Key Site (key + site)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Activation of the basal forebrain by the orexin/hypocretin neurones

E. Arrigoni
Abstract The orexin neurones play an essential role in driving arousal and in maintaining normal wakefulness. Lack of orexin neurotransmission produces a chronic state of hypoarousal characterized by excessive sleepiness, frequent transitions between wake and sleep, and episodes of cataplexy. A growing body of research now suggests that the basal forebrain (BF) may be a key site through which the orexin-producing neurones promote arousal. Here we review anatomical, pharmacological and electrophysiological studies on how the orexin neurones may promote arousal by exciting cortically projecting neurones of the BF. Orexin fibres synapse on BF cholinergic neurones and orexin-A is released in the BF during waking. Local application of orexins excites BF cholinergic neurones, induces cortical release of acetylcholine and promotes wakefulness. The orexin neurones also contain and probably co-release the inhibitory neuropeptide dynorphin. We found that orexin-A and dynorphin have specific effects on different classes of BF neurones that project to the cortex. Cholinergic neurones were directly excited by orexin-A, but did not respond to dynorphin. Non-cholinergic BF neurones that project to the cortex seem to comprise at least two populations with some directly excited by orexin-A that may represent wake-active, GABAergic neurones, whereas others did not respond to orexin-A but were inhibited by dynorphin and may be sleep-active, GABAergic neurones. This evidence suggests that the BF is a key site through which orexins activate the cortex and promote behavioural arousal. In addition, orexins and dynorphin may act synergistically in the BF to promote arousal and improve cognitive performance. [source]

Global Environmental Governance and the Challenge of Shadow States: The Impact of Illicit Sapphire Mining in Madagascar

Rosaleen Duffy
The environment has become a key site of global governance because of its transboundary nature: forests, wildlife and oceans have all become central foci for networks of global governance which link international organizations, international financial institutions, states and non-governmental organizations. This article examines how contemporary forms of global governance can be challenged and even subverted. It uses the concept of shadow states introduced by William Reno to explore how invisible global networks flow through developing states, to show how they constitute important political and economic interest groups, and to assess what kinds of environmental impact they have. It explores how powerful these networks are, and whether they are able to challenge or subvert attempts to manage, control or govern the environment. The author provides an analysis of the ways in which the clandestine networks of shadow states impact on conservation initiatives in the developing world, focusing on the features of global environmental governance and the problems posed by illicit gem mining and trafficking in Madagascar. [source]

Building the Other, Constructing Ourselves: Spatial Dimensions of International Humanitarian Response

Lisa Smirl
Humanitarian reconstruction after a large-scale natural disaster has become a key site of international politics; a site where global assumptions, relationships, and responsibilities are negotiated, solidified and questioned. While post-crisis response strategies and institutional practices have strong spatial and material characteristics, these are rarely considered as significant,either to the reconstruction effort, or to international politics more generally. This article identifies and examines the "auxiliary space" created by the everyday practices of international aid workers and asks whether its effects may lead to unanticipated and potentially transformative outcomes not only for the reconstruction effort, but also for global North-South relations at large. The article concludes that post-crisis reconstruction sites may offer both cautionary and emancipatory potential for the evolution of international relations. [source]

Three weddings and a performance: marriage, households, and development in the highlands of Central Sulawesi, Indonesia

Albert Schrauwers
To Pamona couples are generally married in three ceremonies: traditional, church, and civil. Here, I treat each ceremony as a performative genre that constitutes the household differently. Both church and state actors see themselves as modernist reformers of tradition, which they view as a hindrance to development. I argue, however, that the traditional household form is the product of the modernizing efforts of church and state and hence points to a process of the development of underdevelopment. The wedding has become a key site of cultural contestation in which the constitution of the household is the outcome affecting livelihoods and the distribution of resources. The flows of performative elements from one genre of wedding ceremony to another are thus attempts to assert and resist hegemony. [wedding ceremony, development, household, gender inequality, performance] [source]


ART HISTORY, Issue 3 2009
The sacristy at San Marco in Venice had a crucial functional role, both within the daily liturgical life of the basilica and especially during the ritual activity of Holy Week, which is reflected through its artistic programmes. This article focuses solely on the sacristy as a key site within the church, and its renaissance rebuilding and decoration c. 1491,1546. It examines the major elements of the programme in turn, including the mosaics, door, tarsie and tapestries. For the first time, each of these developments is viewed as complementary to a deliberate and coherent programme revolving around liturgical requirements, iconography of the Passion and overarching themes of triumph and redemption. Without surviving documentary evidence for the instigation of such a monolithic project, this article argues that the sacristy be looked at anew in light of contemporary understanding of the sacristy as a space. The practical and symbolic associations of the sacristy at San Marco are thus considered in this wider typological context in order to illuminate our own appreciation of the development of the sacristy's artistic programme. [source]

Middle Weichselian glacial event in the central part of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet recorded in the Hitura pit, Ostrobothnia, Finland

BOREAS, Issue 1 2008
The Hitura open pit exposes a sedimentary sequence up to 50 m thick representing Late Saalian to Holocene glacial and non-glacial sediments. The sequence was investigated using sedimentological methods, OSL-dating and pollen and diatom analyses to reconstruct the Middle Weichselian (MWG) glacial event in the central part of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet (SIS). The results indicate that the sediment succession represents two entire glacial advance and retreat cycles. The lowermost deposits are Late Saalian esker and delta sediments overlain by sediments that correlate with the early Eemian lacustrine phase. Remnants of the Eemian soil post-dating the lacustrine phase were also observed. The area was ice-free during the entire Early Weichselian (EWG). The first glacial advance recorded in the sediments is related to the MWG. It started 79 kyr ago, deformed underlying sediments and deposited an immature till, including large detached sediment pods containing remains of organic material, soils and fluvial sediments representing allochthonous material from EWG ice-free stadials and interstadials. The glacial deposits are conformably overlain by glaciolacustrine and littoral accumulations, indicating MWG deglaciation between 62 and 55 kyr ago. Based on the fabric measurements from the till unit overlying the MWG sediments, ice advance during the Late Weichselian (LWG) was initially from the west and later from a north-northwesterly direction. The Hitura strata provide the first dating of the MWG deglaciation (55 to 62 kyr ago) from central parts of the SIS. It can be considered as a key site for studying the growth and decay of SIS during the poorly known early parts of the glaciation. [source]

Slavery, Memory, and Museum Display in Baltimore: The Great Blacks in Wax and the Reginald F. Lewis

Marcus Wood
The analysis deals with the question by focusing on the radically contrasting museological, aesthetic, and ethical codes of the Great Blacks in Wax Museum, and the Reginald Lewis Museum, both situated in Baltimore, Maryland. Three key sites are isolated for discussion: the names of the museums, their approaches to the topic of the Middle Passage, and lynching. While both museums have made important cultural contributions to the public memorialization of highly charged subjects, the Great Blacks in Wax emerges as the more radical institution, closely in touch with the dynamic and creative museum aesthetic of the wider Black Atlantic Diaspora, and of Brazil in particular. [source]

IRS-1 Regulation in Health and Disease

IUBMB LIFE, Issue 7 2003
Carsten Schmitz-Peiffer
Abstract The global incidence of diabetes is increasing at epidemic rates. Estimates suggest there are currently 150 million people with diabetes and this number is expected to double in the next 20 years. Type 2 diabetes accounts for 95% of all cases and is characterized in part by impaired sensitivity to insulin or 'insulin resistance'. Defects in the insulin signalling pathways underpin this resistance. In the current article we discuss the regulation of Insulin Receptor Substrate-1 (IRS-1), a protein that plays a pivotal role in insulin signalling and whose function is impaired in subjects with insulin resistance. Coordination of IRS-1 function is multi-faceted, involving phosphorylation of IRS-1 at multiple serine/threonine residues. This controls many aspects of IRS-1, including its interaction with the insulin receptor and subsequent tyrosine phosphorylation, as well as its subcellular distribution and targeting for degradation by the proteasome. Such tight control ensures appropriate transduction and attenuation of the insulin signal, thereby regulating insulin action in healthy individuals. Emerging evidence indicates that 'diabetogenic factors' associated with insulin resistance, such as TNF ,and elevated circulating fatty acids, impact on insulin signalling at the level of IRS-1 serine/threonine phosphorylation. The expression and/or activity of several kinases, such as I ,B kinase ,(IKK ,) and salt-induced kinase 2 (SIK2), and the phosphorylation of IRS-1 at key sites, such as Ser307 and Ser789, are increased in states of insulin resistance. Identifying the pathways by which such factors activate these and other kinases, and defining the precise roles of specific serine/threonine phosphorylation events in IRS-1 regulation, represent important goals which may eventually provide a rationale for therapeutic intervention. IUBMB Life, 55: 367-374, 2003 [source]

The taxonomic status, distribution and conservation of the lowland anoa Bubalus depressicornis and mountain anoa Bubalus quarlesi

MAMMAL REVIEW, Issue 1 2005
ABSTRACT 1.,The anoas are two species of dwarf buffalo, the lowland anoa Bubalus depressicornis and mountain anoa Bubalus quarlesi that are endemic to the island of Sulawesi, Indonesia. The classification of the subgenus Anoa within Bubalus is upheld by assessment of recent genetic and morphological research. The classification of anoas into two species is still debated, but with the absence of significant opposing evidence, this position is adopted here. 2.,Information about the distribution of the two species is presented that adds to but largely supports existing reports. However, it is still uncertain whether the two putative species are sympatric or parapatric in their distribution. A review of anoa distribution from historical reports and recent field data (1990s to 2002) highlights their decline throughout Sulawesi, especially in the southern and north-eastern peninsulas. The decline has been attributed to local hunting for meat and habitat loss. Most populations are rapidly becoming fragmented, suggesting that the conservation of viable populations may eventually require management of metapopulations. 3.,There is an urgent requirement for conservation efforts to: (i) protect anoas from hunting; (ii) prevent habitat loss in key sites; (iii) complete genetic studies to better determine the number of anoa taxa and Management Units and assess their distribution; and (iv) determine the status of the remaining anoa populations. [source]

A Quest for Justice in Cuzco, Peru:Race and Evidence in the Case of Mercedes Ccorimanya Lavilla

Laura A. Bunt
The life of Mercedes Ccorimanya Lavilla renders a telling portrait of the pursuit of justice in Cuzco, Peru, revealing how courts of law can be key sites in the production and negotiation of racial and gender taxonomies. Mercedes (who was gang-raped as a young woman) illustrates the near-heroic efforts necessary to mount and pursue rape charges in Peruvian courts, where rape victims largely manage the construction of evidence in lieu of the state. In the following article, I reconstruct the social circumstances and legal institutional setting surrounding the rape trial of Mercedes Ccorimanya Lavilla through the use of historical and ethnographic materials. In arguing that race mutually defines women's sexuality in rural Peru, I show how (in order to achieve a conviction) Mercedes had to develop a strategy in which she instrumentally employed the languages of race to distance herself from her own indigeneity, as well as that of her alleged attackers. [source]

Crucial stages of protein folding through a solvable model: Predicting target sites for enzyme-inhibiting drugs

Cristian Micheletti
Abstract An exactly solvable model based on the topology of a protein native state is applied to identify bottlenecks and key sites for the folding of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease. The predicted sites are found to correlate well with clinical data on resistance to Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs. It has been observed that the effects of drug therapy are to induce multiple mutations on the protease. The sites where such mutations occur correlate well with those involved in folding bottlenecks identified through the deterministic procedure proposed in this study. The high statistical significance of the observed correlations suggests that the approach may be promisingly used in conjunction with traditional techniques to identify candidate locations for drug attacks. [source]

Management history and climate as key factors driving natterjack toad population trends in Britain

A. L. McGrath
Abstract Along with other amphibian populations in Europe and elsewhere, natterjack toad Bufo calamita populations in Britain have declined since at least 1960. Conservation management since the 1970s has aimed to halt the decline and maintain viable populations at key sites throughout the species' recent historical range. Here, we assess population trends from 1985 to 2006 at 20 British B. calamita sites and evaluate the role of active management in maintaining good conservation status. We investigated the effects of 25 climatic, site-characteristic and conservation management variables on population trends using general linear models. In single-variable analyses, rainfall variables showed negative relationships with population trends. Among the site characteristics, being located at the very edge of the species' range (northern Irish Sea coast) and occurrence of common toad (B. bufo) were negatively related to B. calamita population trends. Management history (populations established via translocation as opposed to native populations) had a significant positive effect; as had sites that received greater translocation releases, undergone Species Recovery Programme management, and where common toad was absent. In multiple-variable analyses, the combined effects of management history and average pre-breeding season rainfall accounted for inter-site variation in population trends. The rainfall effects in single- and multiple-variable analyses were strongly influenced by three sites with very high rainfall whilst no clear effect was apparent for the remaining sites. This study highlights the role of climatic factors in population decline, and the importance of conservation management in stabilizing population trends. Climate change over the next 50,100 years is predicted to have limited impacts on most B. calamita populations in Britain, but strongly positive impacts on the most threatened populations located at the very edge of species' range that will benefit from reduced precipitation. A need for active conservation management will remain for the foreseeable future. [source]