Key Strategies (key + strategy)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Mentoring: A Key Strategy to Prepare the Next Generation of Physicians to Care for an Aging America

Heidi K. White MD
Mentoring is an important instructional strategy that should be maximally used to develop the next generation of physicians who will care for a growing population of frail older adults. Mentoring can fulfill three specific purposes: (1) help learners choose an area of specialty, (2) help fellows and new faculty navigate advancement in the academic environment, and (3) help new physicians enter a local medical community and develop a high-quality, professionally rewarding, financially viable practice that meets the needs of older adults. The components and process of mentoring are reviewed. Current and potential mechanisms to promote mentoring for the specific purpose of increasing the quality and quantity of physicians available to care for the older adult population are discussed. [source]

Concise Total Synthesis of the Thiazolyl Peptide Antibiotic GE2270,A

Oscar Delgado Dr.
Abstract The potent antibiotic thiazolylpeptide GE2270,A was synthesized starting from N - tert -butyloxycarbonyl protected valine in a longest linear sequence of 20 steps and with an overall yield of 4.8,%. Key strategy was the assembly of the 2,3,6-trisubstituted pyridine core by consecutive cross-coupling reactions starting from 2,6-dibromo-3-iodopyridine. The complete Southern fragment was installed by Negishi cross-coupling of 3-zincated 2,6-dibromopyridine at the terminal 2-iodothiazole of a trithiazole (87,%). The substituent at C-6 representing the Northern part of the molecule was introduced in form of the truncated tert -butyl 2-bromothiazole-4-carboxylate after metalation to a zinc reagent by another Negishi cross-coupling (48,%). Decisive step of the whole sequence was the macrocyclization to a 29-membered macrolactam, which was conducted as an intramolecular Stille cross-coupling occurring at C-2 of the pyridine core and providing the desired product in 75,% yield. The required stannane was obtained by amide bond formation (87,%) between a complex dithiazole fragment representing the Eastern part of GE2270,A and a 3,6-disubstituted 2-bromopyridine. Final steps included attachment of a serine-proline amide dipeptide to the Northern part of the molecule (65,%), formation of the oxazoline ring and silyl ether deprotection (55,% overall). [source]

Electrochemical Detection for Capillary Electrophoresis Microchips: A Review

Joseph Wang
Abstract Electrochemistry detection offers considerable promise for capillary-electrophoresis (CE) microchips, with features that include remarkable sensitivity, portability, independence of optical path length or sample turbidity, low cost and power requirements, and high compatibility with modern micromachining technologies. This article highlights key strategies in controlled-potential electrochemical detectors for CE microchip systems, along with recent advances and directions. Subjects covered include the design of the electrochemical detection system, its requirements and operational principles, common electrode materials, isolation from the separation voltage, derivatization reactions, typical applications, and future prospects. It is expected that electrochemical detection will become a powerful tool for CE microchip systems and will lead to the creation of truly portable (and possibly disposable) devices. [source]

Financial Management Strategy in a Community Welfare Organisation: A Boardroom Perspective

Lee D. Parker
This paper presents the results of a four year participant observation study of boardroom deliberations and resulting financial management strategies in a large not,for,profit religious based community welfare organisation. Employing a complete membership research approach and informed by grounded theory analysis, the study develops a micro,theoretical framework portraying boardroom financial management and accountability strategising. The study finds that the strategic focus on mission financing was conditioned by the contested formulation of strategic objectives, core organisational service philosophies, and executive,board member interaction. A significant observed outcome of the strategic mission financing focus was the management of accountability and disclosure, to which two key strategies were contributory. These were the exercising of financial control and the exercising of relationships management. The findings offer hitherto unavailable insights into strategic financial management and accountability processes and their context at the boardroom level in the religious not,for,profit community welfare sector. [source]

The effect of development interventions on the use of indigenous range management strategies in the Borana Lowlands in Ethiopia

S. Homann
Abstract In the last three decades, the Borana rangelands of Southern Ethiopia have been deteriorating due to unsustainable utilization. This paper analyses the changes in indigenous range management among the Borana pastoralists and the role of development interventions. The fieldwork was carried out during 2000,2002, following a severe drought. Two locations, Dida Hara and Web, that once were part of a large grazing system with seasonally distinct herd movements, experienced differences in development interventions. Indigenous range management strategies and pastoralists' current use of key strategies before and after the last drought were compared based on pastoralists' information about land-use change collected through participatory appraisals, land-use mapping, and household surveys. Priorities for future interventions were discussed in multi-stakeholder workshops. Water development in rainy season grazing areas such as Dida Hara has resulted in year-round grazing and expansion of permanent encampments. This has affected the traditional dry-season areas like Web because it interrupted the organization of rangeland management. Herd mobility became less applicable and traditional land-use classifications have lost their function in range management. The introduction of government-imposed administration disturbed the indigenous institutional networks and negotiation procedures for controlled herd movements. Aggravated by human population growth, this reinforces a higher and more permanent grazing pressure, leading to the deterioration of rangelands. Despite the disturbance of pastoralists' range management practices considerable technical and management capabilities prevail. Innovative development approaches should integrate indigeneous knowledge-based (IK) strategies and formal legislation, but this requires strong external support and official recognition from the Ethiopian Government. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Carbon sequestration under Miscanthus: a study of 13C distribution in soil aggregates

GCB BIOENERGY, Issue 5 2009
Abstract The growing of bioenergy crops has been widely suggested as a key strategy in mitigating anthropogenic CO2 emissions. However, the full mitigation potential of these crops cannot be assessed without taking into account their effect on soil carbon (C) dynamics. Therefore, we analyzed the C dynamics through four soil depths under a 14-year-old Miscanthus plantation, established on former arable land. An adjacent arable field was used as a reference site. Combining soil organic matter (SOM) fractionation with 13C natural abundance analyses, we were able to trace the fate of Miscanthus -derived C in various physically protected soil fractions. Integrated through the whole soil profile, the total amount of soil organic carbon (SOC) was higher under Miscanthus than under arable crop, this difference was largely due to the input of new C. The C stock of the macroaggregates (M) under Miscanthus was significantly higher than those in the arable land. Additionally, the C content of the micro-within macroaggregates (mM) were higher in the Miscanthus soil as compared with the arable soil. Analysis of the intramicroaggregates particulate organic matter (POM) suggested that the increase C storage in mM under Miscanthus was caused by a decrease in disturbance of M. Thus, the difference in C content between the two land use systems is largely caused by soil C storage in physically protected SOM fractions. We conclude that when Miscanthus is planted on former arable land, the resulting increase in soil C storage contributes considerably to its CO2 mitigation potential. [source]

Harnessing a University to address rural health workforce shortages in Australia

David Lyle
Abstract Objective:,To describe the efforts of health faculties at the University of Sydney to contribute to the recruitment and retention of rural health professionals and examine for opportunities that would benefit from an institutional-led response. Design:,Cross-sectional survey. Setting:,The University of Sydney as a leading institution for health science education in New South Wales, which produces approximately 40% of all health science graduates in the state each year. Participants:,Staff responsible for course coordination within the faculties of Dentistry, Medicine, Nursing and Midwifery, and Pharmacy; and eight disciplines of the Faculty of Health Sciences. Results:,Of the two educational strategies associated with future rural employment, more progress has been made with rural placements, which were offered by all but one of the health courses. Efforts aimed at the other key strategy of attracting and supporting rural origin students were not well developed. Dentistry, Medicine, Pharmacy and only one Faculty of Health Sciences programs had more than 0.2 full-time equivalent staff to support rural initiatives. Conclusion:,Despite the significant government investment in rural health education, the University of Sydney experience demonstrates that this does not necessarily translate into adequate internal resources available for every course or program to optimise performance for rural health workforce outcomes. In an environment of competing priorities, benefits are likely to accrue from strategies that draw on the existing resource base and operate through greater collaborative action, coordinated at the institutional level. [source]

Time use, parenting practice and conduct problems in four- to five-year-old Australian children

Mong-Lin Yu
Background:, Conduct problems (CoP) represent one of the most common mental health issues manifesting in childhood, with the potential to influence the developmental trajectory of children negatively. Early identification of children at risk of developing CoP is a key strategy to their effective management. Evidence suggests that parenting practices are important contributors to CoP; however, these practices can also interact with the activities in which children engage and these have not yet been addressed in combination. Method:, A cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of 4936 four- to five-year-old children from Wave 1 of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children was undertaken to examine the relationship between CoP, parenting practices and time use. Results:, All children were at a lower risk of CoP if they were exposed to less hostile and consistent parenting practices and if they did not have sleep problems as reported by their parents. However, boys were more vulnerable if they had fathers who had not undertaken tertiary education, and spent more time in risk-oriented physical activities. Conclusion:, Parenting practices are affirmed as a significant independent predictor of risk for developing CoP. The nature of activities in which children engaged, particularly boys, also has the potential to influence the manifestation of CoP. Occupational therapy services for children with CoP are best provided in the context of family-centred practice and should incorporate an examination of daily time use. [source]