Key Stage (key + stage)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Showing the Strategy where to go: possibilities for creative approaches to Key Stage 3 literacy teaching in initial teacher education

ENGLISH IN EDUCATION, Issue 1 2005
David Stevens
Abstract This paper arises from a research project undertaken with six PGCE student teachers of English, based on observation and discussion of English lessons based on the National Strategy's Framework for Teaching English. I draw also on the student teachers' reflections and written commentaries. The central thrust of the research was to enquire whether and how classroom practice could demonstrate an imaginative, meaning-orientated form of English teaching which included the Framework: how exactly learning opportunities might arise in lively, engaging and effective ways. [source]


Alas, Poor Shakespeare: Teaching and Testing at Key Stage 3

ENGLISH IN EDUCATION, Issue 3 2003
Jane Coles
Abstract In this article I briefly consider the ideological impetus for retaining Shakespeare as a compulsory component of the National Curriculum for English. I take issue with the current Key Stage 3 testing regime. In particular, I question the educational value of tests which ultimately undermine what is generally agreed to be good classroom practice and which force on teachers a narrow theoretical perspective of Shakespeare, where close textual analysis and Bradleyan notions of character predominate. [source]


Writing Process and Progress: Where Do We Go from Here?

ENGLISH IN EDUCATION, Issue 1 2001
Mary Hilton
Abstract This article examines the rationale behind the government's methods for raising standards in writing at Key Stage 2. Firstly there is a renewed drive to teach discrete units of sentence grammar. Secondly there is a fresh commitment to shared and guided writing. But, because it is envisaged that these teacher-led sessions will take up at least half of the Literacy Hour two or three times a week, both these aims will lead to a diminution of time for written composition by the children themselves. This is in accordance with new criticisms by NLS policy makers of the model of ,process' embedded in the National Curriculum, particularly the idea of creative pre-writing activities and sustained independent writing. The article goes on to argue that these new measures ignore research on the ways children learn to write and will not lead to a rise in standards. [source]


Advanced Phonics: Teaching Strategies for Poor Readers at Key Stage 2

ENGLISH IN EDUCATION, Issue 3 2000
Susan Jennings
Abstract Poor readers at Key Stage 2 need ongoing support for their reading development. They are frequently weak in the metacognitive skills that enable good readers to make their own progress and they require a repetition of much phonics material from Key Stage 1. Beyond that, they have a need for the further complexities of English to be taught to them as phonics, not as spelling strategies/investigations. Additionally, they have difficulty in tackling polysyllabic words and must be taught appropriate decoding strategies. There is a dearth of teaching materials in this area and little research evidence as to how such material might best be taught. This paper charts the development of a phonics booster programme for poor readers in Year 5. [source]


Family literacy activities in the homes of successful young readers

JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN READING, Issue 1 2000
Rhona Stainthorp
This paper presents an account of the literacy activities engaged in by the parents of 29 children around the time that the children were about to start school at Key Stage 1. Fifteen of the children were reading fluently before they began school and the remaining fourteen were matched for age, sex, receptive vocabulary scores, pre-school group attended and socio-economic family status, but not reading fluently. In order to ascertain that the fluent readers were not simply coming from homes where literacy activities were more in evidence, parents were asked to report on their own literacy activities. The data obtained indicated that there were no systematic differences in the activities of the two sets of parents. They also showed that there was a considerable amount of literacy activity evident in the homes. It is argued that, whilst the home environment is highly instrumental in nurturing literacy development, it is not enough to account for precocious reading ability. [source]


"Busting with blood and gore and full of passion": the impact of an oral retelling of the Iliad in the primary classroom

LITERACY, Issue 1 2007
David Reedy
Abstract This paper describes the impact of an oral retelling of Homer's Iliad on pupils' learning in Key Stage 2 classrooms (children aged 9,11) in schools in East London. We argue that the oral nature of the retelling and responses promoted high levels of engagement and inclusion, leading to enhanced understanding by the pupils. The use of a complex and emotionally powerful text also encouraged a changing of the nature of the discourse between teachers and pupils. Finally we argue for the use of texts like the Iliad as an integral part of the literacy curriculum. [source]


Are the Key Stage Two Reading Tests becoming easier each year?

LITERACY, Issue 1 2001
Mary Hilton
This article presents and discusses some new research on the National Curriculum Key Stage Two reading tests for years 1998, 1999 and 2000. The research task was to use the original categories designed and declared by the QCA in 1998 to analyse the reading tests in the two subsequent years in order to examine the reliability of the tests. The research shows that in 1999, and again in 2000 the reading tests were progressively easier for the children to answer. This was because the number of questions requiring higher-order reading skills, particularly those of inference and deduction, has decreased each year, while the number of questions requiring the lower-order skill of literal information retrieval has increased. In this way the author questions the QCA's declared ,rise in reading standards' from 1998 onwards. [source]


The Part which Metacognition can Play in Raising Standards in English at Key Stage 2

LITERACY, Issue 1 2000
Mary Williams
This article explores the role of metacognition in developing literacy at Key Stage 2 and suggests that the ability to extend pupils' metacognitive awareness deserves to be given a high focus in English teaching, as it is through this that deeper levels of understanding will be acquired. Metacognition can be enhanced by giving pupils an explicit repertoire of techniques to aid their understanding of how are they learning. Examples derived from five research cases reveal how some teachers have tried to achieve this, and the pivotal role which this may play in raising standards in English. [source]


Predicting curriculum and test performance at age 11 years from pupil background, baseline skills and phonological awareness at age 5 years

THE JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY AND ALLIED DISCIPLINES, Issue 7 2007
Robert Savage
Background:, Phonological awareness tests are amongst the best predictors of literacy and predict outcomes of Key Stage 1 assessment of the National Curriculum in England at age 7. However, it is unknown whether their ability to predict National Curricular outcomes extends to Key Stage 2 assessments given at age 11, or also whether the predictive power of such tests is independent of letter-knowledge. We explored the unique predictive validity of phonological awareness and early literacy measures, and other pupil background measures taken at age 5 in the prediction of English, Maths, and Science performance at age 11. Method:, Three hundred and eighty-two children from 21 primary schools in one Local Educational Authority were assessed at age 5 and followed to age 11 (Key Stage 2 assessment). Teaching assistants (TAs) administered phonological awareness tasks and early literacy measures. Baseline and Key Stage 2 performance measures were collected by teachers. Results:, Phonological awareness was a significant unique predictor of all nine outcome measures after baseline assessment and pupil background measures were first controlled in regression analyses, and continued to be a significant predictor of reading, maths, and science performance, and teacher assessments after early literacy skill and letter-knowledge was controlled. Gender predicted performance in writing, the English test, and English teacher assessment, with girls outperforming boys. Conclusions:, Phonological awareness is a unique predictor of general curricular attainment independent of pupil background, early reading ability and letter-knowledge. Practically, screening of phonological awareness and basic reading skills by school staff in year 1 significantly enhances the capacity of schools to predict curricular outcomes in year 6. [source]


,Playing the Game called Writing': Children's Views and Voices

ENGLISH IN EDUCATION, Issue 2 2003
Teresa Grainger
Abstract Teachers' perceptions of their changing practice in the context of the National Literacy Strategy have been well documented in recent years. However, few studies have collected pupils' views or voices. As part of a collaborative research and development project into the teaching and learning of writing, 390 primary pupils' views were collected. A marked difference in attitude to writing and self-esteem as writers was found between Key Stages 1 and 2, as well as a degree of indifference and disengagement from in-school writing for some KS2 writers. A strong desire for choice and greater autonomy as writers was expressed and a preference for narrative emerged. This part of the research project ,We're Writers' has underlined the importance of listening to pupils' views about literacy, in order to create a more open dialogue about language and learning, and to negotiate the content of the curriculum in response to their perspectives. [source]


Learning, Literacy and ICT: What's the Connection?

ENGLISH IN EDUCATION, Issue 3 2000
Richard Andrews
Abstract This article takes the form of a keynote address to delegates at the ,Raising Standards through Literacy and ICT across the Curriculum at Key Stages 3 and 4 conference', held at Middlesex University, London in July 2000. It sets out by defining the terms ,learning', ,literacy' and ,ICT' and then proceeds to make connections between the areas they denote. The main connections are seen to be the increased reciprocity of reading and writing, the contiguity of the verbal and visual in contemporary communication and the re-establishment of composition at the heart of the literacy curriculum. Central to all of these is the importance of transformation in learning, not only in theory but also in the day-to-day practices of classrooms. Recent research into ICT and literacy is reviewed, practical possibilities for cross-curricular collaboration are offered, and implications for the future are considered. [source]


Improving Dean's writing: or, what shall we tell the children?

LITERACY, Issue 2 2004
Graham Frater
Abstract In this paper Graham Frater finds early signs of a revival of explicit instruction in English grammar to pupils of compulsory school age in England; this is accompanied by an expectation that such teaching might play an important part in closing the ,writing gap'. He suggests that, strengthened by the National Literacy Strategy, this early re-awakening invokes again some of the debates that accompanied the construction of the National Curriculum. Rooted in a case study of a text by a low-achieving Y7 writer, and in two surveys of effective practice with writing (covering Key Stages 2,4), this paper argues that purposeful text-level teaching, reading in particular, and the creation of real readerships offer more secure ways of promoting progress in writing. [source]


How inclusive is the Literacy Hour?

BRITISH JOURNAL OF SPECIAL EDUCATION, Issue 3 2001
Janice Wearmouth
In this article, Janice Wearmouth and Janet Soler, both lecturers in the Faculty of Education and Language Studies at the Open University, explore the implications of recent Government initiatives for pupils who experience difficulties in literacy development. The authors focus, in particular, on their perceptions of the contradictions between the inclusive requirements of the National Curriculum and the prescriptive pedagogy of the National Literacy Strategy. The National Curriculum now requires teachers to respond to pupils' ,diverse learning needs'; the National Literacy Strategy is founded upon an expectation that all pupils in Key Stages 1 and 2 will be taught a daily Literacy Hour. This article explores the impact of these contrasting policies on classroom practice and concludes by drawing upon evidence of previously existing good practice in order to propose ways of resolving this dilemma. [source]


Bringing High Technology to Market: Successful Strategies Employed in the Worldwide Software Industry

THE JOURNAL OF PRODUCT INNOVATION MANAGEMENT, Issue 6 2006
Chris Easingwood
The launch stage can be critical for many new products, but particularly so for technology-intensive ones. This study examines this key stage in a high-tech sector: the worldwide computer software industry. Using a research instrument developed across a number of high-tech sectors, but adapted to the targeted sector, it describes a worldwide telephone-based survey of 300 organizations, resulting in 190 interviews, a response rate of 63%. It shows that five distinct and interpretable strategies are employed: (1) alliance strategy involves forming early strategic alliances as well as tactical alliances at the execution stage together with the development of unique distribution channels; (2) targeted low risk attempts to reduce the risk of adoption among identified segments by producing versions of the product specifically customized to the segments; (3) low-price original equipment manufacturer (OEM) is the only price-driven strategy and combines low price with channel building to OEMs who are looking for attractive price-to-performance ratios; (4) broadly based market preparation is an early-stage strategy that concentrates on educating the market vis-à-vis the technology and developing channels; and (5) niche-based technological superiority uses a technologically superior product to dominate a niche and corresponds closely to the chasm-crossing strategy expounded by Moore and others. Regarding superior product performance, successful software companies first of all engage in a broadly based preparation of the market but switch to a targeted strategy at the following stages of positioning and execution, built around superior technological performance and reduced risk. A somewhat different mix of strategies is adopted when the objective is superior market development, namely opening up new markets, reaching new customers, and developing new product platforms. Again the mix includes broadly based market preparation, this time along with alliances. This strategy is very much about working with partners. The broadly based market preparation strategy is key for both objectives, is long term in nature, and avoids narrowly defined niches. It seems that starting broad based and narrowing down, perhaps to a niche, only at a later stage when this is clearly the appropriate thing to do, pays dividends. [source]


A tetrahydropentaleno[1,6a- a]naphthalen-4(2H)-one of defined relative stereochemistry for use towards Agariblazeispirol C

ACTA CRYSTALLOGRAPHICA SECTION C, Issue 9 2010
Alan R. Kennedy
Towards the synthesis of the novel natural product Agariblazeispirol C, (5aR*,11bR*)-9-methoxy-3,8,11b-trimethyl-5,6,7,11b-tetrahydro-1H -pentaleno[1,6a- a]naphthalen-4(2H)-one, C20H24O2, has been prepared at a key stage of the preparative programme. The structure shows the desired stereochemical outcome of the central cyclization protocol, viz. a syn -relationship between the aliphatic methyl group on the 11b-position and the methylene group on the 5a-position [C,C,C,C = ,34.57,(18)°]. [source]


The green line: a chapter in the history of auroral physics

ASTRONOMY & GEOPHYSICS, Issue 5 2009
Helge Kragh
Helge Kragh examines the steps forward and false alarms on the way to understanding the green line, a key stage in the development of auroral physics. [source]


What can national data sets tell us about inclusion and pupil achievement?

BRITISH JOURNAL OF SPECIAL EDUCATION, Issue 3 2004
Lani Florian
Recent developments in the Department for Education and Skills (DfES) have produced a national pupil database (NPD) that contains information about the attainments of individual pupils. Every child in the country has been allocated a unique pupil number (UPN), which means that the academic progress of individuals can be tracked over time. It is possible to combine data on attainment with the demographic information which is obtained from the pupil level annual schools census (PLASC). These innovations make it possible to combine ,value added' information about pupil progress from one key stage of education to the next with data from the PLASC, which contains pupil background information, to produce a single matched data set. Thus the NPD and the PLASC are able to provide much of the necessary information to explore issues of individual pupil performance over their school careers. Notably, more specific information about the academic achievement of pupils who are described as having ,special educational needs' is now available. Lani Florian, lecturer in inclusion and special educational needs, Martyn Rouse, senior lecturer in inclusion and special educational needs, Kristine Black-Hawkins, senior research associate, and Stephen Jull, research associate, are all based at the University of Cambridge Faculty of Education. In this article, drawing on their work in the ,Inclusion and Achievement Project', they explore the problems and possibilities for researching issues of pupil achievement and inclusion through the use of these new national data sets. [source]


Characterization of molecular markers to assess cardiac cushions formation in Xenopus

DEVELOPMENTAL DYNAMICS, Issue 12 2009
Young-Hoon Lee
Abstract The valves and septa of the mature heart are derived from the cardiac cushions, which develop from discrete swellings in two regions of developing heart tube: the atrioventricular (AV) canal and the ventricular outflow tract (OFT). In higher vertebrates, three distinct lineages contribute to the heart valves and septa, the endocardium, the myocardium, and the cardiac neural crest that will populate the cardiac jelly of the OFT. Very little is known about cardiac cushions development in amphibians. Here, we describe the expression of eight genes during key stages of cardiac cushion development in Xenopus. Among these genes, the Wnt antagonist Frzb1 and the transcription factors Xl-Fli, Sox8, Sox9, and Sox10 are differentially expressed in the mesenchyme of the OFT and AV cushions. These genes can be used in combination with lineage-tracing experiments to determine the embryonic origin of the cardiac cushions mesenchyme in Xenopus. Developmental Dynamics 238:3257,3265, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Planning Environmental Sanitation Programmes in Emergencies

DISASTERS, Issue 2 2005
Peter A. Harvey
Environmental sanitation programmes are vital for tackling environmental-related disease and ensuring human dignity in emergency situations. If they are to have maximum impact they must be planned in a rapid but systematic manner. An appropriate planning process comprises five key stages: rapid assessment and priority setting; outline programme design; immediate action; detailed programme design; and implementation. The assessment should be based on carefully selected data, which are analysed via comparison with suitable minimum objectives. How the intervention should be prioritised is determined through objective ranking of different environmental sanitation sector needs. Next, a programme design outline is produced to identify immediate and longer-term intervention activities and to guarantee that apposite resources are made available. Immediate action is taken to meet acute emergency needs while the detailed programme design takes shape. This entails in-depth consultation with the affected community and comprehensive planning of activities and resource requirements. Implementation can then begin, which should involve pertinent management and monitoring strategies. [source]


Micromechanical analysis of failure propagation in frictional granular materials

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL AND ANALYTICAL METHODS IN GEOMECHANICS, Issue 15 2009
Antoinette Tordesillas
Abstract The extent to which the evolution of instabilities and failure across multiple length scales can be reproduced with the aid of a bifurcation analysis is examined. We adopt an elastoplastic micropolar constitutive model, recently developed for dense cohesionless granular materials within the framework of thermomicromechanics. The internal variables and their evolution laws are conceived from a direct consideration of the dissipative mechanism of force chain buckling. The resulting constitutive law is cast entirely in terms of the particle scale properties. It thus presents a unique opportunity to test the potential of micromechanical continuum formulations to reproduce key stages in the deformation history: the development of material instabilities and failure following an initially homogeneous deformation. Progression of failure, initiating from frictional sliding and rolling at contacts, followed by the buckling of force chains, through to macroscopic strain softening and shear banding, is reproduced. Bifurcation point, marking the onset of shear banding, occurred shortly after the peak stress ratio. A wide range of material parameters was examined to show the effect of particle scale properties on the progression of failure. Model predictions on the thickness and angle of inclination of the shear band and the structural evolution inside the band, namely the latitudinal distribution of particle rotations and the angular distributions of contacts and the normal contact forces, are consistent with observations from numerical simulations and experiments. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Inspiration into Installation: An Exploration of Contemporary Experience through Art

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ART & DESIGN EDUCATION, Issue 2 2006
Sheridan Horn
This article discusses the ways in which a fine art department has successfully enabled pupils, staff and the local community to gain access to exciting and wide-ranging art experiences. Through the creation of temporary installations and exhibitions the art department at Trinity School regularly becomes a gallery resource centre for part of the year. Children across all key stages create art inspired by artists in residence (including an artist teacher) in response to challenging contemporary issues. In 2005 three collaborative installations were produced in response to a potentially disruptive phase within the educational establishment. ,Sleep-Eternal Rest' involved pupils' contributions to the installation, gallery visits and the study of different artists' work. For the exhibition ,Flesh, Fur and Feathers', a resident artist worked with students in response to a hanging deer, game and a table laden with fruit. In a building about to be demolished a group of recently graduated artists collaborated on an exhibition entitled ,Somewheretogo'. This collaborative partnership led to art becoming a central resource for different curriculum areas as well as PSHE. The success of the venture led to pupils' own work becoming an accessible artistic resource, to which they themselves could respond. As well as avoiding the potential limitations of examdriven targets and assessment, it became a source of enrichment in personal, educational and creative terms. [source]


Parent's involvement in decisions when their child is admitted to hospital with suspected shunt malfunction: study protocol

JOURNAL OF ADVANCED NURSING, Issue 10 2009
Joanna Smith
Abstract Title., Parent's involvement in decisions when their child is admitted to hospital with suspected shunt malfunction: study protocol. Aim., This paper outlines the protocol for a study aimed at exploring parent's involvement during professional,parent interactions and decisions about their child's care in the context of suspected shunt malfunction. Background., Hydrocephalus is a long-term condition treated primarily by the insertion of a shunt that diverts fluid from the brain to another body compartment. Shunts frequently malfunction, and parents of children with shunted hydrocephalus are responsible for recognizing and responding to shunt complications. Parents feel that interactions with professionals when they seek healthcare advice for their child do always not encourage active participation in care decisions. Methods., The study design is based on qualitative methodologies: a combination of conversation analysis applied to consultation recordings of professional,parent interactions when a child is admitted to hospital with suspected shunt malfunction, and semi-structured follow-up interviews with the same participants within 2 weeks of the consultation. Participants., This is a prospective study and participants will be purposefully selected. Parents of children who have been admitted to hospital with suspected shunt malfunction and healthcare professionals responsible for the initial assessment of the child will be invited to participate. Discussion., The study will identify how decisions about a child's care are negotiated between parents and healthcare professionals at key stages of the care pathway. In addition, examining interactions between healthcare professionals and parents may identify approaches that support or hinder parents in contributing to the decision-making processes when they seek advice from healthcare professionals. [source]


Starch Synthesis and Programmed Cell Death during Endosperm Development in Triticale (×Triticosecale Wittmack)

JOURNAL OF INTEGRATIVE PLANT BIOLOGY, Issue 7 2010
Chun-Yan Li
Triticale (×Triticosecale Wittmack) grains synthesize and accumulate starch as their main energy source. Starch accumulation rate and synthesis activities of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, soluble starch synthases, granule-bound starch synthase and starch-branching enzyme showed similar pattern of unimodal curves during endosperm development. There was no significant difference in activity of the starch granule-bound protein isolated from total and separated starch granules at different developmental stages after anthesis in triticale. Evans Blue staining and analysis of DNA fragmentation indicated that cells of triticale endosperm undergo programmed cell death during its development. Dead cells within the endosperm were detected at 6 d post anthesis (DPA), and evidence of DNA fragmentation was first observed at 21 DPA. The period between initial detection of PCD to its rapid increase overlapped with the key stages of rapid starch accumulation during endosperm development. Cell death occurred stochastically throughout the whole endosperm, meanwhile, the activities of starch biosynthetic enzymes and the starch accumulation rate decreased in the late stages of grain filling. These results suggested that the timing and progression of PCD in triticale endosperm may interfere with starch synthesis and accumulation. [source]


Expression and chromosomal organization of mouse meiotic genes

MOLECULAR REPRODUCTION & DEVELOPMENT, Issue 3 2010
Hiba Waldman Ben-Asher
Microarray technology which enables large scale analysis of gene expression and thus comparison between transcriptomes of different cell types, cells undergoing different treatments or cells at different developmental stages has also been used to study the transcriptome involved with spermatogenesis. Many new germ cell-specific genes were determined, and the resulting genes were classified according to different criteria. However, the biological significance of these classifications and their clustering according to developmental transcriptional patterns during spermatogenesis have not yet been addressed. In this study we utilized mouse testicular transcriptome analysis at five distinct post-natal ages (Days 7, 10, 12, 14, and 17), representing distinct meiotic stages, in an attempt to better understand the biological significance of genes clustered into similar expression patterns during this process. Among 790 sequences that showed an expression level change of twofold or more in any of the five key stages that were monitored, relative to the geometric average of all stages, about 40% peaked and about 30% were specifically suppressed at post-natal day 14 (representing the early pachytene stage of spermatocytes), reflecting tight transcriptional regulation at this stage. We also found that each of the six main transcription clusters that were determined was characterized by statistically significant representation of genes related to specific biological processes. Finally, our results indicated that genes important for meiosis are not randomly distributed along the mouse genome but rather preferentially located on specific chromosomes, suggesting for the first time that chromosomal location might be a regulating factor of meiotic gene expression. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 77: 241,248, 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Proteomics reveal tissue-specific features of the cress (Lepidium sativum L.) endosperm cap proteome and its hormone-induced changes during seed germination

PROTEINS: STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND BIOINFORMATICS, Issue 3 2010
Kerstin Müller
Abstract Mature angiosperm seeds consist of an embryo surrounded by the endosperm and the testa. The endosperm cap that covers the radicle plays a regulatory role during germination and is a major target of abscisic acidinduced inhibition of germination. Cress (Lepidium sativum) is a close relative of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis). Cress seeds offer the unique possibility of performing tissue-specific proteomics due to their larger size while benefiting the genomic tools available for Arabidopsis. This work provides the first description of endosperm cap proteomics during seed germination. An analysis of the proteome of the cress endosperm cap at key stages during germination and after radicle protrusion in the presence and absence of abscisic acid led to the identification of 144 proteins, which were clustered by the changes in their abundances and categorized by function. Proteins with a function in energy production, protein stability and stress response were overrepresented among the identified endosperm cap proteins. This strongly suggests that the cress endosperm cap is not a storage tissue as the cereal endosperm but a metabolically very active tissue regulating the rate of radicle protrusion. [source]


Straightforward Synthesis of (R)-(,)-Kjellmanianone

CHEMISTRY - A EUROPEAN JOURNAL, Issue 4 2004
Jens Christoffers Prof. Dr.
Abstract A direct route to enantiomerically pure (,)-kjellmanianone is reported. The synthesis involves a cerium-catalyzed ,-hydroxylation and an enzyme-catalyzed procedure to resolve tertiary alcohols at key stages. The intermediate ,-oxo ester was ,-hydroxylated to give good yields of racemic kjellmanianone. The resolution of the racemic material was achieved by enzymatic saponification, followed by a chemical decarboxylation sequence to give enantiopure (,)-kjellmanianone with 99,% ee. Bromination then afforded the (,)-bromo derivative, whose X-ray structure provided evidence for the R configuration of (,)-kjellmanianone. [source]