisons were made between participants and non-participants there was some evidence of differential loss and a bias towards families in higher socioeconomic groups. Multivariate analysis was undertaken in the majority of studies, with some including a large number of sociodemographic, obstetric and infant covariates and others including just maternal age and education. As might be expected given the inconsistency of definition and measurement, the relationship between pacifier use and breast-feeding was expressed in many different ways and a meta-analysis was not appropriate. In summary, only one study did not report a negative association between pacifier use and breast-feeding duration or exclusivity. Results indicate an increase in risk for a reduced overall duration of breast-feeding from 20% to almost threefold. The data suggest that very infrequent use may not have any overall negative impact on breast-feeding outcomes. Six sudden infant death syndrome case,control studies met the criteria for inclusion. The research was conducted with information gathered between 1984 and 1999 in Norway, UK, New Zealand, the Netherlands and USA. Exposure information was obtained from a variety of sources including: hospital and antenatal records, death scene investigation, and interview and questionnaire. Information for cases was sought within 2 days after death, within 2,4 weeks after death and in one study between 3 and 11 years after death. Information for controls was sought from as early as 4 days of a nominated sudden infant death syndrome case, to between 1 and 7 weeks from the case date, and again in one study some 3,11 years later. In the majority of the studies case ascertainment was determined by post-mortem. Pacifier use was again defined and measured somewhat inconsistently. All studies controlled for confounding factors by matching and/or using multivariate analysis. Generally, antenatal and postnatal factors, as well as infant care practices, and maternal, family and socioeconomic issues were considered. All five studies reporting multivariate results found significantly fewer sudden infant death syndrome cases used a pacifier compared with controls. That is, pacifier use was associated with a reduced incidence of sudden infant death syndrome. These results indicate that the risk of sudden infant death syndrome for infants who did not use a pacifier in the last or reference sleep was at least twice, and possibly five times, that of infants who did use a pacifier. Three studies reported a moderately sized positive association between pacifier use and a variety of infections. Conversely, one study found no positive association between pacifier use at 15 months of age and a range of infections experienced between the ages of 6 and 18 months. Given the limited number of studies available and the variability of results, no meaningful conclusions could be drawn. Five cohort studies and one case,control study focused on the relationship between pacifier use and dental malocclusion. Not one of these studies reported a measure of association, such as an estimate of relative risk. It was therefore not possible to include these studies in the final review. Implications for practice, It is intended that this review be used as the basis of a ,best practice guideline', to make health professionals aware of the research evidence concerning these health and developmental consequences of pacifier use, because parents need clear information on which they can base child care decisions. With regard to the association between pacifier use and infection and dental malocclusion it was found that, due to the paucity of epidemiological studies, no meaningful conclusion can be drawn. There is clearly a need for more epidemiological research with regard to these two outcomes. The evidence for a relationship between pacifier use and sudden infant death syndrome is consistent, while the exact mechanism of the effect is not well understood. As to breast-feeding, research evidence shows that pacifier use in infancy is associated with a shorter duration and non-exclusivity. It is plausible that pacifier use causes babies to breast-feed less, but a causal relationship has not been irrefutably proven. Because breast-feeding confers an important advantage on all children and the incidence of sudden infant death syndrome is very low, it is recommended that health professionals generally advise parents against pacifier use, while taking into account individual circumstances. [source]


    Prebiotics and Iron Bioavailability,Is There a Connection?

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 5 2005
    Chi Kong Yeung
    ABSTRACT: Poor bioavailability of dietary iron, especially from diets rich in cereals and legumes, is a major factor contributing to the high prevalence of nutritional iron deficiency in developing countries. Dietary modification to increase intake of components that promote iron absorption from low-bioavailability meals is an effective strategy for combating nutritional iron deficiency. Prebiotics are nondigestible oligosaccharides that selectively stimulate the growth and activity of specific species of bacteria in the colon with benefits to human health. Common prebiotics such as inulin and fructooligosaccharides occur naturally in a wide variety of plant-based foods and have recently been suggested to have an enhancing effect on iron absorption. The hypothesis that prebiotics enhance iron absorption is biologically plausible because fermentation of prebiotics by natural microflora present in the colon may decrease the pH of the luminal content, promote reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II), stimulate proliferation of epithelial cells to expand the absorptive surface area, and potentially stimulate expression of mineral-transport proteins in epithelial cells. However, data available in the literature characterizing the enhancing properties of prebiotics on iron absorption are inconsistent, and mechanisms of actions involved are poorly understood. The notion that the colon can function as a significant site of iron absorption in response to stimulation by prebiotics, and the effect of long-term exposure to prebiotics on the iron status of iron-deficient subjects remain to be clarified. This review discusses the functional properties of prebiotics as a promising dietary factor that enhances iron absorption. Keywords: prebiotics, iron, colon, oligosaccharides, inulin [source]


    Crystallization Kinetics and X-ray Diffraction of Crystals Formed in Amorphous Lactose, Trehalose, and Lactose/Trehalose Mixtures

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 5 2005
    Song Miao
    ABSTRACT: Effects of storage time and relative humidity on crystallization kinetics and crystal forms produced from freeze-dried amorphous lactose, trehalose, and a lactose/trehalose mixture were compared. Samples were exposed to 4 different relative water vapor pressure (RVP) (44.1%, 54.5%, 65.6%, 76.1%) environments at room temperature. Crystallization was observed from time-dependent loss of sorbed water and increasing intensities of peaks in X-ray diffraction patterns. The rate of crystallization increased with increasing storage humidity. Lactose crystallized as ,-lactose monohydrate, ,-anhydrous, and anhydrous forms of ,- and ,-lactose in molar ratios of 5:3 and 4:1 in lactose and lactose/trehalose systems. Trehalose seemed to crystallize as a mixture of trehalose dihydrate and anhydrate in trehalose and lactose/trehalose systems. The crystal forms in a mixture of lactose and trehalose did not seem to be affected by the component sugars, but crystallization of the component sugars was delayed. Time-dependent crystallization of lactose and trehalose in the lactose-trehalose mixture could be modeled using the Avrami equation. The results indicated that crystallization data are important in modeling of crystallization phenomena and predicting stability of lactose and trehalose-containing food and pharmaceutical materials. Keywords: crystallization, lactose, trehalose, crystal form, X-ray diffraction [source]


    Reduction of Acrylamide Formation in Potato Chips by Low-temperature Vacuum Frying

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 8 2004
    C. Granda
    ABSTRACT: Potatoes and other foods that have a high content of the amino acid asparagine and a high accumulation of reducing sugars are subject to the formation of acrylamide upon frying. The objectives of this research were (1) to analyze the level of acrylamide formed during deep-fat frying of potato chips and (2) to evaluate means of reducing acrylamide in potato chips by using different potato cultivars and vacuum frying. Several potato cultivars were used in this research, including Innovator (I), NDTX 4930,5W (N), ATX 854 04,8W (ATw), Atlantic (A), Shepody (S), ATX847806,2Ru (ATr), and White-Rose (W). An electric bench-top (atmospheric conditions)-type fryer was used to fry the potatoes. Three temperatures were used: 150 °C, 165 °C, and 180 °C. The vacuum frying experiments were performed at 118 °C, 125 °C, and 140 °C and a vacuum pressure of 10 Torr. The potatoes were sliced (1.5-mm thick) and fried for different lengths of times. For potatoes fried at 165 °C (for 4 min) at atmospheric conditions, the acrylamide contents were 5021 ± 55 ppb (W), 552 ± 25 ppb (I), 358 ± 50 ppb (N), 397 ± 25 ppb (ATw), 646 ± 55 ppb (A), 466 ± 15 ppb(S), and 537 ± 14 ppb (ATr). Vacuum frying reduced acrylamide formation by 94%. Results showed that both cultivar and modified frying systems can play an important role in reducing acrylamide formation in fried potatoes. As the frying temperature decreased from 180 °C to 165 °C, acrylamide content in potato chips reduced by 51% during traditional frying and by 63% as the temperature decreased from 140 °C to 125 °C in vacuum frying. Increased frying time increased acrylamide formation during traditional frying for all temperatures and frying methods analyzed. However, the effect on acrylamide concentration was greater for the traditional frying than the vacuum frying. Keywords: acrylamide, vacuum, frying, potato, temperature [source]


    Recovery of Aroma Compounds from Dilute Model Blueberry Solution by Pervaporation

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 9 2003
    M. PENG
    ABSTRACT Pervaporation (PV) is a membrane-separation process showing unique capability of separating target compound(s) from dilute systems. Experiments were performed on a bench-scale flat sheet PV unit with a model solution to evaluate separation factor of 6 constituent aroma compounds (1-hexanol, 1-heptanol, trans-2-hexenal, ethyl acetate, linalool, and d-limonene), representing some of typical flavoring ingredients from blueberry juice. The results showed that separation factor was in the range of 70 to 430, depending on molecule size and polarity property of the compounds. Except for 1-heptanol, all compounds showed no significant coupling effect in the mixture system. The effect of temperature was also examined for a given feed-flow rate. Keywords: pervaporation, membrane, aroma compounds, blueberry, multicomponent diffusion [source]


    Physicochemical Properties of Starches Obtained from Three Varieties of Chinese Sweet Potatoes

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 2 2003
    Z. Chen
    ABSTRACT: Starches isolated from 3 typical types of Chinese sweet potato varieties (XuShu18, SuShu2, and SuShu8) were characterized and compared with starches isolated from potato and mung bean. The 3 sweet potato starches differed in granule size; particle size distribution; protein, lipid, and phosphorus contents; pasting behaviors; swelling patterns; and syneresis. The retrogradation tendencies, measured both by setback ratio and by syneresis, differed for the 3 starches, although the amylose contents were quite similar (19.3 to 20.0%). Physicochemical properties of all 3 types of starches are evidently different from each other and from those of potato and mung bean starches. Keywords: sweet potato, starch, gelatinization, retrogradation, swelling, syneresis [source]


    TMAOase Activity of European Hake (Merluccius merluccius) Organs: Influence of Biological Condition and Season

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 9 2002
    M. Rey-Mansilla
    ABSTRACT: Trimethylamine N-oxide demethylase (TMAOase) activity of several internal organs of hake were studied for 2 consecutive y. The correlation between enzymatic activity and season of year, sex, weight, and length were analyzed. While kidney and spleen showed the highest activities, liver, heart, bile, and gall bladder activities were much lower, and in some cases they were below the detection limit. A correlation between TMAOase activity of kidney and season was found. During winter and spring (February to May), the months matching the spawning peak, high activities were detected, while in summer months the activity level was lower. TMAOase activity in the rest of the organs did not seem to have a seasonal influence. Keywords: TMAOase, season, biological condition, hake, soluble protein [source]


    Prevention of Transient Discoloration of Beef

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 3 2001
    G. Tewari
    ABSTRACT Oxygen absorbent technology in conjunction with controlled atmosphere packaging(CAP) was used to prevent transient discoloration in master-packaged beef steaks. Two types of commercial O2 scavengers were used in the study. The master packs were stored at 1± 0.5 °C. The steaks from master packs were presented in a display-case for visual evaluation. Reflectance spectra from each steak-surface were obtained to estimate metmyoglobin content. Steaks packaged without O2 scavengers showed more discoloration, and had significantly higher proportions of metmyoglobin when compared to steaks with O2 scavengers, after most storage intervals (p < 0.05). Prevention of metmyoglobin formation was influenced by the number but not the type of O2 scavenger employed (p > 0.05). Keywords: oxygen scavengers, centralized meat operations, transient discoloration [source]


    Postpartum Depression Beyond the Early Postpartum Period

    JOURNAL OF OBSTETRIC, GYNECOLOGIC & NEONATAL NURSING, Issue 4 2004
    IBCLC, Janice H. Goodman MSN
    Objective: To review the literature concerning maternal postpartum depression beyond the early postpartum period. Data Sources: A literature search was conducted using Cinahl, Medline, and PsychInfo electronic databases. Keywords included postpartum depression, postpartum depressive symptoms, course, prevalence, incidence, and remission. Study Selection: Studies selected included incidence of maternal depression or depressive symptoms, existing in the early postpartum period, and measured again at postpartum points from 6 months through 2 1/2 years after delivery. Only studies published in English were included. Twenty-three articles were located, and a recent relevant study conducted by the current author also was included. Data Extraction: Studies were reviewed and data organized according to year, sample characteristics, time of depression assessment, instrument used, cutoff score, rate of depression, and factors associated with depression at later postpartum time points. Data Synthesis: For a significant percentage of women, postpartum depressive symptoms continue for months or even years after giving birth. Factors associated with postpartum depression at later time points are identified. Conclusions: Continued evaluation of women with elevated depression levels at initial screening, and treatment for women whose depression does not remit spontaneously within the first few weeks or months postpartum is recommended. Further research is needed to understand the phenomenon of persistent postpartum depression. [source]


    A literature review of dementia care mapping: methodological considerations and efficacy

    JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRIC & MENTAL HEALTH NURSING, Issue 6 2002
    D. BEAVIS BSc(Hons) RGN RMN
    Dementia care mapping (DCM) is a popular method for evaluating the quality of care and well-being of people with dementia in formal care settings. Keywords and thesaurus searches were conducted between 1992 and June 2001 using a range of bibliographic databases. Studies that had specifically examined the efficacy of DCM or, had used DCM as the main outcome measure, were included in the review. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria and were evaluated in this review. The review highlights some methodological limitations in the DCM studies to date, including sampling bias, inadequate sample size, short evaluation periods and a lack of consideration of the confounding variables commonly associated with dementia. The evidence presented for DCM suggests that it has good face validity and reliability. However, other aspects of validity remain less convincing and it can only be regarded as a moderately valid instrument. Whilst its theoretical background makes DCM particularly appealing to nurses wishing to improve the quality of their care, it is a very time-consuming method and requires considerable investment in terms of nursing resources. Consequently, it is essential that more scientifically based studies are conducted to enable other aspects of validity to be developed, thus enhancing the value of DCM as an outcome measure of nursing care. [source]


    XAFS analysis of corroded metal surfaces with molten salts by conversion-electron-yield method

    JOURNAL OF SYNCHROTRON RADIATION, Issue 2 2001
    Etsuya Yanase
    We have measured XAFS spectra of metal surfaces corroded with melting salt (NaCl, KCl, and Na2SO4). Steel samples used were S45C, SCM435, SUS310S, and SUS304. We measured the Fe K-edge XAFS spectra for all samples and the Ni K-edge for SUS310S and SUS304 samples before and after the corrosion. The XANES spectra of samples before the corrosion show metallic structure because surface oxide thickness is thinner than probing depth with a conversion yield XAFS method. Each result of these XAFS spectra gives good agreements with the FEFF calculation in the assumption of bcc and/or fcc structure. The Fe K-edge spectra of steel samples except SUS310S after corroded treatment show existence bonding between Fe and another light element although the spectra of SUS310S samples before and after corroded treatment are much the same. Keywords: metal, molten salts, corrosion. [source]


    Keywords , Materialwissenschaft und Werkstofftechnik 2004

    MATERIALWISSENSCHAFT UND WERKSTOFFTECHNIK, Issue 12 2004
    Article first published online: 10 DEC 200
    [source]


    Bodyscapes, Biology, and Heteronormativity

    AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST, Issue 4 2009
    Pamela L. Geller
    ABSTRACT The term bodyscape encourages thinking about representation of bodies at multiple scales,from different bodies as they move through space to the microlandscape of individual bodily differences. A hegemonic bodyscape's representations tend to idealize and essentialize bodies' differences to reinforce normative ideas about a society's socioeconomic organization. But, a dominant bodyscape is never absolute. Bodyscapes that depart from or subvert hegemonic representations may simultaneously exist. In Western society, the biomedical bodyscape predominates in scientific understandings of bodily difference. Its representation of sex differences conveys heteronormative notions about gender and sexuality. Because the biomedical bodyscape frames studies of ancient bodies, investigators need recognize how their considerations of labor divisions, familial organization, and reproduction may situate modern (hetero)sexist representations deep within antiquity. To innovate analyses of socioeconomic relations, queer theory allows scholars to interrogate human nature. Doing so produces alternative bodyscapes that represent the diversity of past peoples' social and sexual lives. [Keywords: bodyscape, heteronormativity, queer theory, bioarchaeology, paleoanthropology] [source]


    Americanist Archaeologies: 2008 in Review

    AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST, Issue 2 2009
    B. Sunday Eiselt
    ABSTRACT A review of published literature, conference proceedings, and Internet sources pertaining to "Americanist archaeology" in 2008 reveals three major themes: conflict, catastrophe, and collaboration. Scholars debated the role of archaeology in planning for and executing military operations in the Middle East while maintaining a vigorous interest in structural and physical violence worldwide. Environmental archaeologists considered the effects of catastrophic events, including new theories over the demise of Clovis cultures. In addition, several major reports and regulations highlighted the complexities of indigenous relations and gender equity in the profession. Enhanced technologies, funding for global initiatives in human rights, economic and environmental sustainablility, and creative forms of engagement are reshaping "Americanist archaeology" as a democratic, anthropological, and relevant pursuit. [Keywords: archaeology, annual review, conflict, catastrophe, collaboration] [source]


    The State of Biological Anthropology in 2008: Is Our Discipline Strong and Our Cause Just?

    AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST, Issue 2 2009
    Nicholas Malone
    ABSTRACT Biological anthropologists inform a largely professional discourse on the evolutionary history of our species. In addition, aspects of our biology, the ways in which we vary, and certain patterns of behavior are the subjects of a more public and popular conversation. The social contexts in which we work not only define our times but also produce the anthropologists that in turn construct an emergent understanding of our species' (and our societies') inner workings. In this review of scholarly production, I focus on developments within a selection of "sub-subdisciplines" that were particularly influential in bending the arc of biological anthropology in 2008, namely: evolutionary medical anthropology, anthropological neuroscience, forensic anthropology, primatology, and paleoanthropology. Ultimately, this review demonstrates, yet again, anthropology's great contribution: the ability to incorporate new technologies and research methodologies into a synthetic and integrative interdisciplinary approach toward the elucidation of human behavior, evolution, and biocultural engagements with the environment. [Keywords: biological anthropology, year in review, 2008, science and society] [source]


    Linguistic Anthropology in 2008: An Election-Cycle Guide

    AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST, Issue 2 2009
    Paja Faudree
    ABSTRACT Loosely following the structure of the U.S. election cycle, I identify some of the more important institutions and events that have recently served as venues for field-building scholarly practices and processes in linguistic anthropology. I examine various trends and concerns animating recent publications on language and social life. I discuss the ongoing impact on the field of recent major works that attempt to codify methodological and theoretical approaches to the intersection of language and society. I also consider some of linguistic anthropology's emergent ventures, including new collaborative projects and new proposals for interdisciplinary work. Finally, I discuss some of the political implications of academic specialization, disciplinary boundaries, and impending "generational shift," both in the subdiscipline and the academy generally. I close by raising questions about future directions and possibilities for research in linguistic anthropology and other interdisciplinary enterprises. [Keywords: linguistic anthropology, interdisciplinarity, linguistic ideology, semiotic practices, linguistic variation] [source]


    Anthropology in the Public Sphere, 2008: Emerging Trends and Significant Impacts

    AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST, Issue 2 2009
    Melissa Checker
    ABSTRACT The themes, trends, and significant events of 2008 demonstrate that anthropology has established a new foothold in the public sphere,one that makes the most of novel forms of communication to reach far beyond the ivory tower to disseminate knowledge widely and freely. This review focuses on six topical areas of robust anthropological research in 2008 that also addressed some of the year's most pressing problems and issues, including the following: (1) war and peace; (2) climate change; (3) natural, industrial, and development-induced disaster recovery; (4) human rights; (5) health disparities; and (6) racial understanding, politics, and equity in the United States. It concludes by addressing some emerging issues in 2009 that especially require anthropological attention and insight, if we are to move beyond "business as usual."[Keywords: practicing anthropology, public anthropology, 2009 trends, anthropological impacts] [source]


    On Neoliberalism and Other Social Diseases: The 2008 Sociocultural Anthropology Year in Review

    AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST, Issue 2 2009
    Justin B. Richland
    ABSTRACT In this article, I consider a selection of the 129 articles of new research published in five of the leading Anglo-American peer-reviewed outlets for sociocultural anthropology in 2008, discerning two general, but related, trends. The first suggests an ongoing interest among sociocultural anthropologists in new forms and contexts of market capitalism and a deepening concern for the multiple, complex, and even contradictory orientations to those forms by social actors caught up in them. The second reveals a concern with the imbrications of political and scientific epistemologies, particularly as they emerge in state policies and actions around issues of public health, the environment, and agriculture. Where they come together is in the number of studies whose objects of inquiry reside at the nexus where science, politics, and markets meet in what they see as the creeping expansion of neoliberal logics and their implications for the state as a political formation. [Keywords: sociocultural anthropology, neoliberalism, science studies, public health, capitalism] [source]


    Disciplining Investment Bankers, Disciplining the Economy: Wall Street's Institutional Culture of Crisis and the Downsizing of "Corporate America"

    AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST, Issue 2 2009
    Karen Ho
    ABSTRACT Countering the "mystique" of finance as abstract and disembedding, in this article I approach the financial market from the site of investment banking corporate culture to concretize large-scale processes and access its effects in the world. By investigating Wall Street investment banks' role in two pivotal socioeconomic phenomena,rampant downsizings throughout "corporate America" and the financial bubble and bust of 2001,I explore whether financial crises and corporate downsizing can be better understood via Wall Street's quotidian practices. I draw theoretical inspiration from the figure of the downsized investment banker, who embodies and connects Wall Street's rationales for downsizing as well as "the effects." Although shareholder value and externalized market justifications are Wall Street's models for understanding downsizing, I move beyond these dominant assumptions, demonstrating that bankers' own work experiences, market temporalities, and organizational culture serve as an incisive model to explain Wall Street's role in downsizing and financial crisis. [Keywords: Wall Street, corporate downsizing, financial markets, shareholder value, organizational culture] [source]


    Fungibility: Florida Seminole Casino Dividends and the Fiscal Politics of Indigeneity

    AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST, Issue 2 2009
    Jessica R. Cattelino
    ABSTRACT In this article, I examine Florida Seminoles' governmental distributions of tribal-gaming revenues that take the form of per capita dividends. Dividends reveal the political and cultural stakes of money's fungibility,its ability to substitute for itself. From tribal policy debates over children's dividends to the legitimization of political leadership through monetary redistribution, Seminoles selectively exploit the fungibility of money to break or make ties with one another and with non-Seminoles. They do so in ways that reinforce indigenous political authority and autonomy, and they thereby challenge structural expectations in U.S. public culture and policy that would oppose indigenous distinctiveness to the embrace of money. [Keywords: money, tribal gaming, American Indians, Florida Seminoles] [source]


    Understanding the Rise of Consumer Ethnography: Branding Technomethodologies in the New Economy

    AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST, Issue 2 2009
    Timothy de Waal Malefyt
    ABSTRACT In this article, I aim to contribute to the ongoing discussion on the changing public role of anthropology by exploring the rise of branded ethnographic practices in consumer research. I argue that a juncture in the "New Economy",the conjoining of corporate interest in branding, technology, and consumers, with vast social changes,may explain the rapid growth of ethnography for consumer research and predict its future direction. An analysis of branded propaganda from ethnographic vendors that claim their technology-enhanced methods innovate "classic" anthropological practices discloses the way corporations employ technologically mediated means to focus on the reflexive self in consumer research. In this analysis, I reveal that technological methodologies are central to the production of branded ethnographic practices, as forms of branding and technology legitimate consumer,corporate flows of interaction. The conclusion raises awareness to the ways in which modern branding practices reconstruct anthropology in public discourse. [Keywords: branding, consumer research, ethnography, reflexivity, technology] [source]


    New Immigrant Youth Interpreting in White Public Space

    AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST, Issue 2 2009
    Jennifer F. Reynolds
    ABSTRACT Bilingual children are frequently called on to use their linguistic and communicative virtuosity to interpret for monolingual speakers. In this article, we theorize child interpreters' positionalities within the interstices of several borderlands: as children; as interpreters and translators interpreting different languages, registers, and discourses; and as immigrants seeking services within white public space. We analyze how youths are positioned to provide service and surveillance within overdetermined interpreter-mediated practices. In examining these practices, we raise to consciousness some of the social and ideological conditions that circumscribe working-class Latino/a and new Mexican immigrant children within inherently unequal subject positions. [Keywords: interpreter-mediated interactions, childhood, Mexican new immigrants, racialization, white public space] [source]


    Resolving the Anti-Antievolutionism Dilemma: A Brief for Relational Evolutionary Thinking in Anthropology

    AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST, Issue 2 2009
    Emily Schultz
    ABSTRACT Anthropologists often disagree about whether, or in what ways, anthropology is "evolutionary." Anthropologists defending accounts of primate or human biological development and evolution that conflict with mainstream "neo-Darwinian" thinking have sometimes been called "creationists" or have been accused of being "antiscience." As a result, many cultural anthropologists struggle with an "anti-antievolutionism" dilemma: they are more comfortable opposing the critics of evolutionary biology, broadly conceived, than they are defending mainstream evolutionary views with which they disagree. Evolutionary theory, however, comes in many forms. Relational evolutionary approaches such as Developmental Systems Theory, niche construction, and autopoiesis,natural drift augment mainstream evolutionary thinking in ways that should prove attractive to many anthropologists who wish to affirm evolution but are dissatisfied with current "neo-Darwinian" hegemony. Relational evolutionary thinking moves evolutionary discussion away from reductionism and sterile nature,nurture debates and promises to enable fresh approaches to a range of problems across the subfields of anthropology. [Keywords: evolutionary anthropology, Developmental Systems Theory, niche construction, autopoeisis, natural drift] [source]