Key Stakeholders (key + stakeholder)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

The Roles of Some Key Stakeholders in the Future of Accounting Education in Australia

Phil Hancock
This article explores the role of institutional and systemic leadership in changing higher education in accounting in Australia. In particular, it discusses the roles of the Australian Learning and Teaching Council, the Australian Business Deans' Council Teaching and Learning Network, and the professional accounting bodies in meeting the challenges confronting accounting education in the tertiary sector today and in the coming years. The intersection of these leadership roles is exemplified in an accounting discipline research project that explores the critical non-technical skills stakeholders require in graduate students and discusses stakeholders' roles and responsibilities in their development. [source]

Designing ubiquitous computing to enhance children's learning in museums

T. Hall
Abstract In recent years, novel paradigms of computing have emerged, which enable computational power to be embedded in artefacts and in environments in novel ways. These developments may create new possibilities for using computing to enhance learning. This paper presents the results of a design process that set out to explore interactive techniques, which utilized ubiquitous computer technology, to stimulate active participation, involvement and learning by children visiting a museum. Key stakeholders, such as museum curators and docents, were involved throughout the process of creating the exhibition, Re-Tracing the Past, in the Hunt Museum, Limerick, Ireland. The paper describes aspects of the evaluation of the exhibition, which involved 326 schoolchildren (ages 9,12-year-old), and which exemplifies important features of the design and use of the novel technology in the museum. The paper concludes by articulating a series of design guidelines for developing ubiquitous computing to enhance children's learning in museums. These guidelines relate 12 experiential criteria to five supporting design informants and resources. The guidelines encompass important dimensions of children's educational experience in museums, including collaboration, engagement, active interpretation, and materiality. While developed in a museum context, these guidelines could be applied to the development of novel computing to enhance children's learning in other educational environments, both formal and informal. [source]

Systemic efforts in Georgia to improve education leadership

Deb Page
Research points to links between school and school district leadership and student achievement. Local and national education reform has created rising expectations for student performance. Education leadership is both complex and high stakes. Key stakeholders in Georgia have developed a solution to improve factors in the work, workplace, and workers in education leadership using human performance technology standards and practices blended from business and education to improve education leadership in Georgia and beyond. [source]

Pragmatic indicators for remote Aboriginal maternal and infant health care: why it matters and where to start

Malinda Steenkamp
Abstract Objective: There are challenges in delivering maternal and infant health (MIH) care to remote Northern Territory (NT) communities. These include fragmented care with birthing in regional hospitals resulting in cultural and geographical dislocation for Aboriginal women. Many NT initiatives are aimed at improving care. Indicators for evaluating these for remote Aboriginal mothers and infants need to be clearer. We reviewed existing indicators to inform a set of pragmatic indicators for reporting improvement in remote MIH care. Methods: Scientific databases and grey literature (organisational websites and Google Scholar) were searched using the terms ,Aboriginal/maternal/infant/remote health/monitoring performance'. Key stakeholders identified omitted indicators sets. Relevant sets were reviewed and organised by indicator type, stage of patient journey, topic and theme. Results: Forty-two indicators sets were found. Seven focused on Aboriginal health, 23 on reproductive/maternal health, eight on child/infant health and four on other aspects, e.g. remote health. We identified more than 1,000 individual indicators. Of these, 656 were relevant for our purpose and were subsequently organised into 300 topics and 16 themes for antenatal, birth and postpartum, and infant care by indicator type. Conclusion: There are many measures for monitoring health care delivery to mothers and infants. Few are framed around remote MIH services, despite poorer health outcomes of remote mothers and infants and the specific challenges with providing care in this setting. Establishing relevant indicators is vital to support relevant data collection and the development of appropriate policy for remote Aboriginal maternal and infant care. [source]

The Good, the Bad and the Ugly: Discourse, Policy Controversies and the Role of Science in the Politics of Shrimp Farming Development

Christophe Béné
This article revisits through a policy analysis the ongoing debate on shrimp farming aquaculture. It describes the changes in policy orientations that have taken place in recent years, and tries to relate them to the advocacy strategies developed by different networks and policy communities. The analysis reveals in particular the crucial contribution of the ,power of expertise' and shows how it has been instrumentalised by certain advocacy networks to depoliticise the debate. While this has allowed a number of key stakeholders to refocus the debate on technical solutions, it has prevented other groups concerned with more intractable social and political issues from engaging successfully in the policy process, thus leaving the long-term sustainability of aquaculture still a contentious issue. [source]

An evaluation of a heroin overdose prevention and education campaign

Abstract Introduction and Aims. Following detection of an upward trend in the frequency of fatal heroin overdoses in Victoria between 2001 and 2003, Victoria's Department of Human Services planned a campaign aimed at increasing injecting drug users' (IDU) awareness of overdose risks and prevention strategies. Stickers, wallet cards and posters featuring five key messages were distributed via needle and syringe programs (NSP) and other drug and alcohol services between November 2005 and April 2006. An evaluation of the campaign was commissioned to be conducted in late 2006. Design and Methods. The evaluation consisted of analysis of three independent data sets,,quantitative data collected from IDU during the campaign period (n = 855 at baseline; and a range of 146,656 at follow up); qualitative interviews with IDU who were NSP clients during the campaign period (n = 16) and qualitative interviews with NSP staff and other key stakeholders (n = 9). Results. While key experts felt that the campaign messages had engendered lasting impact for at least some IDU, these positive impressions were not borne out by the NSP client data, with less than one quarter of all campaign messages being mentioned by a significantly higher proportion of clients during the post-campaign period compared with baseline. Key experts perceived the greatest weakness of the campaign to be the delay between issue identification and the introduction of campaign materials. Discussion and Conclusions. While IDU are generally responsive to health promotion campaigns, future initiatives in this domain should be designed and implemented rapidly and in ways that are sufficiently flexible to cope with shifts in drug markets which could influence the reception of key messages.[Horyniak D, Higgs P, Lewis J, Winter R, Dietze P, Aitken C. An evaluation of a heroin overdose prevention and education campaign. Drug Alcohol Rev 2009] [source]

A tale of CIN,the Cannabis Infringement Notice scheme in Western Australia

ADDICTION, Issue 5 2010
Simon Lenton
ABSTRACT Aims To describe the development and enactment of the Western Australian (WA) Cannabis Infringement Notice scheme and reflect on the lessons for researchers and policy-makers interested in the translation of policy research to policy practice. Methods An insiders' description of the background research, knowledge transfer strategies and political and legislative processes leading to the enactment and implementation of the WA Cannabis Control Act 2003. Lenton and Allsop were involved centrally in the process as policy-researcher and policy-bureaucrat. Results In March 2004, Western Australia became the fourth Australian jurisdiction to adopt a ,prohibition with civil penalties' scheme for possession and cultivation of small amounts of cannabis. We reflect upon: the role of research evidence in the policy process; windows for policy change; disseminating findings when apparently no one is listening; the risks and benefits of the researcher as advocate; the differences between working on the inside and outside of government; and the importance of relationships, trust and track record. Conclusions There was a window of opportunity and change was influenced by research that was communicated by a reliable and trusted source. Those who want to conduct research that informs policy need to understand the policy process more clearly, look for and help create emerging windows that occur in the problem and political spheres, and make partnerships with key stakeholders in the policy arena. The flipside of the process is that, when governments change, policy born in windows of opportunity can be a casualty. [source]

Entrepreneurial and Business Growth and the Quest for a "Comprehensive Theory": Tilting at Windmills?

Claire Leitch
Even though there has been sustained interest in growth for almost 50 years, relatively little is known about this phenomenon and much confusion and misunderstanding surrounds it. Based on a literature review and the articles in this special issue we make three recommendations that we believe will allow theory to advance and be applicable in practice. First, that discourse between key stakeholders is encouraged in order to achieve greater understanding. Second, that focus is placed on "growth as a process," rather than as a "change in amount." Third, that knowledge production requires inclusivity and pluralism in research perspectives and approaches. [source]

Trust, public participation and environmental governance in Hong Kong

Stephen Tsang
Abstract This paper explores the role of trust in environmental governance and its role in facilitating collective action through public participation in making decisions on environmental policies in Hong Kong. Opinions from key stakeholders with regard to the environmental performance of the Hong Kong government and public participation in Hong Kong were collected. Their opinions help to explain the hypothesized ,trust deficit' in Hong Kong. A trust-based framework was used to identify the appropriate stakeholder participation strategy for environmental governance in Hong Kong. Given that the level of trust in experts, trust between stakeholders and trust in government decision-makers are all low, a deliberation strategy using professional facilitation is recommended in implementing public participation in Hong Kong to rebuild trust. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]


Noel Hyndman
The concept of governance has been widely discussed in both the business and non-business sectors. The debate has also been entered into within the charity sector, which comprises over 169,000 organizations in the UK. The UK-based Charity Commission, which describes itself as existing to ,promote sound governance and accountability', has taken a lead in this debate by promoting greater regulation and producing numerous recommendations with regard to the proper governance of charitable organizations. However, the concept of what is meant by governance is unclear and a myriad of ideas are placed under the umbrella of ,good governance'. This paper explores the major themes that form the basis of much of this discussion, examining both the theoretical underpinnings and empirical investigations relating to this area (looking from the perspective of the key stakeholders in the charity sector). Based on an analysis of the extant literature, this paper presents a broad definition of governance with respect to charities and outlines a future research agenda for those interested in adding to knowledge in this area [source]

Accelerating executive transitions at The Home Depot

Leslie W. Joyce
The Home Depot accelerates "speed to competency" for new executives through a variety of processes and tools tailored to different types of transitions. The approaches focus on the early days of the transition, engage key stakeholders in the process, and emphasize organizational realities, including what it really takes to make it at The Home Depot. The author discusses research into the factors common to successful transitions in the company; the company's acceleration framework; two different approaches, for role-based transitions in the field and context-based transitions at headquarters; and other tools for supporting executives new to the company and/or their roles. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Pfizer's prescription for the risky business of executive transitions

Carlota Vollhardt
While transitions in leadership and key expert roles can create opportunities for improvement and innovation, they also run a high risk of failure and loss of business-critical knowledge and social capital. At Pfizer, key stakeholders engage in a carefully orchestrated process that harvests know-how critical to the role going forward, transfers it to the successor, and identifies and addresses any remaining knowledge gaps. The approach also provides the successor a transition road map for accelerating learning and capitalizing on strengths while tending to business. © 2005 Carlota Vollhardt [source]

Opportunities for independent living using direct payments in mental health

Helen Spandler PhD
Abstract Mental health service users have yet to reap the benefits of greater choice, control and independent living, which direct payments have facilitated in other groups of community care users, particularly people with physical disabilities. To redress this imbalance a national pilot to promote direct payments to people with mental health needs in five local authority sites across England was set up and evaluated. The evaluation used a multi-method approach incorporating both qualitative and quantitative data, including individual semi-structured interviews and group discussions with key stakeholders across the pilot sites. This article draws on findings from the pilot evaluation to provide a preliminary understanding of how applicable the independent living philosophy is to mental health and what opportunities direct payments offer for service users. When given the opportunity, service users were able to use direct payments creatively to meet a range of needs in ways which increased their choice, control and independence. This suggests that the benefits of greater independent living through direct payments may be realisable in mental health. However, a number of ways in which the principles of direct payments in mental health could be ,downgraded' were identified. The evaluation results indicate that a thorough understanding of the independent living philosophy needs to be developed in the context of mental health. [source]

Healthy babies for mothers with serious mental illness: A case management framework for mental health clinicians

Yvonne Hauck
ABSTRACT Women with a serious mental illness (SMI), notably schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and personality disorders are considered high risk for adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes, which in turn, are associated with poor neurodevelopment in the child. Failure to access antenatal care, poor adherence with folate supplementation, an unhealthy lifestyle, and inappropriate health decisions can contribute to poor outcomes. Many women with SMI continue contact with mental health services while pregnant. This primary prevention project aimed to develop a framework for community mental health clinicians to improve the reproductive health outcomes for women with SMI. The consultation process involved discussions with key stakeholders, an environmental scan to determine current service delivery issues, a literature review, and individual and group interviews with community mental health clinicians, consumers, general practitioners, and midwives. Three key elements underpin the framework: early detection and monitoring of pregnancy, providing reproductive choices, and implementing a ,small known team approach' in the management of the pregnant client. Specific modules within the framework focus upon establishing a professional support network, assessing the risk of pregnancy, the early detection of pregnancy, monitoring during pregnancy, preparing for birth, and planning for the postnatal period. Implementation of the framework has the potential to significantly improve obstetric and neonatal outcomes for this high-risk group. [source]

Providing emergency mental health care to asylum seekers at a time when claims for permanent protection have been rejected

Nicholas G. Procter
ABSTRACT:,In total, 90% of ,boat people' who make it to Australia's migration zone are assessed as legitimate refugees and given Temporary Protection Visas (TPV) allowing them to stay in Australia for 3 years in the first instance. With an increasing number of individuals and families on TPV having their claims for a Permanent Protection Visa (PPV) rejected, this paper argues using the National Mental Health Plan 2003,2008 as a guide, for interventions that are culturally and linguistically appropriate, thus, aiming to minimize risk from exposure to extreme mental stressors in the event of an application for a PPV being rejected. Continuity and integration of mental health care involving key stakeholders is best achieved by bridging discrete elements through preparing for visa appeals and reviews, news from home and ongoing psychosocial stressors , in the context of different episodes, interventions by different providers, and changes in mental distress. To help strengthen continuity and integration of mental health supports for TPV holders, well resourced care must be experienced as connected and coherent. [source]

New approaches to funding not-for-profit organisations

John Kingston
This paper seeks to record and to explain the enormous growth in interest over the last few years in the provision of loans and other investment to not-for-profit organisations. It argues that this funding development fills a gap in the market. It describes the following new approaches: social investment, the provision of ,patient capital', and an ,investment' or ,venture philanthropy' approach to grant making. The factors driving the growth in use of these approaches are examined and their relevance to fundraising charities considered. Finally, the paper discusses how key stakeholders including the government and charitable trusts are adapting to this new environment. Copyright © 2004 Henry Stewart Publications [source]

The integration of film-induced tourism and destination branding in Yorkshire, UK

Noelle O'Connor
Abstract This paper identifies the integration of film induced tourism and destination branding on destinations featured in television series' such as Yorkshire, which is the film location for many popular English television series'. The review of the existing literature identified a gap in previous investigations and in response, a tourist survey and strategic conversations with the key stakeholders were an initial attempt to fill this gap. The issues which arose from these and the literature review highlighted some implications for the future development of these destinations, namely the use of destination branding in the promotion of a film location. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Nursing and midwifery research in Scotland: from partnership to collaboration

T. Fyffe mmed ed
Nurses and midwives form the workforce that provides the greatest proportion of direct care to service users. They have the ability to make a significant impact not only on the quality and outcomes of patient care, but also on service users' and carers' perceptions of the care experience. It is therefore vital that nursing and midwifery practice has a robust knowledge and evidence base. The Scottish Executive Health Department, in partnership with other key stakeholders, launched in 2004 an £8 million funding package for research and development capacity and capability initiatives for nursing, midwifery and the allied health professions. This article seeks to describe the process of engagement and partnership building that enabled this scheme to be developed. It will attempt to illustrate how the convergence of political, policy and professional agendas has provided the opportunity for nurses and midwives to set a direction of travel for research and development that will enable them to become key players within multidisciplinary research at United Kingdom and international levels. [source]

Realistic Evaluation of Early Warning Systems and the Acute Life-threatening Events , Recognition and Treatment training course for early recognition and management of deteriorating ward-based patients: research protocol

Jennifer McGaughey
mcgaughey j., blackwood b., o'halloran p., trinder t.j. & porter s. (2010) Realistic Evaluation of Early Warning Systems and the Acute Life-threatening Events , Recognition and Treatment training course for early recognition and management of deteriorating ward-based patients: research protocol. Journal of Advanced Nursing66(4), 923,932. Abstract Title.,Realistic Evaluation of Early Warning Systems and the Acute Life-threatening Events , Recognition and Treatment training course for early recognition and management of deteriorating ward-based patients: research protocol. Aim., This paper is a description of a study protocol designed to evaluate the factors that enable or constrain the delivery and sustainability of Early Warning Systems and the Acute Life-threatening Events , Recognition and Treatment training course in practice. Background., Rapid response system initiatives have been introduced to try to improve early detection and treatment of patients who deteriorate on general hospital wards. However, recent systematic reviews of the effectiveness of these initiatives show no effect on patient outcomes. Systematic reviews and professional consensus recommend that future research should focus on a broader range of process and outcome measures which consider the social, behavioural and organizational factors that had an impact on the delivery of these initiatives. Design., The design is a multiple case study on four wards in two hospitals in Northern Ireland that have implemented Early Warning Systems and Acute Life-threatening Events , Recognition and Treatment training. Data will be collected from key stakeholders using individual and focus group interviews, non-participant observation, Acute Life-threatening Events , Recognition and Treatment training records and audit of patients' observation charts and medical notes. Realistic Evaluation of the data will enable the development and refinement of theories to explain which mechanisms work in a particular context to achieve desired outcomes. Discussion., This study will produce important information that will contribute to knowledge of the organizational processes that have an impact on the delivery of initiatives to identify, respond and manage acutely ill patients in hospital. [source]

Primary mental health workers in child and adolescent mental health services

Wendy Macdonald BSc PhD
Background., The interface between primary care and specialist services is increasingly seen as crucial in the effective management of child and adolescent mental health (CAMH) problems. In the United Kingdom, a new role of primary mental health worker (PMHW), has been established in order to achieve effective collaboration across the interface through the provision of clinical care in primary care settings and by improving the skills and confidence of primary care staff. However, little is known about the development of this innovative role in service contexts. Issues raised during the early stages of implementation may have important implications for the preparation and development of professionals who undertake the role. Aims., The aim of this paper is to report on a study that examined key issues in implementation of the PMHW role in six health authorities in England. Methods., Case study evaluation was conducted, using thematic analysis of 75 qualitative interviews with key stakeholders from different professions (e.g. PMHWs, general practitioners, health visitors, psychiatrists and service managers) and representing different sectors (primary care, specialist services and community child health services). Findings., The study identified three models of organization (outreach, primary care-based and teams). Each was associated with different advantages and disadvantages in its effects on referral rates to specialist services and the development of effective working relationships with primary care providers. Problems associated with accommodation and effective integration of PMHWs with specialist services, and tensions caused by the two different roles that PMHWs could undertake (direct clinical care vs. consultation-liaison) were common across all sites. Conclusions., The PMHW role is an important development that may go some way towards realizing the potential of primary care services in CAMH. The implementation of new roles and models of working in primary care is complex, but may be facilitated by effective planning with primary care providers, clear goals for staff, and a long-term perspective on service development. [source]

Developing interdisciplinary maternity services policy in Canada.

Evaluation of a consensus workshop
Abstract Context, Four maternity/obstetrical care organizations, representing women, midwives, obstetricians and family doctors conducted interdisciplinary policy research under auspices of four key stakeholder groups. These projects teams and key stakeholders subsequently collaborated to develop consensus on strategies for improved maternity services in Ontario. Objectives, The objective of this study is to evaluate a 2-day research synthesis and consensus building conference to answer policy questions in relation to new models of interdisciplinary maternity care organizations in different settings in Ontario. Methods, The evaluation consisted of a scan of individual project activities and findings as were presented to an invited audience of key stakeholders at the consensus conference. This involved: participant observation with key informant consultation; a survey of attendees; pattern processing and sense making of project materials, consensus statements derived at the conference in the light of participant observation and survey material as pertaining to a complex system. The development of a systems framework for maternity care policy in Ontario was based on secondary analysis of the material. Findings, Conference participants were united on the importance of investment in maternity care for Ontario and the impending workforce crisis if adaptation of the workforce did not take place. The conference participants proposed reforming the current system that was seen as too rigid and inflexible in relation to the constraints of legislation, provider scope of practice and remuneration issues. However, not one model of interdisciplinary maternity/obstetrical care was endorsed. Consistency and coherence of models (rather than central standardization) through self-organization based on local needs was strongly endorsed. An understanding of primary maternity care models as subsystems of networked providers in complex health organizations and a wider social system emerged. The patterns identified were incorporated into a complexity framework to assist sense making to inform policy. Discussion, Coherence around core values, holism and synthesis with responsiveness to local needs and key stakeholders were themes that emerged consistent with complex adaptive systems principles. Respecting historical provider relationships and local history provided a background for change recognizing that systems evolve in part from where they have been. The building of functioning relationships was central through education and improved communication with ongoing feedback loops (positive and negative). Information systems and a flexible improved central and local organization of maternity services was endorsed. Education and improved communication through ongoing feedback loops (positive and negative) were central to building functioning relationships. Also, coordinated central organization with a flexible and adaptive local organization of maternity services was endorsed by participants. Conclusions, This evaluation used an approach comprising scoping, pattern processing and sense making. While the projects produced considerable typical research evidence, the key policy questions could not be addressed by this alone, and a process of synthesis and consensus building with stakeholder engagement was applied. An adaptive system with local needs driving a relationship based network of interdisciplinary groupings or teams with both bottom up and central leadership. A complexity framework enhanced sense making for the system approaches and understandings that emerged. [source]

Prospective Registration of Clinical Trials in India: Strategies, Achievements & Challenges

Prathap Tharyan
Abstract Objective This paper traces the development of the Clinical Trial Registry-India (CTRI) against the backdrop of the inequities in healthcare and the limitations in the design, conduct, regulation, oversight and reporting of clinical trials in India. It describes the scope and goals of the CTRI, the data elements it seeks and the process of registering clinical trials. It reports progress in trial registration in India and discusses the challenges in ensuring that healthcare decisions are informed by all the evidence. Methods A descriptive survey of developments in clinical trial registration in India from publications in the Indian medical literature supplemented by firsthand knowledge of these developments and an evaluation of how well clinical trials registered in the CTRI up to 10 January, 2009 comply with the requirements of the CTRI and the World Health Organization's International Clinical Trial Registry (WHO ICTRP). Results Considerable inequities exist within the Indian health system. Deficiencies in healthcare provision and uneven regulation of, and access to, affordable healthcare co-exists with a large private health system of uneven quality. India is now a preferred destination for outsourced clinical trials but is plagued by poor ethical oversight of the many trial sites and scant information of their existence. The CTRI's vision of conforming to international requirements for transparency and accountability but also using trial registration as a means of improving trial design, conduct and reporting led to the selection of registry-specific dataset items in addition to those endorsed by the WHO ICTRP. Compliance with these requirements is good for the trials currently registered but these trials represent only a fraction of the trials in progress in India. Conclusion Prospective trial registration is a reality in India. The challenges facing the CTRI include better engagement with key stakeholders to ensure increased prospective registration of clinical trials and utilization of existing legislative opportunities to complement these efforts. [source]

The acceptability to stakeholders of mandatory nutritional labelling in France and the UK , findings from the PorGrow project

M. Holdsworth
Abstract Background:, Implementing a European Union (EU)-wide mandatory nutrition labelling scheme has been advocated as part a multi-pronged strategy to tackle obesity. The type of scheme needs to be acceptable to all key stakeholders. This study explored stakeholders' viewpoints of labelling in two contrasting food cultures (France and the UK) to see whether attitudes were influenced by sectoral interests and/or national context. Methods:, Using Multi Criteria Mapping, a decision analysis tool that assesses stakeholder viewpoints, quantitative and qualitative data were gathered during tape-recorded interviews. In France and the UK, 21 comparable stakeholders appraised nutritional labelling with criteria of their own choosing (i.e. feasibility, societal benefits, social acceptability, efficacy in addressing obesity, additional health benefits) and three criteria relating to cost (to industry; public sector; individuals). When scoring, interviewees provided both optimistic (best case) and pessimistic (worst case) judgements. Results:, Overall, mandatory nutritional labelling was appraised least favourably in France. Labelling performed worse under optimistic (best case) scenarios in France, for five out of eight sets of criteria. French stakeholders viewed labelling as expensive, having fewer benefits to society and as being marginally less effective than UK stakeholders did. However, French interviewees thought implementing labelling was feasible and would provide additional health benefits. British and French stakeholders made similar quantitative judgements on how socially acceptable mandatory labelling would be. Conclusions:, There is agreement between some stakeholder groups in the two different countries, especially food chain operators. However, cultural differences emerged that could influence the impact of an EU-wide mandatory labelling scheme in both countries. [source]

Driving towards an improved research and development culture

Background, This study examined the research and development culture and capacity within one NHS Trust in Northern Ireland. Strengths and challenges were identified and opportunities for further research and development expansion were sought. Methods, This is a two-stage project incorporating a baseline survey (n = 379) followed by consultation with key stakeholders across the Trust (n = 11). Findings, In the survey, over half of the respondents (n = 194) stated they had participated in a research project and a significant number (n = 313) read health care journals. Identification of barriers to research resulted in findings similar to other published work. Staff responded positively about using research in practice (n = 328) and that practice should be influenced by research (n = 312). Nurse Managers indicated support for research and development activity. Conclusion, The study provides a starting point from which to develop a positive research and development culture within this Trust. Implications for nursing management, After establishing a baseline of research and development activity across a large acute Trust, the strengths and weaknesses of such activity were identified with a view to informing a strategy to develop this aspect of professional activity. A change in an organizational culture cannot be made without full support of both the clinicians and their managers. [source]

The scope of nursing in Australia: a snapshot of the challenges and skills needed

Jacqueline Jones RN
Contemporary nursing is an increasingly complex concept encompassing and encapsulating wide variation under the broad rubric of the nursing work place. This paper reports on a study that was designed to contribute to understandings of nursing practice by describing what nurses in Australia are doing everyday in various practice and work settings, the type of skills they need, the challenges they face and the interactions nurses have with other health workers. Drawing on the research which informed the National Review of Nurse Education in Australia in 2001, the paper raises issues critical to the management of contemporary nursing practice. Flexible approaches both to the day-to-day management of nurses and nursing, and educational preparation in partnership with key stakeholders, are a necessity if management of nursing is to keep pace with constant change in health care systems as well as facilitating the attraction and retention of nurses in those systems. [source]

Stepping out of the box: broadening the dialogue around the organizational implementation of cognitive behavioural psychotherapy

J. POOLE ba dip nursing (mh)
The dissemination and uptake of cognitive behavioural interventions is central to the evidence-based mental health agenda in Britain. However, some policy and related literature, in and of itself social constructed, tends to display discursive naïvety in assuming a rational basis for the dissemination and organizational integration of cognitive behavioural approaches. Rational constructions fail to acknowledge that the practice settings of key stakeholders in the process are likely to be socially constructed fields of multiple meanings. Within these, the importance of evidence-based interventions may be variously contested or reworked. To illustrate this, a case example from the first author will discuss the hypothetical introduction of a cognitive behavioural group for voice hearers in a forensic mental health unit. This will highlight contradictions and local organizational problems around the effective utilization of postgraduate cognitive behavioural knowledge and skills. A synthesis of social constructionist with organizational theory will be used to make better sense of these actual and anticipated difficulties. From this basis, specific ways in which nurses and supportive stakeholders could move the implementation of cognitive behavioural psychotherapy agenda forward within a postmodern leadership context will be proposed. [source]

Disseminating early interventions following trauma

Jonathan I. Bisson
Dissemination of effective early interventions following trauma is necessary to ensure the provision of the best possible care in a timely manner. To achieve this, agreement from all key stakeholders is required regarding the messages to be disseminated and the means of dissemination. This article is based on a National Institute of Mental Health sponsored symposium on the dissemination of early interventions at the 21st annual meeting of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies in Toronto in 2005. The current knowledge base regarding the effectiveness and dissemination of early interventions (defined here as those that are begun within the first 3 months after exposure) following trauma for children, adolescents, and adults is considered. [source]

Ideas, bargaining and flexible policy communities: policy change and the case of the Oxford Transport Strategy

Geoffrey DudleyArticle first published online: 8 AUG 200
Critiques of policy networks have highlighted particularly the inability of concepts such as policy communities to explain policy change. The established construction of policy community places it chiefly as a metaphor for a relatively stable network within the policy process, which emphasizes the resource dependencies between key stakeholders. Typically, a process of bargaining brings about accommodation and a state of negotiated order. However, a key problem arises in explaining major policy change where an established policy community persists. One solution here is to appreciate that, over time, dominant ideas and associated policy meanings may shift appreciably within an otherwise durable policy community. Thus, even a seemingly insulated policy community, under certain conditions, may not be immune to idea mutation and new policy meanings. Given the central importance of policy communities, these shifts may induce significant policy change. A case study of this type is provided by the Oxford Transport Strategy (OTS), where a dual process of change took place. On one level of analysis, a challenge to the policy community produced a typical bargaining strategy, with an emphasis on negotiated order. On another level of analysis, however, the terms of the policy debate shifted markedly, and produced a new meaning for the key concept of integrated transport within the policy community. In turn, this process induced significant policy change. The article concludes that, ironically, the survival of a policy community depends on its ability to re-create itself by visualizing a new future. [source]

Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin against the Settlers: A Stakeholder Analysis

Israel Drori
This case study considers how a minority stakeholder group of Israeli settlers blocked Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin's peace initiatives. Drawing on interviews with those who served in Rabin's administration and with the settlers' leaders, this article contends that the prime minister's use of adversarial public rhetoric against the settlers denied the legitimacy of an influential stakeholder group, triggering a backlash of intense militancy from the right-wing minority. This, coupled with Rabin's failure to deal with opposing coalitions, diminished his capacity to implement "land for peace" initiatives. The case illustrates a leader's failure to maintain adequate forms of engagement with key stakeholders. The accompanying analysis demonstrates that stakeholder theories, though incomplete in their existing forms, can still illuminate the high risk and ineffectiveness of denying the legitimacy of stakeholder groups and the strategic importance of maintaining channels of flexible negotiation and cooperation with seemingly marginal groups when high-stakes rivalries are likely to ensue. [source]

Individual differences, environmental scanning, innovation framing, and champion behavior: key predictors of project performance

Jane M. Howell
Although increasing evidence points to the importance of champions for keeping product innovation ideas alive and thriving, little is known about how champions identify potential product innovation ideas, how they present these ideas to gain much needed support from key stakeholders, and their impact on innovation project performance over time. Jane M. Howell and Christine M. Shea address this knowledge gap by using measures of individual differences, environmental scanning, innovation framing and champion behavior to predict the performance of 47 product innovation projects. Champion behavior was defined as expressing confidence in the innovation, involving and motivating others to support the innovation, and persisting under adversity. Interviews with 47 champions were conducted to collect information about the innovation projects and the champions' tendency to frame the innovation as an opportunity or threat. Survey data were obtained from three sources: 47 champions provided information on their personal characteristics (locus of control and breadth of interest) and activities (environmental scanning), 47 division managers subjectively assessed project performance at two points in time, and 237 innovation team members rated the frequency of champion behavior. The results revealed that an internal locus of control orientation was positively related to framing the innovation as an opportunity, and breadth of interest was positively related to environmental scanning. Environmental scanning of documents and framing the innovation as a threat was negatively related to champion behavior, while environmental scanning through people was positively related to champion behavior. Champion behavior positively predicted project performance over a one-year interval. Overall, the findings suggest that in scanning the environment for new ideas, the most effective source of information is the champion's personal network of people inside and outside the organization. Also, the simple labeling of an idea as a threat appears to diminish a champion's perceived influence and erode credibility in promoting an innovation. From the perspective of division managers, champions make a positive contribution to project performance over time, reinforcing the crucial role that champions play in new product development process. [source]