Key Studies (key + studies)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Diabetic retinopathy screening: a systematic review of the economic evidence

S. Jones
Diabet. Med. 27, 249,256 (2010) Abstract This paper systematically reviews the published literature on the economic evidence of diabetic retinopathy screening. Twenty-nine electronic databases were searched for studies published between 1998 and 2008. Internet searches were carried out and reference lists of key studies were hand searched for relevant articles. The key search terms used were ,diabetic retinopathy', ,screening', ,economic' and ,cost'. The search identified 416 papers of which 21 fulfilled the inclusion criteria, comprising nine cost-effectiveness studies, one cost analysis, one cost-minimization analysis, four cost,utility analyses and six reviews. Eleven of the included studies used economic modelling techniques and/or computer simulation to assess screening strategies. To date, the economic evaluation literature on diabetic retinopathy screening has focused on four key questions: the overall cost-effectiveness of ophthalmic care; the cost-effectiveness of systematic vs. opportunistic screening; how screening should be organized and delivered; and how often people should be screened. Systematic screening for diabetic retinopathy is cost-effective in terms of sight years preserved compared with no screening. Digital photography with telemedicine links has the potential to deliver cost-effective, accessible screening to rural, remote and hard-to-reach populations. Variation in compliance rates, age of onset of diabetes, glycaemic control and screening sensitivities influence the cost-effectiveness of screening programmes and are important sources of uncertainty in relation to the issue of optimal screening intervals. There is controversy in relation to the economic evidence on optimal screening intervals. Further research is needed to address the issue of optimal screening interval, the opportunities for targeted screening to reflect relative risk and the effect of different screening intervals on attendance or compliance by patients. [source]

Social control and coercion in addiction treatment: towards evidence-based policy and practice

ADDICTION, Issue 1 2006
T. Cameron Wild
ABSTRACT Background Social pressures are often an integral part of the process of seeking addiction treatment. However, scientists have not developed conclusive evidence on the processes, benefits and limitations of using legal, formal and informal social control tactics to inform policy makers, service providers and the public. This paper characterizes barriers to a robust interdisciplinary analysis of social control and coercion in addiction treatment and provides directions for future research. Approach Conceptual analysis and review of key studies and trends in the area are used to describe eight implicit assumptions underlying policy, practice and scholarship on this topic. Findings Many policies, programmes and researchers are guided by a simplistic behaviourist and health-service perspective on social controls that (a) overemphasizes the use of criminal justice systems to compel individuals into treatment and (b) fails to take into account provider, patient and public views. Conclusions Policies and programmes that expand addiction treatment options deserve support. However, drawing a firm distinction between social controls (objective use of social pressure) and coercion (client perceptions and decision-making processes) supports a parallel position that rejects treatment policies, programmes, and associated practices that create client perceptions of coercion. [source]

Adequate language description in L2 research/teaching: the case of pro-drop language speakers learning L2 English

Dilin Liu
Taking the example of ESL learners' difficulties in resetting the pro-drop parameter, this paper explores the need for L2 research and teaching to be based on sound linguistic data and description. First of all, it reviews key studies on the acquisition of non-null arguments in English, focusing on the varying difficulties that speakers of different pro-drop languages face in the acquisition process. Secondly, it examines some major English grammar reference books and student textbooks, illustrating the inadequacy of the existing depiction of the English argument parameter. Finally, it suggests how a more accurate description can result in a better understanding of ESL learners' difficulties and lead to an informed pedagogy, tailored to the unique needs of learners of different L1 backgrounds. [source]

Do researchers use pharmacists' communication as an outcome measure?

A scoping review of pharmacist involvement in diabetes care
Abstract Objectives, Pharmacy practice increasingly revolves around obtaining and interpreting information. We investigated whether and how pharmacy practice researchers design their studies in ways that acknowledge verbal communication between pharmacists and patients with diabetes. Methods, We conducted a scoping review of pharmacists' interventions with patients previously diagnosed as having diabetes with the aim of assessing how many used communication (quality and quantity) as an outcome measure. A scoping review identifies gaps in the literature and draws conclusions regarding the overall state of a research programme, but does not necessarily identify gaps in the quality of the studies reviewed. Quality assessment, therefore, was not conducted. MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts were searched from 2003 to 2008 to identify relevant studies published in English. Reference lists of key studies were also scanned to identify additional studies. Randomized controlled trials and related studies of pharmacists verbal communication with diabetic patients were included. Key findings, Some 413 abstracts were identified through database and reference searching. Of these, 65 studies met abstract inclusion criteria and 16 studies met full-text inclusion criteria necessary for this review. The majority of included studies report on patients' health outcomes, beliefs about drugs, self-reported health-related quality-of-life scales or some combination of these measures as indicators of pharmacists' interventions. Nine studies included information on the duration of the initial interaction between pharmacists and patients with diabetes; 13 reported on the number of follow-up contacts with pharmacists, and seven studies indicated that pharmacists participating in interventions had received training in diabetes management or in patient-centred care. No studies included or evaluated transcripts of pharmacist,patient interactions. Summary, Results reveal a gap in the existing literature. In studies of diabetes, pharmacy practice researchers do not appear to consider the influence of pharmacists' communication skills on health outcomes. Future studies should be designed to incorporate a communication research component. [source]

Distribution modelling and statistical phylogeography: an integrative framework for generating and testing alternative biogeographical hypotheses

Corinne L. Richards
Abstract Statistical phylogeographic studies contribute to our understanding of the factors that influence population divergence and speciation, and that ultimately generate biogeographical patterns. The use of coalescent modelling for analyses of genetic data provides a framework for statistically testing alternative hypotheses about the timing and pattern of divergence. However, the extent to which such approaches contribute to our understanding of biogeography depends on how well the alternative hypotheses chosen capture relevant aspects of species histories. New modelling techniques, which explicitly incorporate spatio-geographic data external to the gene trees themselves, provide a means for generating realistic phylogeographic hypotheses, even for taxa without a detailed fossil record. Here we illustrate how two such techniques , species distribution modelling and its historical extension, palaeodistribution modelling , in conjunction with coalescent simulations can be used to generate and test alternative hypotheses. In doing so, we highlight a few key studies that have creatively integrated both historical geographic and genetic data and argue for the wider incorporation of such explicit integrations in biogeographical studies. [source]

MYST family histone acetyltransferases take center stage in stem cells and development

BIOESSAYS, Issue 10 2009
Anne K. Voss
Abstract Acetylation of histones is an essential element regulating chromatin structure and transcription. MYST (Moz, Ybf2/Sas3, Sas2, Tip60) proteins form the largest family of histone acetyltransferases and are present in all eukaryotes. Surprisingly, until recently this protein family was poorly studied. However, in the last few years there has been a substantial increase in interest in the MYST proteins and a number of key studies have shown that these chromatin modifiers are required for a diverse range of cellular processes, both in health and disease. Translocations affecting MYST histone acetyltransferases can lead to leukemia and solid tumors. Some members of the MYST family are required for the development and self-renewal of stem cell populations; other members are essential for the prevention of inappropriate heterochromatin spreading and for the maintenance of adequate levels of gene expression. In this review we discuss the function of MYST proteins in vivo. [source]

Developmental anatomy of lampreys

Michael K. Richardson
Lampreys are a group of aquatic chordates whose relationships to hagfishes and jawed vertebrates are still debated. Lamprey embryology is of interest to evolutionary biologists because it may shed light on vertebrate origins. For this and other reasons, lamprey embryology has been extensively researched by biologists from a range of disciplines. However, many of the key studies of lamprey comparative embryology are relatively inaccessible to the modern scientist. Therefore, in view of the current resurgence of interest in lamprey evolution and development, we present here a review of lamprey developmental anatomy. We identify several features of early organogenesis, including the origin of the nephric duct, that need to be re-examined with modern techniques. The homologies of several structures are also unclear, including the intriguing subendothelial pads in the heart. We hope that this review will form the basis for future studies into the phylogenetic embryology of this interesting group of animals. [source]

The historical Latin and etymology of selected anatomical terms of the larynx

Daniel D. Lydiatt
Abstract The etymological evolution of the anatomical terms larynx, cricoid, glottis, epiglottis, and thyroid (cartilage) dates to antiquity. Human dissection replaced animal in the 16th and 17th centuries and terms evolved. This evolution was recorded in the literature largely in Latin. We translated key studies of laryngeal anatomy from the 16th century to better understand this evolution. We present the Latin with our translations, and historical commentary as essential to this understanding. Vesalius favored the Latin scutiform (shield) for the thyroid cartilage, but recognized peltalis (shield). The Basle Nomina Anatomica (BNA) chose the Greek thyroid (,,,,o,,, ) for modern convention. Vesalius used the name "innominate" for the cricoid cartilage, but described its resemblance to a ring, drawn in the margin of the Fabrica. Krikoid, the Greek for ring shaped, was adopted by the BNA. Although the term arytenoid was used for centuries, Vesalius argued the Greek name referred to the spout of a cup or ladle. He recognized the human arytenoids as two separate cartilages as opposed to single in certain animals. The glottis was defined by Vesalius as the vocal fold or rima glottidis of today, and he advanced its function by understanding the paired, mobile arytenoid cartilages. He defined the function of the epiglottis and first described the pre-epiglottic space. Vesalius' student at Padua, Italy, Columbo contributed to anatomical knowledge, but animosity between them clouded the record. Harvey, working 75 years later in England, offers an evolutionary window from Vesalius. Harvey's laryngeal studies preceded by a decade his groundbreaking studies on the circulation of blood. Clin. Anat. 23:131,144, 2010. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]